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On the preceding page is reproduced the first page of the articles of agreement 
whereby an "Institution of learning of Collegiate grade" was to be established "in 
or near the city of Bloomington". Note that the original name of this institution 
was to be "Illinois University" and that the word "Wesleyan" was inserted later. 
Above is reproduced the last page of the document including the signatures of the 
30 "Founding Fathers". (For the complete text of these articles of agreement, see 
Appendix A) 

The Illinois Wesleyan Story 



Elmo Scott Watson 


3 3 

. ii 

mitenoT m ^ 




Copyright 1950 by Illinois Wesleyan University 
All rights reserved. Published May, 1950 

Printed in U.S.A. 


all Illinois Wesley an trustees, faculty and student s- 

past and present — this chronicle of the university 

they have helped to build is dedicated 


Included in the notes at the end of the book are the names of per- 
sons who have supplied specific information or illustrative material 
for this history. Others have answered inquiries or suggested sources 
of additional information, but it would require many pages to ac- 
knowledge in detail the help they have given. They include former 
and present faculty members, administrative officers, alumni, relatives 
of Wesleyanites and friends of the university in every part of the 
United States. I am greatly indebted to all of them, as I am to those 
who wrote for the proposed 90th anniversary history of Wesleyan 
the chapters cited in the notes. They were: Grace Jewett Austin, 
Ralph E. Browns, Edwin H. Cates, Wilbert Ferguson, Cliff Guild, 
Alma Hamilton, Alan R. Laursen, Harry W. McPherson, Clara De 
Motte Munce, Roy A. Ramseyer and William Wallis. 

A special word of thanks, however, is due to President Merrill 
J. Holmes, Dr. William E. Schultz and Prof. Fred L. Muhl for their 
kindness in reading in manuscript or galley proof all of the chapters 
and correcting errors of fact or interpretation (if errors persist, they 
are mine, not theirs); to Orlin G. Spicer, university librarian, Dr. 
George Herbert Thorpe, director of the historical collections of the 
Illinois Conference of the Methodist Church, and Mrs. Edith Elliott 
Kuhn, alumni secretary, for making available to me the records and 
other resources of their respective offices; to Wayne C. Townley, 
president, and Mrs. Inez Dunn, librarian, of the McLean County 
Historical Society, for placing at my disposal the society's newspaper 
files, books and collection of pictures (the number of illustrations in 
this book credited to that source is only small testimony of the zeal 
of Mrs. Dunn in searching out and helping identify hitherto un- 
published portraits); and, finally, to Ned E. Dolan, great-grandson 
of a Wesleyan founder, alumnus, former faculty member and presi- 
dent of the board of trustees, who, as head of the publishing com- 
pany where this volume was produced, has given his personal atten- 
tion to making it an example of book-making worthy of the event it 

e. s. w. 



An Appreciation vii 

Prelude xiii 

Chapter Page 

1 The Seeds Are Planted 1 

2 The Founding Fathers of Illinois Wesley an 13 

3 The New University is Christened 31 

4 A President Pro Tempore 36 

5 A President in Absentia 42 

6 President for a Year 52 

7 The Munsell Regime Begins 57 

8 War Comes to the Campus 65 

9 Post- War and Progress 76 

10 The Professor Goes West 84 

11 The Coming of the Co-Eds 97 

12 A University in Fact 107 

13 "A College for Sale" 114 

14 First Alumnus President 121 

15 The Turning Point 129 

16 A New Era Begins 139 

17 The Kemp Regime 144 

18 The Davidson Decade 155 

19 Wesleyan Weathers the Storm 163 

20 War Comes Again to the Campus 170 

21 Centennial 179 

Notes 188 

Appendices 250 

Index 267 



Wesleyan's "Birth Certificate"; Autographs of the Founding 

Fathers Frontispiece 

Wesleyan Founders: Peter Cartwright, James Allin, John S. Barger, 

Charles P. Merriman, W. C. Hobbs, James Miller, Isaac Funk 4 

Wesleyan Founders: John Magoun, John W. Ewing, John E. Mc- 

Clun, William H. Holmes, William H. Allin, Kersey H. Fell 12 

Wesleyan Founders: William Wallace, James F. Jaquess, Silas 
Watters, William J. Rutledge, Thomas P. Rogers, Lewis Bunn .... 20 

The New University Advertises for Students 28 

Wesleyan Pioneers: John Dempster, Reuben Andrus, William Good- 
fellow, Charles W. C. Munsell 36 

Wesleyan's First Building, 1856; Adam Guthrie contributes to the 

Building Fund 44 

Two University "Boys in Blue": "Private Joe" Fifer; Lt. John H. 

Fifer 52 

Wesleyan Mourns the Death of Abraham Lincoln 60 

The Illinois Wesleyan Faculty, 1865-66 68 

Wesleyanites in the Wild West 76 

Program of a Meeting of the Belles Lettres Society, 1869 84 

Wesleyan Presidents: Clinton W. Sears, Samuel J. Fallows, William 

H. H. Adams, William H. Wilder 92 

Front Cover of the 187 1 Catalogue 100 

Joseph Culver Hartzell, '68 — The First Wesleyan Graduate to be- 
come a Bishop 108 

Mrs. Hannah I. Shur, First Woman Graduate; Front Cover of the 

1872 Commencement Program 116 

Wesleyan Presidents: Edgar M. Smith, Francis G. Barnes, William 

J. Davidson, Theodore Kemp 124 

Titans and Champions: "The Football Team That Beat North- 
western", 1910; They Won the Basketball Title in 1914 132 

Buck Memorial Library. Inset: Mrs. Martha Buck, Rev. Hiram J. 

Buck 140 

Wesleyan Presidents: Harry W. McPherson, Wiley G. Brooks, 

William E. Shaw, Merrill J. Holmes 148 

A Landmark Passes and the Argus Issues an "Extra" 156 

Memorial Center and Annie Merner PfeifTer Hall 164 

"Wesleyan Remembers": Owen T. Reeves, Reuben M. Benjamin, 

Wilbert M. Ferguson, Robert O. Graham 172 

Members of the Board of Trustees, 1950.: Mary Hardtner Black- 
stock, Ned E. Dolan, J. Stuart Wyatt, Maury Powell, Louis L. 

Williams, J. K. P. Hawks, Aaron Brooks 180 

Wesleyan Landmarks: The Bible Monument, The Hedding Bell, 
The Powell Memorial, The Founders' Gates 188 


The Illinois Wesleyan Story 


"The stream of history is fed by many rivulets and springs, 
until the river disappears, each source can claim its share of 
credit for the mounting power. But it has been given to some 
people at certain times, as it were, to open a mighty sluiceway. 
The waters they have liberated soon lose their identity but the 
sudden swirl of new currents has become legendary with the 
course of time." — James Bryant Conant in Education in a 
Divided World. 

The Times 

In 1849 America was on the march. 

The settlement of the dispute with England over the Oregon 
country and the acquisition of California and the Great Southwest 
at the close of the Mexican war had, almost overnight, made the 
United States a continental power and had set in motion a westward 
movement unparalleled in human history. 

The thin trickle of emigration across the Great Plains in the 1830's 
had swelled into a flood during the next decade. Then came the elec- 
trifying news of James Marshall's discovery on the lands of Capt. 
John Sutter, and the flood became a torrent. In 1849 more than 
15,000 gold-hungry men and boys left the youthful state of Illinois 
for California. 1 

But while these Argonauts and other American adventurers were 
seeking new frontiers in the Far West, those who stayed behind were 
seeking new frontiers at home. Their quest was not for the shining 
metal that could be lost or stolen. It was for something intangible but 
more enduring. It was the quest for more knowledge than their 
fathers and grandfathers had had. Their El Dorado was Higher Edu- 

It was in this spirit and in this era that Illinois Wesleyan Univer- 
sity was born. 

The Place 

In 1849 Bloomington had barely emerged from its "frontier vil- 
lage" swaddling clothes. It had started in 1822 as a pioneer settle- 




ment on the edge of a stretch of timber to which the Orendorffs, one 
of the first families there, had given the apt name of Blooming Grove. 

The settlement was in what was then Fayette county of which 
Vandalia was both the county seat and the capital of the four-year- 
old state of Illinois. For the next two decades the Blooming Grove 
settlement was under the government of the Fayette county commis- 
sioners and later of the commissioners of Tazewell county of which 
Mackinawtown was the county seat. 

Then in 1829 a North Carolinian named James Allin, foreseeing 
the commercially strategic location of Blooming Grove came from 
Vandalia to open a store. He was back the next spring with his 
family and built a double log house, one part for a dwelling and the 
other for a store. 

Soon this entrepreneur was leading the Blooming Grove pioneers 
in their agitation to have created a new county of which their settle- 
ment would be the seat of government. Their efforts were successful 
and the new county was named McLean for John McLean, member 
of the lower house of the state assembly, once elected to Congress and 
twice to the United States Senate. The winter of 1830-31 was the 
"winter of the deep snow" so the commissioners named in February 
to locate the county seat were unable to leave Vandalia until April. 
When they arrived, Allin was ready with an offer of 22 % acres of his 
land at the north end of Blooming Grove as the site of the new county 
seat. His offer was immediately accepted and on July 4, 1831 the 
commissioner's court began auctioning lots in the townsite, with 
James Allin acting as agent for the court to execute the deeds. The 
town consisted of twelve squares but within a month Allin had made 
his first addition to it which more than doubled its area. On Decem- 
ber 25, 1831 McLean county and its county seat of Bloomington 
officially came into existence. 

The population of Bloomington at this time was less than 100 
persons but by 1834 it had doubled and in another two years, due to 
the rush of settlers into all parts of Illinois, it more than doubled 
again. But the failure of the United States Bank in 1837 and the re- 
sulting depression checked not only emigration to the West but the 
expansion of business enterprises as well. So for the next five years 
the little village was in the doldrums. 

The second epoch in its history began in 1 844 when Bloomington 
was organized and chartered as a town with a duly elected president 


and board of trustees to take over the reins of government from the 
county commissioner's court of three electors residing in the county. 
By 1845 the new town had a population of 800 which, with the re- 
turn of prosperity to the nation in the war years of 1846-7, was more 
than doubled in the next four years. The surrounding territory was 
also growing rapidly. "McLean county now (1849) has a population 
of 10,339, an increase of 6,339 since the last census," reported William 
McCullough, assistant marshal, who had done the counting. "It has 
the best body of land we have ever beheld in any of the Western 
states and it seems destined to be the first county in the state." 2 

As Allin had foreseen, Bloomington was rapidly becoming a 
flourishing trading center with dozens of business establishments 
springing up along its unpaved streets that were ankle-deep in dust 
in summer and knee-deep in mud when the winter snows melted and 
the spring thaws came. But just ahead was an era of improvement, of 
the coming of the railroads, of still greater expansion as a trading 
center in the rich agricultural and stock-raising region soon to be 
known as the Corn Belt. 

Ahead, too, was another milestone. On February 19, 1850 the 
state legislature granted a special charter, changing the Town of 
Bloomington into full-fledged city. Seven months later a new institu- 
tion of higher learning would be established here. Thus Illinois Wes- 
leyan University and the City of Bloomington started together along 
the path of their first hundred years. 

The People 

If there is such a person as a "typical American," that character- 
ization could be applied to a citizen of Bloomington and McLean 
county in 1849. He had come here from Maine or Georgia, New 
York or North Carolina, Pennsylvania or Tennessee. But, more likely 
than not, if you had asked him his native state, he would have told you 
that it was Ohio or Kentucky. 3 In his veins flowed the blood of many 
nationalities: French Huguenot, Dutch, German, but mostly it was 
the blood of those who had come from the British Isles — English, 
Scotch, Welsh or Irish. 

He and his fathers before him had, for 200 years, been engaged in 
the hard task of taming the wilderness. So the hazards and hardships 
of this new frontier country to which he had come two decades 
earlier might dismay briefly but could not daunt his stout heart. He 


knew them all — the discomfort of winter cold and summer heat, the 
scourges of ague and cholera and smallpox. Familiar to his ears was 
the dry buzzz-zz-z of the rattlesnake, the wolf howl, the panther's 
scream and the blood-chilling Indian war-whoop. He knew them all 
and accepted them as a part of the way of life of those who would 
push the frontier westward. 

What sustained him was an abiding faith in his ability to over- 
come any obstacle that nature or man might place in his path and 
one of the cornerstones of that faith was his religion. "A mighty 
fortress is our God," he sang, or "The Lord He is our rampart and 
our buckler and our shield." Thus armed, he set about to make real 
the American dream of "a government, a society and a system of 
education by which men might, so far as possible, start equals in the 
contest for life's prizes." 4 

Even before there was a McLean county, its pioneers were taking 
steps to establish "a government, a society and a system of education." 
Within a year after the first settlement in Blooming Grove, the Rev. 
James Stringfield, who had come from Kentucky, was preaching a 
sermon in the log cabin of John Hendrix, a devout Methodist. Eight 
years later the Methodists were holding their first camp meeting at 
Randolph's Grove with the Rev. Peter Cartwright, the famous circuit 
rider, and others doing the preaching. 

Within three years after the settlement began, Miss Delilah Mullin 
was teaching in John W. Dawson's log cabin a "subscription school" 
for which each pupil paid two and a half dollars for a term of four 
months. The Illinois legislature had passed a law in 1825 establishing 
free schools but when the state became financially embarrassed four 
years later that law was repealed and it was not until 1855 that the 
present free school system became operative. Until that time, the 
boys and girls learned their "Three R's" in the "subscription schools." 

Within fivt years after the first cabin was erected in Blooming 
Grove, its settlers were ratifying the action of the legislature in es- 
tablishing the new county of Tazewell at an election held in the 
home of William Orendorff. There they named William H. Hodge, 
sheriff, Thomas Orendorff, coroner, and William Orendorff, justice 
of the peace, and soon thereafter the first county court was in session 
in the cabin of Ephraim Stout of Stout's Grove. 

During the next two decades this trinity of church, school and 
state would develop rapidly. But these McLean county pioneers 


would not be content, any more than other Americans of their time 
would be, with merely establishing schools for an elementary educa- 
tion of their children. With the yearning for other forms of a better 
way of life would come the desire for higher education. It was a 
movement that was already gaining impetus throughout the nation. 

In the decade from 1820 to 1829, 22 new colleges were founded in 
the United States. That number was increased by 38 during the next 
decade. Various factors, including economic conditions contributed 
to slowing down this movement, so that there were only 42 colleges 
established from 1840 to 1849. But in the next ten years — from 1850 
to 1859 — that number was more than doubled, with a total of 92. 

One of these was Illinois Wesleyan. 

The Church in Education 

Of all the Protestant sects which concerned themselves with fost- 
ering higher education, none played a more important role than the 
Methodists. In 1849 theirs was the largest church in Illinois, mainly 
because its "organization of itinerant preachers, under the direction 
of bishops and presiding elders, was admirably suited to the needs of a 
rapidly developing country with a shifting frontier. So faithful were 
the circuit riders that it became a proverbial saying on a bitterly cold 
winter day: 'There is nothing out today but crows and Methodist 
preachers.' " 5 And, in the words of President Theodore Roosevelt, 
"their church's essential democracy, its fiery and restless energy of 
spirit, and the wide play it gave to individual initiative all tended to 
make it particularly congenial to a hardy and virile folk, democratic 
to the core, prizing individual independence above all earthly posses- 
sions, and engaged in the rough and stern work of conquering a 

The Methodists had begun promoting the cause of higher educa- 
tion back in 1784 — only three years after their church was organized 
in America. In that year was founded a college at Abingdon, Md., 
named Cokesbury for its two founders: Thomas Coke and Francis 
Asbury. In 1817 an academy was established at New Market, N. H. 
— later to be moved to Wilbraham, Mass. and named the Wesleyan 
Academy, and in 1820 the General Conference recommended that 
all annual Conferences establish seminaries in their territories. 

The first result of this action was a college west of the Alleghenies 
— Augusta College in Kentucky, opened in 1823. But in the frontier 

xviii PRELUDE 

country of Illinois it did not bear fruit until 1829 when the Illinois 
Conference undertook the control and patronage of McKendree Col- 
lege at Lebanon. During the next decade, however, the Illinois Con- 
ference expanded its educational program rapidly. In 1834 it pledged 
its support to the Pleasant Plains Academy, of which Peter Cartwright 
was superintendent, and the following year it approved the plan 
drawn up by the Rev. Peter Akers for the Ebenezer Labor School, 
which was not only a trade school with a program of student self- 
help through a farm and workshop, but also a seminary providing 
elementary and higher classical education to train ministers and mis- 
sionaries to the Indians. 

The year 1836 was a high point in Methodist educational effort 
because of the report of the education committee which the Confer- 
ence adopted. This report, which "shows more clearly than anything 
else the intense interest of the Methodist Church in education, their 
loyalty to the public schools and their good judgment and practical 
common sense in suggesting a plan admirably adapted to the situation 
at the time," 6 pledged its continued support to McKendree College 
but it did even more. Taking note of the lack of common schools in 
the state, it provided for the establishment of grammar schools in 
every county or circuit where they were needed. During the next 
two decades more than a score of such schools were established under 
the sponsorship of the Conference, and although only one of them 7 
survived for any length of time, they fulfilled a useful function until 
the adoption of the present common school system in 1855 made them 
no longer necessary. 

Unlike other denominations which could depend upon their 
friends in the East for aid, the Methodists' educational program 
suffered from lack of financial support, especially in the West, and 
this became more acute after the panic of 1837. So we find the 
Illinois Conference of 1838 announcing that it would aid, so far as 
possible, the grammar schools that had already been established but 
it could not undertake to aid any other institution of higher learning 
besides McKendree College until it was firmly established. 

By 1843, however, conditions had improved sufficiently so that 
the Conference that year, acting upon the recommendation of its 
education committee, authorized a special committee on a "female 
institution of learning." Definite action on such a project was de- 
layed until three years later when the Conference sanctioned the 


founding of the Illinois Conference Female Academy, now Mac- 
Murray College for Women, which was established in 1846. 

Scarcely had this female academy opened its doors when there 
came a Macedonian call from certain citizens in Bloomington and 
McLean county. How that call was answered is chronicled in the 
pages that follow. 

Chapter 1 

May 19, 1849 . . . Charles P. Merriman, editor and publisher of 
the Western Whig, 1 "published every Saturday morning at No. 3 
Brick Row, Bloomington, McLean County" is looking over a copy 
of Vol. 3, No. 29 of his four-page newspaper. He and his helper 
have just printed it on a clumsy handpress and it will soon be in the 
hands of one of his few hundred subscribers. On the front page this 
subscriber will learn that: 

Up in Montreal, Canada, rioting between French and English 
citizens is still in progress. Presumably Editor Merriman thinks this 
is a matter of considerable importance to Bloomingtonians, for full 
details of the disturbance, reprinted from Eastern papers, fill three 
of the six columns on the page. In adjoining columns are: an article 
about the opportunities for settlers in the new territory of Minnesota, 
a literary contribution telling the legend of Lake Pepin in that same 
region, a dispatch about a recently-enacted liquor law in the new 
state of Wisconsin, a contributed poem on "The Forsaken Hearth," 
and a brief item about the number of slaves in Missouri, which is 
patently Abolitionist propaganda. 

Down at the bottom of one column is a small headline — "Gold 
in California." But the story under it is no chronicle of the epic 
migration of gold-hungry Americans, by land and sea, to the new 
El Dorado on the Pacific coast. Instead, this headline has obviously 
been chosen to catch the eyes of those citizens of McLean county 
who are indebted to R. O. Warriner & Co., "dealers in dry goods, 
hardware, groceries, boots, shoes, etc.", and to remind those delin- 
quents to "call without delay and pay up because the fact is that 
12 months credit is as long as we can stand and we hope this hint 
will be understood." 

Such is the reading content of page one, except for a full column 
of "business cards" wherein the public is informed that J. E. McClun 
& Co., deals in dry goods, groceries, etc., that Flagg and Ewing are 
vendors of lumber; that Attorney William H. Holmes has his office 



in the Court House; and that Kersey H. Fell, another lawyer, is also 
a land agent, attends to collections of accounts in no less than six 
counties surrounding McLean and gives "particular attention to pay- 
ing taxes, real estate sales and all business pertaining to the General 
Western Land Agency." (Mark well the names of Messrs. McClun, 
Ewing, Holmes and Fell, for we shall be meeting them again soon in 
this narrative.) 

Having finished page one, Editor Merriman's subscriber opens 
the Whig and learns that Americans, as well as Canadians, are given 
to rioting. The scene is the Astor Place Opera House in New York 
City and "Ned Buntline was among the rioters arrested." (Within 
a few years this subscriber's son and many other youthful Blooming- 
tonians will be surreptitiously reading dime novels written by this 
same Ned Buntline, thereby scandalizing their elders who "just can't 
understand" the younger generation's interest in this type of sensa- 
tional literature.) 

In Missouri the cholera has reached epidemic proportions and 
it has also appeared in New York, Chicago, and Cincinnati where 3 3 
new cases have been reported in one day. A dispatch from Washing- 
ton (reprinted from an Eastern paper, as is most of the news on these 
pages) denies the rumors of dissension in the cabinet of President 
Zachary Taylor although it seems certain that the Post Office De- 
partment, which needs re-organization, is due for a shake-up. Senator 
Benton of Missouri has uttered an eloquent plea for national unity, 
lest the dispute over slavery lead to dissolution of the Union. In New 
Orleans John W. Crockett will superintend building the new Customs 
House. Editor Merriman recalls that the newspaper establishment 
of this son of Davy Crockett, hero of the Alamo, had been a failure 
and "we rejoice in his good fortune." Down in Mexico another 
revolution is in progress and over across the Atlantic there are wars 
and rumors of wars. Russia and Denmark, Austria and Hungary, 
Sardinia and Austria are either fighting or preparing to fight. In Italy 
the Pope's subjects are in revolt and Naples and Sicily are on the 
verge of hostilities. 

Thus is the world mirrored on this May morning in 1849 in 
Bloomington's only newspaper, but it gives the subscriber very little 
news of his friends and neighbors. One brief item records the mar- 
riage of James Clark and Louisa L. Barnes, both of McLean county, 
by Zera Patterson, Esq. and an editorial note tells the reader what he 


undoubtedly knows already — that "the weather is cold and disagree- 
able and the roads are rough and heavy." (A century hence his grand- 
son will be speeding over these same roads, now surfaced with 
concrete, in a vehicle called an automobile, listening to news from all 
over the world brought to him by a magical instrument called the 

More revealing of life in Bloomington and McLean county than 
the news columns are the advertisements which dominate pages two, 
three and four of the Whig. The president and trustees of the Town 
of Bloomington, through an ordinance signed by J. M. Scott, clerk, 
reminds "all able-bodied men between the ages of 21 and 50" that 
their civic duties include laboring on the roads, streets and alleys and 
if they fail to do so, they will have to pay "one dollar a day in lieu 
of such labor." Will T. Major has timberlands for sale and Flagg 
and Ewing want to buy 1,000 cords of wood. They also wish to 
hire "eight or ten steady young men by the year." Joseph Peck wants 
to buy bark — preferably white oak and burr oak — for his tanning 
yard and he will pay for it in leather, boots or shoes. Then there are 
notices of auctions and of partnerships dissolved, or new partner- 
ships formed and of new stocks of goods received by various mer- 
chants, and column after column of advertisements for patent medi- 
cines which are guaranteed to cure all the ills of pioneer life. 

In the midst of all these signs of commercial activity in a growing 
town is evidence that the desire of the people of the community for 
higher education is also astir. It appears in the form of a column- 
long "Proposition to the People of McLean County," which pro- 
claims that articles of agreement have been "made and entered into 
between Charles P. Merriman and Charles E. Dodge of the first part 
and the subscribers whose names are hereinto affixed, of the second 
part" to establish in the town of Bloomington a seminary of learning 
to be called the "McLean Collegiate Institute." 

Messrs. Merriman and Dodge will furnish a suitable building lot 
and erect on it a building to cost, when finished, five thousand dollars. 
They propose to complete this building and have the institute open 
for the reception of students on or before the first day of January, 
1850, and they will contribute one thousand dollars to procure a 
library, maps, charts, etc. for the use of the students. These students 
will be taught the ancient and modern languages, mathematics, natural 
and moral sciences, together with all the usual branches of an English 


education and the institute will be conducted "in such a manner as 
will be conductive to the permanent promotion of Science and Litera- 
ture independent of and free from all political and sectarian bias." 

Finally there is the promise that "all sums donated for the en- 
couragement of the aforesaid undertaking will be faithfully appropri- 
ated to the accomplishment of the ends proposed by this agreement." 
As the subscriber to Editor Merriam's Whig comes to the end of this 
proposition he notices that it is signed by Messrs. Merriman and 
Dodge "of the first part" but that the names of "the subscribers 
whose names are hereunto affixed, of the second part" are con- 
spicuously absent. He could not know then, as we know now, that 
this ambitious project was to fail but in its failure it set in motion 
forces that would soon result in the founding of Illinois Wesleyan 

Unlike many universities that can trace their lineage back to one 
particular source, the Illinois Wesleyan of today is the spiritual — 
and physical — heir of several institutions of learning. And, unlike 
many an institution of learning that is the lengthened shadow of one 
man, Wesleyan was sired by many men. Also, in view of the fact 
that it has always been known as a "Methodist school" it is interesting 
to note that some of its progenitors were men of other religious 

One of these was the Rev. Lemuel Foster, a Presbyterian, who in 
1834 established a school in a building which he erected on the corner 
of Main and Olive streets. It not only served as a Presbyterian acad- 
emy but was also used as a church, the first really commodious one 
in the little frontier village. Because this school offered a more ad- 
vanced course of study than any other in Bloomington, it became 
known as the "high school" or the "Seminary." 2 

Another progenitor was a young Pennsylvania schoolteacher 
named George Washington Minier. 3 A member of the Christian 
("Campbellite") church, later he would have a notable career of 
nearly half a century as a minister of that faith. But when he arrived 
in the McLean county seat it was to open a school for boys and 
girls. Finding the Rev. Mr. Foster willing to dispose of his seminary, 
Minier took it over and operated it for a year. Then he seems to 
have decided to change its character for in the August 3, 1848 issue of 


Peter Cartivright 



James Allin 

John S. Barger Charles P. Merr'nmm W. C. Hobbs 

James Miller Isaac Funk 



the Western Whig he advertised that the first session of the "Bloom- 
ington Female Academy" would open the first Monday in September 
for a 6ve months' term. 

Two weeks later, another progenitor of another faith arrived on 
the scene. He was Rev. Charles E. Dodge, a Baptist, who announced 
in the Whig that "having been engaged as Instructor of Youth for 
several years past" he proposed to open the Bloomington Male Acad- 
emy on Monday, September 4, in which would be taught "Reading, 
Penmanship, English Grammar, Geography and Arithmetic at $3 
per Quarter. The higher branches of English literature $4 and the 
Classics together with Mathematics at $5 per quarter." He states 
that "the Baptist church will be occupied as the School Room until 
a more suitable building can be procured" and that "should suitable 
encouragement be given, a board of trustees will be organized and 
competent assistance procured." 4 

Presumably that "suitable encouragement" wasn't forthcoming, 
for during the next eight months the copy in Dodge's advertisement 
of his male academy was unchanged. In contrast is the progress that 
Minier's female academy seems to have been making in the meantime. 
In the January 25, 1849 issue of the Whig, he announced that, "thank- 
ful for former favors, he would inform his patrons and the public 
that the second session of this Institute will commence on Monday 
the 29th Inst.", and that "we now have our library and expect an 
apparatus soon." He promised that "no pains will be spared to make 
this school meet the expectations of its patrons" and invited "ladies 
and gentlemen to call and see the order and progress of our pupils." 
This advertisement was signed not only by Minier as principal, but 
also by E. Thomas, M.D.; R. O. Warriner, M.D.; William McCul- 
lough, Esq.; C. P. Merriman, and J. W. Ewing as directors. 

Then in May, 1849, came the announcement of the proposal to 
found the "McLean Collegiate Institute" which obviously represented 
an effort to consolidate the male and female academy into a co-edu- 
cational institution of higher learning. This "Proposition" by Mer- 
riman and Dodge appears in successive issues of the Whig through 
May and June and then it is discontinued. Presumably they had been 
unable to interest enough "subscribers ... of the second part" to 
support the project, and decided to abandon it. A short time later 
they established rival co-educational institutions but they were evi- 
dently friendly rivals. On July 28 the Whig carried an advertisement 


stating that "Mr. and Mrs. Dodge will commence a school in the 
Baptist church on Monday the 6th day of August, 1849, for the re- 
ception of both males and females. Those wishing to patronize said 
school will make it known at the earliest opportunity" and Editor 
Merriman published a note in his editorial column calling attention to 
this school. 

A month later the Bloomington Female Academy was advertising 
that "the second year of this institution will commence on Monday 
the 10th of September under the superintendency of Mr. G. W. 
Minier, assisted by Miss Mary M. Spaulding" and carrying this post- 
script: "N.B. A select class of lads will be taken under the personal 
charge of the Principal. Those wishing to have their sons under his 
charge must apply soon as the class is nearly full. A class of teachers 
will be formed." This advertisement was signed by Merriman as 
president of the board of trustees. 5 

Although Merriman and Dodge, with their plan for a McLean 
Collegiate Institute had failed to establish an institution of higher 
learning in Bloomington, forces were at work which, after another 
abortive attempt, would eventually bring it into being. The impetus 
for it came from five men. They were Merriman, Minier and three 
newcomers — A. H. Brown, Joseph Macon and Henry Louis Shafter 
Haskell, who were teaching subscription schools in or near Bloom- 
ington. 6 

Some time in the late summer of 1849 this quintet organized a 
"teachers institute" which met every Friday night for a discussion of 
their mutual problems. At one of these meetings Haskell was as- 
signed the topic "How can we best advance the cause of education 
in McLean County?" The substance of his talk was that the county 
needed a university "a fountain from which recruits would come for 
every branch of learning and science," and that Bloomington was the 
logical seat of such a school since it was "eligibly situated on the pro- 
jected line of the Illinois Central and other roads, with no colleges 
east of us or near us." According to Haskell's recollections in later 
years, "each was enthusiastic. We agitated the subject and a meeting 
was called" to carry the project forward. 7 

Specific information on when and where this meeting was held, 
who attended it and what steps they took to put their plan into action 
is lacking. But, thanks to the proclivity of Rev. John S. Barger for 
writing lengthy "Letters to the Editor" we have corroborative evi- 


dence which sheds considerable light upon these points. 8 That evi- 
dence is contained in his chronicle in the columns of the Whig of 
what took place at four successive Conferences of the Methodist 
Church attended by Barger as presiding elder of the Bloomington 
district and by Rev. Thomas Magee, pastor of the Methodist church 
in the McLean county seat. 

The first of these was the 26th annual session of the Illinois Con- 
ference held at Quincy from September 19 to 26, 1849. At this 
session the committee on education discussed at some length the re- 
port that "there was in various parts of the Conference and also in the 
Rock River Conference a strong desire to remove the location of 
McKendree College to some northern point, as Bloomington, on 
which the two conferences might be united to build upon a Methodist 
College for the state." Rev. Peter Cartwright, presiding elder of the 
Springfield district, advocated the removal which was opposed by 
Rev. William Wentworth, president of McKendree, Prof. A. W. 
Cummings of that college, Rev. W. D. R. Trotter, presiding elder of 
the Jacksonville district, and Rev. C. M. Holliday, minister of the 
Methodist church in Jacksonville. 9 Although nothing came of the 
proposal, the argument over it seems to have engendered some re- 
sentment which would affect, though not vitally, the future of Illinois 

More important, however, to its destiny was another matter that 
came before the members of this committee on education who re- 
ported that several informal proposals for the establishment of schools 
of academic grade had passed in review before them and, especially 
that "it had been intimated to them that both at Bloomington and 
Jacksonville friends of education were ready to do nobly toward es- 
tablishing seminaries." Upon their recommendation, the Conference 
appointed committees to confer with the citizens of both towns "on 
the practibility and expediency of opening schools and erecting build- 
ings as soon as circumstances shall justify" and it also expressed its 
willingness to extend to such schools its patronage when they were 
properly organized. 

Appointed to the committee to confer with the Bloomington 
"friends of education" were Magee and Barger and, according to the 
latter, soon after the Quincy conference adjourned, a number of 
these Bloomingtonians "met, organized and elected a board of trustees 
under the name and style of McLean College. In this board all the 


churches of the place were represented and several gentlemen not 
connected with any church but of high standing in society were 
elected trustees. At this primary meeting but one of the Conference 
committee was present." 10 

This primary meeting undoubtedly was the same gathering re- 
ferred to so laconically by Haskell. Unfortunately, neither he nor 
Barger give any specific information as to who attended the meeting. 
(Barger doesn't even say whether he or Magee was "one of the Con- 
ference committee present"). It is logical to believe that the five 
sponsors of the "teachers' institute" were there, and it seems equally 
certain that James Allin, who had a hand in almost every new public 
enterprise in Bloomington in its early days, participated in this one 
also, and was named a trustee. Who the others were can only be 

Barger's statement that all of the churches of the place were 
represented suggest that they may have included Dodge, the Baptist; 
Minier, the "Campbellite"; and some member of the Presbyterian 
church — possibly James Miller, who was the grandson of a minister 
of that faith. As for the others, they were probably Merriman, Dr. 
Ezekiel Thomas, William C. Hobbs, J. E. McClun and John Magoun. 
But whoever they were, we do know that not long afterwards Barger 
and Magee met with them and reported the action that had been 
taken at the Quincy conference. Subsequently both were elected to 
the board and "thus were called upon to confer with the citizens of 
Bloomington in the two-fold relation of a committee from the Con- 
ference and members of the board of trustees." n 

Probably there were several such conferences during the winter 
and spring of 1850 but not much progress seems to have been made 
toward establishing the McLean College. Finally, at the request of 
Barger, a meeting of the trustees was called for the evening before the 
opening of the fourth quarterly conference of the "Bloomington 
station" the first week in July. However, only the president and 
secretary of the board appeared for this meeting, and having failed 
to obtain a quorum, Barger was forced to admit that "the projected 
enterprise was considered defunct." 12 

When the conference opened on July 6, Barger and Magee re- 
ported that, acting as a committee from the Illinois Conference, they 
had met with the McLean College trustees and explained to them 
"the position of the Conference with reference to the subject." 


However, "from some cause the trustees have failed to perfect their 
organization or at least to complete the foundation on which to erect 
a college." 13 Since Barger does not record what explanation he gave 
for the failure of the trustees to act, we can only guess what "from 

some cause" means. 

Undoubtedly the promoters of the McLean College had visual- 
ized an institution "free from all political bias," as had Merriman and 
Dodge in their proposed McLean Collegiate Institute. Possibly some 
political difference may have caused a schism in the board, for the 
issue of Whig vs. Democrat was as strong in Bloomington as any- 
where else in that era. But it seems more likely that it was religion, 
rather than politics, which caused the rift. To those of some other 
church affiliation, it may have seemed that the project was becoming 
too obviously a Methodist affair, especially with the addition of 
Barger and Magee to the board, and for this reason their interest in 
it waned. 

But, undaunted by this failure, the two Methodist ministers de- 
clared that since the Illinois Conference at Quincy had said it was 
"ready to encourage the erection of the Seminary of Learning in 
Bloomington and establish it, as far as their patronage and influence 
will do it, upon a firm foundation" and since they considered it 
"practicable and expedient to open a school and provide suitable 
buildings," they recommended to the quarterly conference that it 
organize its own board of trustees and present the matter to the next 
meetings of the Illinois and Rock River Conferences for their support. 

This suggestion was referred to a committee composed of Dr. E. 
Thomas, Linus Graves and James Allin, which on July 8 recom- 
mended that such an institution be established in Bloomington under 
the patronage of the Methodist Church and that this quarterly Con- 
ference appoint a board of nine trustees who "shall take the necessary 
steps to perfect their legal organization under the laws of the state." 
Upon the recommendation of a nominating committee composed of 
Barger, Magee and Allin, the nine trustees named were Allin, Barger, 
Graves, Hobbs, Magoun, McClun, Merriman, Miller and Thomas. 
The name "Illinois University" was selected for the new institution 
and Magee and Barger were authorized to solicit the cooperation of 
the Rock River Conference as well as the Illinois Conference and 
seek the support of both. 14 

Accordingly, on July 19, the two ministers journeyed to Plain- 


field where the Rock River Conference was to meet. Their mission 
was only partially successful. They reported what had been done at 
the Bloomington quarterly conference, the expectation that the Illinois 
Conference would place the college under the control of the church 
at its next meeting and invited the Rock River Conference to parti- 
cipate. The committee to which the matter was referred expressed 
their interest in the project, gave it their blessing, but made it clear 
that the backers of the new institution could expect no "pecuniary 
aid" because the Rock River Conference was pledged to the financial 
support of another new Methodist institution — the North Western 
University at Chicago. 15 

But better success was ahead when the Illinois Conference opened 
its 27th annual session in Bloomington on September 18, although the 
project encountered some unexpected difficulties before it became a 
reality. Barger and Magee, acting as a committee appointed by the 
Quincy conference the previous year, presented a report on the 
result of their meetings with the citizens of Bloomington "on the 
subject of a seminary of learning at that place" and this report was 
referred to a special committee of Rve that was named to confer with 
the delegation from the Rock River Conference and the trustees of 
the newly-created Illinois University. Again the Rock River delegates 
made it clear that, while they approved of the idea, they could not 
guarantee financial support of it. 16 

Then a report from Barger and Rev. James C. Finley, as repre- 
sentatives of the trustees, was laid before the Conference. From the 
somewhat florid style of this communication there is reason to sus- 
pect that the Rev. Mr. Barger was its author, and in the light of 
events during the next two or three years, it would seem that his 
enthusiasm for the project made him a bit over-optimistic as to its 
success. For in it the writer declared: 

A variety of circumstances have combined to fix the attention of the 
surrounding country upon this location. The salubrity and beauty of the 
situation — its position in the midst of a country of unrivalled fertility and 
destined soon to be the abode of innumerable inhabitants — the intelligence 
and morality of its inhabitants — all these considerations combine to fasten 
the attention of all upon this location. And we think that the zeal and 
liberality of the people are ready to respond to the responsibilities which 
public opinion is throwing upon them. 

We will just say to the Conference that the extension of their patron- 


age to the Institution will not for the present involve them in either 
expense or harassing responsibility. Buildings fully adequate to conduct- 
ing a large High School are now ready. The facilities will be greatly 
increased with the present Conference year. Teachers of a high character 
and enjoying to a very great degree the confidence of the community 
are ready at a proper time to embark in the enterprise. 

We cannot begin too soon. The increase of our own population — 
the ingress of foreigners are pouring upon us. The tide of emigration is 
rolling its ceaseless current through us — and the great highway of na- 
tions uniting the extremes of Europe and Asia will soon pass by our 
door; and the wealth of the world will be poured into our treasury: by 
the time we can acquire the experience necessary for the conduct of a 
college, the liberality of our people will have furnished the means and the 
youth of our Country will be pressing to our halls for that instruction 
which it is our duty to provide for them. 17 

This glowing report was referred to the committee on education 
and again there is reason to suspect that the enthusiasm of the Rev. 
Mr. Barger for the project had caused him to overstate his case. For 
in one of his letters to the Whig, recalling the events of that confer- 
ence, he says with some asperity: 

All these various reports and communications were referred to the 
Committee on education and here it seems they intended to remain for- 
ever committed to the oblivious calm of indifference for they were all 
passed by in their report with the unmeasured contempt of silence most 
profound! If the report said anything concerning any one of these 
papers I have forgotten it. If it had one paragraph devoted to the con- 
struction of Illinois University it was so extremely meager to have eluded 
my discovery. The report was not published in the printed minutes and 
if it has been published in any of the periodicals of the church I have 
not seen it. 18 

Who the members of the committee on education at this confer- 
ence were is unknown but it is not unlikely that one or more of them 
may have been the same men who remembered the proposal made at 
the Quincy conference, to remove McKendree to Bloomington. Be- 
cause of this they opposed, or at least reluctantly consented to, the 
establishment of the projected Illinois University under the patronage 
of the Illinois Conference. At least, Barger hints that there was such 
opposition, but states that it was not strong enough to make itself 
evident on the floor of the conference. 


But despite this opposition, the dream of the five Bloomington 
schoolteachers and of John S. Barger neared realization when the 
Conference adopted a resolution "That the Illinois University be 
received under the patronage of this Conference in accordance with 
the request of the Trustees and committees of the Conference." Im- 
mediately two other important steps were taken. The board of 
trustees was increased from nine to thirty members and, since the new 
university was now a Methodist institution, its name was changed 
from Illinois University to Illinois Wesleyan University. 

Before the Conference adjourned these thirty "Founding Fathers" 
of Illinois Wesleyan met in the little Methodist church to "subscribe 
their names and affix their seals to an instrument of writing" for the 
purpose of "permanently establishing at or near the city of Bloom- 
ington an Institute of learning of Collegiate grade". . . which "shall 
be known in law and equity or otherwise by the name and style of 
Illinois Wesleyan University." 

Well might the Rev. Mr. Barger feel a sense of triumph in a hard- 
won victory as he signed his name — the fourth in the list — to that 
document. Seven months later he would be writing: 

Success to every institution of sanctified learning in all the land; but 
especially to McKendree College at Lebanon in Southern Illinois; to 
North Western University at Chicago in Northern Illinois; but most 
especially and emphatically I say success to Illinois Wesleyan University 
at Bloomington in Middle Illinois. May the last be not the least among 
her sister Colleges of the far-famed, fertile Prairie State — the glory of the 
West. May her endowments and facilities, and buildings and apparatuses 
and libraries, and cabinets, all, under the blessing of a kind and munificient 
Providence be speedily and abundantly enriched with every means, and 
quality, all power of usefulness through all future time. May hundreds 
and thousands of the best and brightest of the ransomed race graduate 
at Illinois Wesleyan University and go out from the halls of sanctified 
learning with all the light and grace of a finished Christian education, to 
bless the world in all the relations of man to his fellow man. 20 

Ahead of this new "institution of sanctified learning" in the "far- 
famed fertile Prairie State" were the years in which his dream would 
come true. 

John Magonn 

John E. McChm 


m 0m, ^p% pp ' 

/o/:m IF. Enjjing 

William H. Holmes 

William H. Allin Kersey H. Fell 


Chapter 2 

September 23, 1850. Thirty men — twelve Methodist ministers 
and eighteen laymen — have gathered here in the little Methodist 
church in Bloomington to bring a university into being. 

Look at them carefully as they come to the table to sign their 
names to Wesleyan's birth certificate, for they are worthy of more 
than a casual glance. As a group, "substantial citizens" would be a 
fitting characterization because virtually all of them have been promi- 
nent in some phase of life in Central Illinois for two decades. But 
they deserve something better than a group portrait in which the 
sharp lines of individuality become blurred and indistinct. For there 
are among them "rugged individualists" — and this in an era when that 
concept is a stern reality rather than a well-worn phrase. 

Outstanding among these rugged individualists, and appropriately 
his name appears first on the list of signers, is Rev. Peter Cartwright, 
a man whose fame already has extended far beyond the boundaries of 
Illinois. He is not only nationally known, but his name has even 
been carried across the Atlantic and "for the French, 'Oncle Pierre' 
possessed much of the picturesque which they admired in Benjamin 
Franklin." 1 The apotheosis of that striking frontier type, the circuit 
rider, he is a "muscular Christian with a keen sense of humor and a 
shrewd, homely resourcefulness that won his way in the face of every 
difficulty ... a man perfectly fitted for his peculiar task." 2 

A native of Virginia, Cartwright had grown to manhood in a re- 
gion in Kentucky that was such a haunt for fugitives from justice, 
"murderers, horse thieves, highway robbers and counterfeiters," as 
to be called "Rogues' Harbor." 3 It was virgin soil for the labors 
of a man who, as an exhorter, traveling preacher and presiding elder 
of the Methodist church, would be called upon to prove himself a 
stronger man among strong men in physical encounter as well as in 
the rough and tumble of theological debate. 



By the time Cartwright had removed to Illinois in 1824, he was 
already on the way to becoming a legend, "a sort of Paul Bunyan of 
Methodism, a Don Quixote battling with equal success the bad men 
from Rogues' Harbor and all the physical hardships of frontier life." 4 
On this September day in 1850 he has just passed his 65th birthday, 
a man "five feet, nine inches, in height, weighing about 180 pounds, 
muscular, erect, with dark grey eyes with that flashing characteristic 
peculiar to men of intense natures, a well poised head and with the 
firm set of lips of a man having great resolution." 5 For he is still 
as much the churchman militant as he had been in his earlier years 
when, so the stories ran, he had soundly thrashed the renowned Mike 
Fink, "King of the Mississippi Flatboat Men," or had forcibly ejected 
the rowdies who tried to break up a revival meeting he was conduct- 
ing. 6 

Perhaps some of his colleagues here at this Bloomington gathering 
smiled to themselves as they recalled such incidents in his turbulent 
career, although it is more likely that those, who had attended sessions 
of the Illinois Conference with him, remembered how his "exhibition 
of rollicking fun" once had brought down upon him the displeasure 
of the pious and austere Bishop Hamlin. With some asperity that dig- 
nitary had asked "Brother Cartwright, are you sanctified?" where- 
upon "Uncle Peter" had replied, "In spots, Bishop, in spots!" 7 

Perhaps, too, they may have felt that, at this meeting to found 
an institution of higher learning, there was a certain incongruity in 
the presence of a man who had once been considered an opponent of 
education. For he had once declared, "I do not wish to undervalue 
education, but really I have seen so many of the educated preachers 
who forcibly reminded me of lettuce growing under the shade of a 
peach tree, or like a gosling that had got the straddles by wading in 
the dew, that I turn away sick and faint." 8 

But, despite this apparently cynical attitude toward education, 
Cartwright would later be quoted as asserting that he had "given 
more to educational institutions and colleges than any other preacher 
in the State of Illinois" 9 and there was good evidence to support this 
claim to pre-eminence as a patron of education. During his two 
terms in the legislature, he had actively promoted the cause of both 
common schools and institutions of higher learning. 10 As chairman of 
the committee on education in the lower house, he had introduced a 


bill providing for a "state seminary" and, even though the measure 
failed to pass, to Cartwright belongs the credit for an idea which 
eventually became the reality of the modern state university. 11 

Even more important was his role in the educational activities of 
the Methodist church. He had been one of the leaders in favoring 
support for McKendree as a Conference college and he had served 
that school as financial agent, trustee and Conference visitor. He was 
chairman of the education committee which made its historic report 
in 1836, advocating the founding of grammar schools in every county 
and circuit, and he had aided in establishing many of these academies. 
Ten years later he had approved the establishment of the Illinois Con- 
ference Female Academy at Jacksonville and during the years ahead 
he would serve it as well as Illinois Wesleyan in various ways — as a 
member of its board of trustees, as president of that board and as 
Conference visitor. In view of this record no other man of the 
thirty better deserved the honor of being first on the list of founders 
of a new Methodist-supported school than "Uncle Peter" Cartwright. 

If any of the other twelve preachers present could measure up to 
Cartwright as a minister and educator, it would be his son-in-law, 
Rev. W. D. R. Trotter, or possibly Rev. James Frazier Jaquess. Trot- 
ter, "one of the brightest minds in the Illinois Conference and a man 
who stood next to Cartwright and Peter Akers as an educational 
leader," 12 was born of Presbyterian parents in Kentucky, had served 
in the navy two years and for a short time was a law student before 
deciding to enter the ministry. He had come to Illinois in 1830, mar- 
ried Maria Cartwright three years later and became a teacher in the 
Pleasant Plains Academy at Ebenezer of which Cartwright was then 

In 1840 Trotter had received the first bachelor of arts degree con- 
ferred by McKendree College — given him not for work in residence 
but by special examination covering the entire course of study. 13 
Thereafter he divided his time between education and religious jour- 
nalism. He would become the first editor of the Central Christian 
Advocate, established in St. Louis in 1852 as a journal of general 
news and opinion as well as an organ of the Methodist church, and 
under his editorship it would exert a profound influence upon the 
thinking of its readers. He would leave the editorship in 1854 to be- 
come professor of Greek and ancient literature in the female academy 


at Jacksonville 14 and subsequently to serve that institution as financial 
agent, business manager and for 10 years as a member of the board 
of trustees. 

Jaquess, a native of Indiana, also had intended to make law his 
career but, like Trotter, had given it up for the ministry. 15 Holding 
an A.B. degree from Indiana Asbury University (now DePauw) and 
an M.A. from McKendree, he was one of the best educated men of 
his day. He was also a brilliant and popular preacher, first in "Little 
Egypt" (Southern Illinois) and later in Springfield. Only 29 years 
old when chosen the first president of the Illinois Conference Female 
Academy, he had proved an able administrator and an excellent 
choice by the Methodists for inaugurating and developing that ex- 
periment in education. It was in the midst of his administration, 
described as "the golden age of the ante-bellum seminary," 16 that he 
journeyed from Jacksonville to Bloomington to aid in founding an- 
other Methodist-sponsored college whose career was destined to 
parallel in many ways that of the institution he headed. 

In contrast to the educational backgrounds of Trotter and 
Jaquess was that of Rev. Reuben Andrus. His is the story of a farm 
boy with an insatiable thirst for knowledge whom no hardship, no 
amount of hard work, could daunt until he had reached his goal. To 
satisfy that thirst he had attended for seven weeks a "common school" 
in a log cabin near the village of Havana, 111., "going on foot some- 
thing more than two miles and crossing Spoon river en route, some- 
times on the ice — oftener in a skiff which my father had provided." 17 
For six weeks he attended an academy at Canton, 111., where he "re- 
viewed arithmetic, geography and algebra which I had picked up at 
odd snatches of l / 2 hours and on rainy days." 

Then had come the great day in 1843 when he had gone away to 
college in a wagon containing 30 bushels of corn which he had husked 
and which would be sold for ten cents a bushel to help pay the ex- 
penses of his trip to Jacksonville and Illinois College, his destination. 
There, after giving his note for $24 for the year's room rent, tuition, 
contingent fees, etc., he had begun three years of "hard work, deep 
poverty, high hopes, great cheerfulness and some success." All this 
had brought him to the beginning of his senior year when the oppor- 
tunity to become a tutor at McKendree and principal of its prepara- 
tory department had enabled him to graduate in 1849. 

He had left college with a debt of $400 which he set about paying 


off by teaching school at Greenville, 111., but resigned that position 
in April, 1850, upon invitation of the presiding elder of the Bloom- 
ington District to become a circuit rider and for the next five months 
a "supply" in the Decatur circuit. On September 22 he was admitted 
to the Illinois Conference and the next day this 26-year old preacher, 
who had got his education the hard way, became one of the founders 
of a new institution of higher learning. Then, as principal of its 
preparatory department, Reuben Andrus would soon get this new 
educational project under way. 

The presiding elder who had brought him to Bloomington was 
Rev. John S. Barger and if any one man deserves the title of "Father 
of Illinois Wesleyan" surely that accolade should be conferred upon 
him. For, as has already been chronicled, it was the indefatigable 
Barger who had revived the project when it was "considered defunct" 
and it was his persistence in the face of both indifference and opposi- 
tion which had undoubtedly persuaded the Illinois Conference to 
take the embryo university under its wing. 

Like Cartwright, Barger was a Virginian who had emigrated to 
Kentucky in his youth and there in his 19th year he had been con- 
verted, decided to enter the ministry and two years later was received 
on trial as a circuit rider in the Kentucky Conference. In 1831 he was 
transferred to the Missouri Conference and the next year to the 
Illinois Conference. During the next 14 years he was a presiding 
elder in half a dozen districts; Kaskaskia, Wabash, Quincy, Lewiston, 
Bloomington and Jacksonville. He would serve two years as financial 
agent for McKendree and the same period for Illinois Wesleyan. 
Although born and reared in commonwealths whose citizens believed 
in slavery, Barger became a violent opponent of that evil and, when 
the dispute over it resulted in a civil war, this Virginian who served 
a year as a chaplain in the Union army could pray, as Peter Cart- 
wright once prayed, "O, Lord, if slavery be the cause of this cruel 
war, remove it! " 18 

Another native of the Old Dominion was Rev. William J. Rut- 
ledge who could have called himself an "F.F.V.," for he was born of 
a famous Virginia family and was a grandnephew of a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence. 19 But there was nothing of the haughty 
aristocrat in his character. Baptized in the Presbyterian faith, he had 
later become a Methodist, attended Akers' "School of Prophets" at 
Ebenezer and had been active in founding the female academy at 


Jacksonville which he served at various times as trustee, financial 
agent and Conference visitor. He was a "dispenser of hospitality and 
good cheer" and a "jovial man and true, always bristling with ideas 
which seemed to be dancing and prancing, impatient for utter- 
ance." 20 So it is not unlikely that this genial Virginia gentleman 
lightened the solemnity of the occasion that September day with some 
such comment as he had made four years earlier at Jacksonville. 
Looking out over the five acres which he and the other trustees 
had bought as the site for the female academy, he remarked whim- 
sically, " It is a good crop of corn and ought to produce a good crop 
of young ladies." 21 

Whereas two of Wesleyan's preacher-founders had started out 
to be lawyers, Rev. James C. Finley had originally chosen medicine 
for his profession. Born in a Presbyterian home in New Jersey, he 
had attended Princeton College and after his graduation there had 
studied under the famous Dr. Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia. 22 He 
had practiced for a short time in Cincinnati, then migrated to Jack- 
sonville, 111., where he became a member of the Methodist church 
and soon afterwards decided to become a preacher. Admitted to the 
Mississippi Conference in 1837, he was transferred to the Illinois 
Conference four years later and made president of McKendree Col- 
lege where he served for four years before returning to a pastorate. 
A classical scholar who "saw truth so clearly that it fascinated him 
and absorbed his entire being," 23 he had a distinguished career as an 
educator — as president of McKendree, and later as professor of 
Greek at that college, as head of the Bloomington Female Academy, 
as president of Olney Seminary and as a member of the faculty of the 
Illinois State Agricultural College at Irvington. 

About the same time young Dr. Finley was practising medicine 
in Cincinnati, a fellow-Jerseyman named John Van Cleve, was serv- 
ing as an apprentice in that city. He had come to Ohio by way of 
New York in 1815, had joined the Methodist church and in 1825 
was licensed as an exhorter. Three years later he had been accepted 
on trial in the Illinois Conference and during the next 40 years while 
Van Cleve was serving as circuit rider, pastor and presiding elder in 
Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, the trails of these two men would often 
cross. 24 

In contrast to Finley who had gone from the ministry to teaching 
was Rev. James Leaton who had done just the opposite. Leaton has 


the distinction of being one of the two "foreigners" among Wesley- 
an's founders. Born in Lincolnshire, England, in 1817, he was the son 
of "a gentleman farmer of considerable estate" and a mother "de- 
cidedly pious and profoundly interested in the spiritual welfare of her 
family." 25 They had sent him to Crownland Abbey to educate him 
for the ministry in the Church of England, but young Leaton, re- 
belling against parental shaping of his career, became a teacher 
instead of a minister after his graduation. However, when his teach- 
ing activities had been transferred to America and Springfield, 111., he 
had come under the influence of Rev. Peter Akers and in 1843 he 
was admitted to the Illinois Conference. From that time on he had 
been active in Methodist affairs and not the least of his service to the 
church was his work as historian of the Illinois Conference. 

The other "foreigner" among the founding fathers and the man 
who had the additional distinction of being the youngest there was 
Rev. Thomas Magee, a 28-year old Irishman whose widowed mother 
had brought him to the United States when he was nine years old. 
While working in a drug store at Whitehall, 111., in 1841, he had 
been converted at a camp meeting and two years later he was licensed 
to preach and received into the Illinois Conference. Beginning as a 
junior preacher at Nashville, he had served in the Mt. Zion, Sparta and 
Upper Alton districts until 1847 when he was sent to the Blooming- 
ton East Charge where another Methodist church was built through 
his efforts. He had been a loyal lieutenant of Barger in keeping alive 
the project of a university in the McLean county seat and he would 
be made its first financial agent but would live barely long enough 
thereafter to see the infant institution he helped found take its first 
faltering steps. 26 

Two Kentuckians — Rev. Calvin Wesley Lewis and Rev. Charles 
M. Holliday — complete the roster of clergymen-founders. Lewis, 
after a successful career in Kentucky, especially on the Minerva cir- 
cuit which included Augusta College, the pioneer Methodist school 
west of the Alleghanies, had come to Illinois in 1847 and thereafter 
would be a stalwart in the Illinois Conference. 27 Holliday had fol- 
lowed closely in the footsteps of his father, Rev. Charles Holliday, a 
pioneer circuit rider in Kentucky, Tennessee and Illinois and a close 
friend of Peter Cartwright. Licensed to preach at the age of 18, thus 
making him one of the youngest ministers in the history of Method- 
ism, the younger Holliday had become a circuit rider and had been 


admitted to the Kentucky Conference in 1825. Transferred to the 
Indiana Conference nine years later, he also had come to Illinois in 
1847 and been stationed in Bloomington for two years before being 
assigned to a pastorate at Jacksonville. So he was returning to familiar 
scenes when he came back to the McLean county seat in September, 
1850, to help found a university there. 28 

If Peter Cartwright was outstanding as the rugged individualist 
among the clergymen-founders, he had his counterpart among the 
laymen in James Allin. Although history has called John Hendrix, 
the first settler in McLean county, the "Father of Bloomington" that 
title might well be claimed for the North Carolinian who had reached 
Blooming Grove seven years after Hendrix. Allin has an impressive 
list of "firsts" to his credit. He was the first merchant in the new 
settlement and later its first real estate dealer; he helped establish the 
first newspaper and the first library; he had led the agitation which 
resulted in the organization of McLean county and in making Bloom- 
ington its county seat; he had laid out the Town of Bloomington and 
the first court held in it convened in his log cabin. He would soon 
be providing a site for the new university just as he had provided the 
land for the site of the new county seat. His fellow citizens had 
twice honored him by electing him to represent them in the state 
senate. 29 

Physically he was the antithesis of Cartwright for "in build he 
was slim; his hair was light brown; his eyes were gray and penetrat- 
ing," 30 but his was the same tough pioneer fiber as that of "Uncle 
Peter." Once when he was critically ill and a consultation of doctors 
was called, he noticed that their solemn faces and whispered tones 
clearly indicated their despair of saving him. Thereupon he ex- 
claimed, "I know what your decision is. It is that I am going to die, 
but I won't die." 31 And he didn't, until he had exceeded by 1 1 years 
the proverbial life span of three score and ten. 

On another occasion when his son was seriously ill, Allin said to 
him, "William I would not die if I were you. I would not give way!" 
Something of the father's indomitable spirit must have been trans- 
mitted to the son, for William did not "give way." Instead he lived 
to become clerk of the circuit court and in that official capacity to 
certify, on December 3, 1850, that Illinois Wesley an University had 
been established by 30 trustees, including a father-son combination of 
James and William H. Allin. 32 

"•■ ' 

■«?» ** 

w ,.,i 


William Wallace 

Silas Waiters 

William J. Rutledge 

Thomas P. Rogers Lewis Binin 



If Peter Cartwright and James Allin were typical products of a 
rough frontier environment, then both their appearance and character 
accentuate the contrast between them and another of the Founding 
Fathers who was probably the most picturesque figure of them all. 
On July 22, 1837 the Bloomington Observer and McLean County 
Advocate had printed an announcement that "W. C. Hobbs, Dentist, 
proposes to practise his profession in Bloomington for a short time. 
He would feel gratified for the patronage of the public. Rooms at 
Mrs. Killip's Hotel." Back of this modest announcement was a ro- 
mantic story which the gossips told with relish as they saw the darkly 
handsome young man striding down the dusty streets of the little 
frontier village, wearing a circular blue cloak and a tall white hat 
with a broad band of black crepe around it. 

"That black crepe band represented a great sorrow." For this 
young Marylander, who had been "educated as a Catholic in George- 
town, D.C., was engaged to be married but the young lady died before 
the wedding day arrived. He, like many others, sought to drown his 
trouble in the wine cups and became very dissipated and squandered 
quite a fortune." He had drifted west to Louisville and when "he 
came to Blomington he had just begun a life of reform. But he lived 
true to his first love and never married." 33 

Dr. Hobbs (the "Doctor" was a self-conferred title) wrote truly 
that he would practise his profession for a short time because "he did 
not make a success of it, owing probably to the fact that he was not 
a professional dentist . . . He did not extract teeth but twisted them 
out. People thought more about securing homes at that time than 
they did about taking care of their teeth, and dentists were not a suc- 
cessful class of business men." So Hobbs found it necessary to change 
his occupation and opened a subscription school, the second in 
Bloomington. In this he was more accomplished, although his teach- 
ing methods were decidedly unorthodox. 34 

As an educator and a "man of ripe culture" Hobbs' advice was 
sought when in 1840, James Allin and other leading citizens had 
established a free library. It was called the McLean County Library 
and it "would have grown into a large and flourishing institution had 
not its chief management fallen into the hands of Dr. Hobbs, one of 
the best and kindest men in the world, but destitute of all business 
ability. He let the subscribers keep books out as long as they pleased, 
return them as they pleased, or not at all, and he could not bear to 


fine anyone for keeping books over time. The consequence was that 
the books got scattered and in a few years the library collapsed 
simply through bad management." 35 

But if Hobbs was none too successful as a dentist, a teacher and a 
librarian, there was one field in which he excelled. "He was the sole 
authority, from whose decision none ever presumed to take an appeal, 
upon every social question. If a gift was to be purchased, he was the 
first to be consulted. The laws of etiquette in his little empire were 
fixed by him. A wedding was hardly considered valid unless he plan- 
ned the details and then gave his presence to the occasion." 36 More- 
over, he fitted perfectly the picture of "the social arbiter elegantarium 
of the village. He was a large, handsome and elegant gentleman. 
While most other citizens dressed in blue jeans, tow linen and linsey 
woolsey, he wore broadcloth, silk hats, immaculate linen and silk- 
lined cloaks." 37 

But lest such a word picture of Hobbs give the impression that 
this Wesleyan founder was no more than a frontier fop or village 
dandy, let it be recorded that beneath his polished exterior were solid 
qualities of character which made his presence among these earnest- 
minded Christians not inappropriate. At least, they regarded him 
highly enough so that, three months later when the trustees organ- 
ized, they elected him president of the board and twice later re- 
elected him to that position. In his last years when, reduced in cir- 
cumstances because "he had kept himself poor by his constant bene- 
factions" and had become a clerk in R. O. Warriner's store, his 
fellow-citizens took note of his plight and elected him county clerk. 

In those last years, too, when Bloomingtonians began talking 
about making a former circuit-riding lawyer the new Republican 
party's candidate for President of the United States, Dr. Hobbs would 
oppose the nomination of that man as "not possessing in sufficient de- 
gree the courtly style and severe dignity requisite for that high 
office." 40 He lived to see his judgment overruled by several million 
Americans in November, 1860, and thereafter became a loyal sup- 
porter of the Republican nominee. The day before Abraham Lincoln 
left Springfield to assume the duties of his high office, the Blooming- 
ton "social arbiter elegantarium" died in his lonely bachelor quarters, 
"leaving no enemies, a good many debts and 27 satin vests." 41 

If the somewhat flamboyant Hobbs erred in his estimate of one 
of the world's immortals, that was not true of one of his fellow- 


founders. He was Kersey H. Fell, a quiet, soft-spoken Quaker from 
Pennsylvania who would one day be credited with being "the first 
man who thought seriously of making Abraham Lincoln a candidate 
for President." 42 Fell had followed his two brothers to Bloomington 
in 1836 and became a clerk for Messrs. O. Covel and A. Gridley, mer- 
chants. One day his employers sent him on a business errand to 
Springfield where he visited the office of Attorney J. T. Stuart. 
"Here he met Abraham Lincoln, a young law student. After some 
conversation with young Abraham, A4r. Fell came to the conclusion 
that, if Mr. Lincoln could study law with as little education as he had, 
Mr. Fell would do the same, and he hesitated no longer." He began 
reading law in his spare time while serving as clerk in Clinton, the 
town which his brother, Jesse W. Fell, and James Miller had laid out 
as the county seat of the new county of DeWitt. After serving there 
for two years he had returned to Bloomington in 1840 to become 
deputy clerk of the circuit court under Covel, passed his bar examina- 
tion and from that time until his retirement in 1856 would be one of 
the leading lawyers in the bustling little city. 43 

Two other Wesleyan founders shared with Kersey Fell the 
friendship of Lincoln while he was still an unknown country lawyer. 
They were Linus Graves, a Vermonter, and William H. Holmes, a 
native of New York. Graves, like Fell, had arrived in Illinois in 1836, 
taught school for a time and then began to study law in the state 
capital which brought him into contact with the "Rail-Splitter." Later 
he was in the mercantile business in Waynesville where he met a 
young school teacher from Bloomington — Virgina Frances Hayden. 
They were married in 1 847 and two years later moved to the McLean 
county seat where, at the time of Wesleyan's founding, Graves in 
partnership with his brother Oliver, was operating a general store. 44 

Holmes was already a practicing lawyer when he came to Illinois 
in 1831 and hung out his shingle at Pekin. He represented Tazewell 
county in the constitutional convention in Springfield and continued 
practicing law in Pekin until 1 848 when he had removed to Bloom- 
ington and opened his law office in the old courthouse. During these 
years he had become well acquainted with the other lawyers who 
rode the Eighth Judicial Circuit. Among them was the one destined 
to become President of the United States. When he did so he would 
appoint his friend, Holmes, a federal land commissioner, and when, 
in the early days of the Civil War, the young men of the North 


flocked to the colors singing "We are coming Father Abraham, one 
hundred thousand strong!" among them would be three sons and 
three sons-in-law of William H. Holmes. 45 

Just as the legal profession was represented among Wesleyan's 
founders by three members, so was there a trio from the medical pro- 
fession. In addition to Dr. (Rev.) James C. Finley, there were Dr. 
Ezekiel Thomas and Dr. Thomas Pierce Rogers. Besides being the 
leading physician in early-day Bloomington, Thomas had been promi- 
nent in civic affairs for nearly two decades. He was one of the 
founders of the first Masonic lodge there, a member of the board of 
trustees for the Town of Bloomington since 1 844, and when the City 
of Bloomington was organized in his office on South Main street in 
1850 he had been chosen as one of the four aldermen of the new 
municipality. 46 

A native of Ohio, Rogers began practising in that state after com- 
pleting his studies in Philadelphia. After a year he had earned enough 
to pay for his education and struck out for the West with $100 in 
his pocket for working capital. He arrived in Illinois in the spring of 
1838, started south from LaSalle to seek a good location and stopped 
for a short time in Bloomington. But, believing that this town of only 
400 inhabitants had little future, he went on to Decatur. There he 
had entered politics and served for two years as postmaster before 
giving up that job to devote all the time to his profession. 

In 1 848 his friends persuaded him to accept the Democratic nomi- 
nation for state senator but in the election he lost to his Whig oppo- 
nent. In the same year, while visiting in Peoria, a young lawyer 
named Stephen A. Douglas told him that the Illinois Central Railroad 
would surely be built and run through the McLean county seat. 
So he had come back to Bloomington in 1849, this time to stay. Here 
he prospered and here he would try again to go to Springfield as a 
state senator. 47 But again he would lose, this time to the Republican 
nominee, a fellow-founder of Illinois Wesleyan, named Isaac Funk. 

Funk, a Kentuckian, was another rugged individualist in the mold 
of Peter Cartwright and James Allin. He had worked as a farm hand 
in Ohio for $8 a month and in 1824, with his brother, Absalom, had 
come to McLean county and built a little pole shanty in a stretch 
of timber south of Bloomington which would ever after bear the 
name of Funk's Grove. The two brothers, first of a family whose 
name, synonymous with the growth and advancement of agriculture, 


would become nationally famous, then began breaking the prairie and 
buying and selling live stock. Thereafter Isaac Funk would travel 
all over the Middle West buying cattle and hogs and driving them 
overland to Chicago, Galena and even as far away as Ohio. It was no 
easy life led by this pioneer who "did not own a wagon for seven 
years; went to mill near Springfield, fifty miles, with oxen; took from 
ten to fourteen bushels of corn part of the way with a cart and sled; 
carried a plough thirty miles on a horse to get it sharpened, and car- 
ried a barrel of sauerkraut ten miles home on horseback." 48 

Elected to the state legislature as a Whig in 1 840, Funk would be 
sent back to Springfield 22 years later as a Republican state senator 
and there deliver a philippic against the Copperheads that would have 
delighted the heart of his blunt-spoken friend, "Uncle Peter" Cart- 
wright. He would also become the first great benefactor and patron 
of Illinois Wesley an, for by the time of his death the former $8-a- 
month Ohio farm boy had amassed a fortune estimated at almost two 
million dollars. 49 

If the homespun Isaac Funk and Peter Cartwright and the elegant 
Dr. Hobbs were the most picturesque figures among Wesleyan's 
founding fathers, undoubtedly the most versatile was Charles P. Mer- 
riman, whom we have already met in this narrative as the editor of 
the Western Whig. For his role as a journalist was only one of the 
several facets of his varied career. He was a sort of a "man without a 
country" because he was born in a part of New England which his 
preacher-father, who had moved there from Connecticut, supposed 
was within the boundaries of Vermont but which was really in Que- 
bec. Merriman never was quite certain whether he was a native of 
Canada or of the United States. 

It is paradoxical, too, that this founder of a Methodist-sponsored 
school should have been educated in a Catholic college near Montreal 
and in a Protestant seminary at Newbury, Vermont, where he be- 
came a professor of mathematics after his graduation. Then the wan- 
derlust seems to have seized him for we next find him down in 
Atlanta, Georgia, where he established a school but left it in 1844 
to come to Bloomington to found another academy. 50 After two 
years he had turned to journalism and revived the defunct Blooming- 
ton newspaper under a new name. Thereafter, he would be in and out 
of journalism at intervals during the rest of his life. 

Meanwhile, he would be alternating between the roles of public 


official and educator. In 1847, he was elected a member of the board 
of trustees of the Town of Bloomington. The next year he was made 
president of the board and three years later he would become the 
second mayor of the City of Bloomington. As a teacher in, or patron 
of, half a dozen schools, it was appropriate that he should become a 
member of Bloomington's first board of education, and five years later 
superintendent of its schools. In the meantime, he gave up civilian 
life for a time to serve in the commissary department of the Union 
army and returned, broken in health, to a life that would be shad- 
owed by misfortune the remainder of his days. 51 

Two other Wesleyan founders share with Merriman the distinc- 
tion of having served as mayors of Bloomington. One of them was 
William Wallace, a thrifty Scotsman who had begun life as a cooper 
in his native Philadelphia and made enough money in that trade to 
set himself up in the wholesale grocery business with an older brother 
in that city. But too close confinement to his warehouse office had 
undermined his health and sent him west in 1836 to Chicago where 
he met Asahel Gridley who told him of the attractions of the Bloom- 
ing Grove settlement. So he bought 380 acres of government land 
on the western edge of the settlement at the current price of f 1.25 an 
acre, built a log cabin, cleared the land and became a farmer and 
sheep raiser. The market for his produce was Chicago or St. Louis 
and "Wallace and Isaac Funk always hauled their wheat and wool 
together. Returning they would bring the luxuries such as white 
sugar, wool dress goods, etc., since the Blooming Grove market had 
nothing more than brown sugar and calico." 52 

Wallace, who had served a term as sheriff in Philadelphia, entered 
politics soon after establishing himself in his new home. A rugged 
individualist, who expressed his non-conformity by becoming a cham- 
pion of unpopular causes, he was not only an ardent Prohibitionist 
in an era and locale where strong liquor was a commercial staple, but 
he was also one of the few Abolitionists in Bloomington at that time. 
In fact, there were only six of them all told. 

Once when an anti-slavery orator, Owen Love joy, came to 
Bloomington to deliver an address, a mob gathered in front of the 
building where the meeting was to be held. Wallace was knocked 
down as he attempted to enter. Undaunted, he adjourned the meet- 
ing to the home of the Congregational minister. It was not molested, 
but the next day the house of every Congregationalist was stoned, 


all except Wallace's. He had sent word to the leader of the rowdies 
that they would get a hot reception if they came near his home, and 
knowing that he was a man of his word, they stayed away. But if the 
Bloomington of the 1830's did not approve of Wallace's political 
views, it overlooked them in the next two decades to choose him as 
its fourth mayor in 1853, electing him under the so-called "Maine 
law" which prohibited the sale of liquor within the city limits. 

Wallace's successor, as the fifth mayor of Bloomington, would be 
another Wesleyan founder. He was John W. Ewing, a North Caro- 
linian who had come to Illinois, by way of Kentucky, in 1835 and 
settled on a farm in what is now Woodford county. He had moved 
to Bloomington in 1 840, became a merchant and in partnership with 
William F. Flagg had established a factory which "did a large busi- 
ness and with the exception of the McCormicks of Chicago probably 
manufactured a greater quantity of farm machinery than any firm or 
company in the state." Twice named a trustee of the Town of 
Bloomington, this apprenticeship in public office was a preparation 
for his election as mayor in 1854. 53 

Another Wesleyan founder who made Bloomington a center of 
the farm machinery industry was Lewis Bunn. Born in Ohio, the son 
of a Pennsylvania German farmer, his schooling ended when he was 
1 7 and apprenticed to a blacksmith in order to help his father support 
a family of 21 children. But he was determined to get an education, 
so during the four years of his apprenticeship he took private lessons. 
Then he set up in business for himself, practiced his trade in Ohio for 
Rve years, emigrated to Illinois and arrived in Bloomington in 1833. 
Soon afterwards he began manufacturing farm implements in his 

Later in partnership with Oliver Ellsworth he began specializing 
in plows which "were made by hand, were in great demand, and were 
called for even from Texas. Bunn and Ellsworth obtained their steel 
from St. Louis whence it was shipped to Pekin by water and from 
there was brought overland to Bloomington. But when the Illinois 
river was low it was hauled here from St. Louis, a distance of 175 
miles. It cost for hauling this distance from seventy-five cents to one 
dollar per hundred pounds and after all this trouble and expense the 
ploughs were sold for eleven or twelve dollars apiece." 54 Nine years 
after Bunn had helped found Wesleyan this "honest, jovial and genial 
blacksmith" who "could make anything from a horseshoe nail to a 


mill spindle" would retire from his business. Looking back over his 
half century of honest toil he could remember the many good friends 
he had made here. Among them were Abraham Lincoln and Stephen 
A. Douglas whom he had once engaged to represent him in a lawsuit. 
Douglas had "come all the way from Springfield, made a first-class 
speech, won the case and charged for his services five dollars!" 55 

Fellow-craftsman of Bunn, as well a fellow-founder of Illinois 
Wesley an, was David Trimmer who, at the age of 15, had migrated 
with his family from his birthplace in New Jersey, via Indiana, to 
Illinois. They had traveled over an Indian trail, for there was then 
no wagon track west of the Wabash river, and they had settled at 
Smith's Grove in McLean county in 1826. Five years later, when 
James Allin helped auction off the first lots in the new Town of 
Bloomington, Trimmer had bought one of these lots and on it erected 
the first blacksmith shop in the town. He had practised his trade 
there only a short time before moving 10 miles north to the settlement 
in Haven's Grove, named for his father-in-law, Jesse Havens, Sr., 
where a colony of settlers had entered 20 sections of government 
land and were busy with plans for establishing a new town. 56 

One of these settlers was John Magoun, a Massachusetts farm boy 
who had gone to Boston at the age of 17, learned the brick mason's 
trade, worked at it in the summers and taught school in the winters. 
He "had read Peck's Guide for Emigrants to Illinois and nothing 
could prevent him from making a visit to this marvelous county." 5T 
So with his cousin and another companion he went to New York in 
the fall of 1835, took a ship to New Orleans and after a journey up 
the Mississippi and the Illinois rivers had arrived in Jacksonville where 
was being formed the colony that had taken up the government land 
near Haven's Grove. 

Arriving there early in 1836 Magoun had "assisted Mr. Dickason, 
the county surveyor, to survey the colony lands and lay off the 
colony town, which was afterwards called Hudson." The next year 
he went to Bloomington, resumed his trade as mason and laid some 
of the bricks in the new court house that was then being built. 58 
There he met two Virginians with whom he was destined to be 
closely associated in business as well as becoming fellow-founders of 
Weslyean. One of them was James Miller, whose name is perpetu- 
ated in Bloomington's largest park today. Taken to Kentucky at the 
age of 16, by the time Miller was 20 he was serving as collector and 

^ fnTciLAL 

~ )^ 


aiwost <-scrv!hmj< ' Tit*' r»p«! «. 








of names enrolled daring the last term. 


J2T ^ 


Rates of Taition per Quarter, payable ii Advance, *^r| 



Circular issued in 1851. (For complete text see Appendix E) 



sheriff, probably the youngest man in the history of Kentucky or any 
other state ever to hold those responsible positions. Although reared 
and educated in two Southern states, Miller disliked the institution of 
slavery so much that he decided to move to the free soil of Illinois, 
which he had done in 1835. 59 

That same year the other Virginian, a 2 3 -year-old Quaker named 
John Edward McClun, arrived in Springfield. He had secured part 
of his education by studying at the tail of a plow while working as 
a farm hand for seven dollars a month, and after teaching for three 
years in a log cabin school, he struck out for the West. After several 
months of poverty in the state capital, McClun became a clerk in a 
store in Waynesville but remained there only a year before moving 
to Bloomington to set up a mercantile business of his own. He had 
prospered in this, as he had in the mail contracts for all the routes 
leading into Bloomington which he had secured in 1842. 60 

In the meantime Magoun and Miller had gone into the mercantile 
business together in Clinton and soon after they moved their enter- 
prise to the McLean county seat they joined forces with McClun. 
It was a business association that continued and prospered for a decade 
but eventually it proved disastrous to Magoun. However, through 
adversity as well as prosperity, he would be a loyal supporter of 
Illinois Wesleyan and he was destined to serve it as a trustee for nearly 
a quarter of a century, longer than any of the other founders. 61 

During this business association of Magoun, Miller and McClun, 
the latter had embarked upon a successful political career and had 
been elected county judge. Serving under him as associate judge was 
another Virginian named Silas Watters who, like Miller, had come to 
Illinois by way of Kentucky. 62 He had been a farmer in Empire 
township ever since his arrival in McLean county in 1830 and, as a 
"member of the Methodist church since 1835 who held every position 
in it given to a layman" he was now called to Bloomington to help 
establish a new university under the auspices of that church. 

Such were the founding fathers of Illinois Wesleyan — lawyers, 
doctors, teachers, tradesmen, mechanics, farmers, ministers — pioneers 
and typical citizens of a typical American community that had just 
passed through its frontier phase. As diverse in their cultural and 
educational backgrounds as in their interests and occupations, they 


must have had in common a sense of their manifest destiny in fur- 
thering the cause of higher education in this new land of opportunity 
on the prairies of Illinois. 

Although that feeling is somewhat obscured in the legalistic 
phrases of the document 63 which they signed on September 23, 1850, 
it must have been as strong in them as it was in the Methodist ministers 
who, four years later, would write the report of the Illinois Confer- 
ence's committee on education, of which Trotter was chairman. 
Declaring that "the Methodist Church in the West and Southwest 
stands in a position of incalculable responsibility to the great wave 
of population overspreading the Valley of the Mississippi," the report 
continued: "Destiny seems to point out the Valley as the depository 
of the great heart of the nation. From this center mighty pulsations 
for good or evil must in the future flow, which shall not only affect 
the fortunes of this republic but also reach in their influence other 
and distant nations of the earth. The advances herein reported, which 
are being made by the Methodists on the subject of education in the 
bounds of the Illinois Conference, flatter the idea that, in so far as our 
section of the Church is concerned, and especially the division of it 
embraced in the Illinois Conference, cheering success will still attend 
our future efforts to contribute our share toward the general education 
of the great masses. In addition to all other motives conspiring to lead 
us forward in this noble work, patriotism or the love of country is not 
the least. The nature of our constitutions and laws demands it. The 
tenure and price of our liberties are involved in it. The sovereignty 
in the whole people imperiously requires it and recent events, as they 
have been connected with the civil questions which have agitated the 
nation, some of which questions have sprung from the tide of foreign 
immigration setting in upon our American soil, call loudly for the 
work of education to go forward — the education of nothing less than 
the whole American mind; an education, too, that shall be American 
in all its essential principles. 64 

Chapter 3 

Although the founders of Illinois Wesleyan had announced their 
intention of establishing "an Institution of learning of Collegiate 
Grade," its actual beginning was on a slightly lower educational level 
— that of a preparatory school. In the October 19, 1850 issue of the 
Western Whig, Editor Merriman printed a news item which was not 
conspicuous for complete journalistic accuracy. It read: 

"The Trustees of the University of Illinois have secured the Rev- 
erend Reuben Andrews to open a preparatory Department in the 
M.E. church on Monday, October 21. The purpose is to teach all 
branches of Education necessary for entering college. 

"Andrews is a graduate of McKendree college and has been en- 
gaged in teaching for some time. He has a desirable reputation as an 
eminently successful practical teacher. 

"The terms are as follows: Language, $5.00 per quarter; Geom- 
etry, Algebra and Philosophy, $5.00 per quarter; English Grammar, 
$4.00 per quarter; Orthography and Arithmetic, $3.00 per quarter." 

Mr. Merriman proved to be as inaccurate in the date of the open- 
ing as he was in the name of the institution and the spelling of its 
principal's name. For it was not until October 28 that "at nine (9) 
o'clock in the morning, seven (7) youths from 14 to 22 years of age 
were present and enrolled as students — notable as the first of a long 
list who have since been in the University." Thus, the Rev. Mr. 
Andrus, writing 28 years later, recalled the beginning of Wesleyan's 
first academic year. He continues: "It is gratifying to be able to 
retain their names and to write them with certainty, to wit: Edwin 
Miller, Archibald E. Stewart, Edwin Fell, Fletcher Wilson, John 
Perry, George Stubblefield, James Ewing." x 

The parents of these seven (7) youths had been notified that "no 
student is permitted to settle bills for less than one quarter but there 
will be a deduction in case of absences caused by protracted sickness." 
They could "board near the Institution" and "Books may be pur- 
chased at the city schools." 2 



After this modest beginning, "the list of students was gradually 
enlarged until in January, 1851, there were present in the classes Forty 
Five (45) persons — the maximum number for the year. There were 
classes the year through in Arithmetic and English Grammar, in the 
Elements of Latin and Greek, also in Algebra and Geometry, to- 
gether with Elocutionary and Rhetorical Exercises. The Principal 
did all the work of management, keeping accounts and teaching with- 
out assistance. The preparatory year's work closed in June, 1851 — 
nearly Thirty (30) young men remaining to the close." 3 

Meanwhile the founding fathers, acting as a board of trustees, 
had been holding frequent meetings to start the infant institution on 
its way. On Monday evening, December 2, 1850, they met, called 
Dr. Hobbs (wearing, no doubt, one of his 27 satin vests!) to the 
chair as presiding officer, named Editor Merriman secretary and in- 
structed William H. Allin to have the declaration of September 23rd 
entered "on the records of McLean county and forwarded one copy 
of the same to the Secretary of State at Springfield." 4 

Nine days later they met again, elected Hobbs president of the 
board; James Allin, vice-president; Reuben Andrus, corresponding 
secretary; C. P. Merriman, recording secretary; and John E. McClun, 
treasurer. They also appointed Merriman, Dr. Ezekiel Thomas and 
Dr. J. C. Finley a committee to draw up a constitution and by-laws 
and present them at a future meeting. Next they divided the trustees 
into three groups — first class to serve one year, second class to serve 
two years and third class to serve three years. 5 

On December 18 the committe presented the fruit of its labors 
and the constitution which they had drawn up was adopted. Man- 
agement of the "Illinois Wesleyan Institution" (sic) was vested in a 
board of 30 trustees "a majority of whom shall be members of the 
Mehodist Episcopal church, and a board of visitors to be annually 
appointed by the Illinois Annual Conference of the M.E. church, and 
such other annual conferences of said Church as may be united in the 
patronage and support of the Institution — each of such conferences 
having the power to appoint a board of nine visitors." 6 

A month later the trustees gathered in the court house for the 
first meeting of the New Year. Ahead of them was a formidable task 
which, in the light of the difficulties they were to encounter for the 
next decade, must at times have seemed well-nigh insuperable. In- 


eluded in that task were the problems of acquiring a site for the new 
university, erecting the necessary buildings to house it, choosing a 
president and assembling a faculty, publicizing the institution to at- 
tract students to it and, most important of all, placing it on a firm 
financial foundation. 

One of their first steps toward accomplishing the latter was to 
appoint Magee as "Agent for the soliciting of funds, scholars, books, 
specimens in geology, etc." 7 Next they named a committee to super- 
vise his work and to design the notes which he would use in securing 
money pledges. For publicizing the new school Barger was asked to 
"prepare an article or articles, for the Whig, giving the rise, progress, 
etc. of the university" (his lengthy epistles, previously referred to, 
were the result) and it was decided to print 500 circulars to be "circu- 
lated extensively through the Presiding Elder's district, setting forth 
the fact that the school is now in operation, the branches taught, 
terms of tuition, etc." Later this order was increased to 1,000 circulars 
for the printing of which Messrs. Underwood and Johnson who, by 
this time, had succeeded Merriman as publishers of the Whig, charged 
them the modest sum of $20. 

Almost immediately the tasks of acquiring a site for the univer- 
sity-to-be and securing a president and faculty to put it into opera- 
tion became troublesome problems. The former was destined to drag 
along for four years before Wesleyan had a permanent home and no 
sooner would the university be installed in it than financial difficulties 
would force the school to suspend operations. Meanwhile the prob- 
lem of locating a campus was complicated by the rivalry between 
two sections of the city for the honor of having the new educational 
institution in their midst, a rivalry in which Allin and Miller seem to 
have been the leaders. 8 

At a meeting of the trustees on February 3, 1851, each offered a 
tract of 10 acres as a site for the college and a balloting on the two 
proposals resulted in accepting Allin's offer. But when a committee, 
appointed to acquire title to this tract, three months later reported the 
conditions of Allin's gift, presumably these conditions were unsatis- 
factory to his fellow-trustees and his offer was rejected. Subsequently 
they passed a resolution that "all proposals to donate lands for the 
college therefore made be considered as withdrawn and that the 
committee on college grounds be instructed to receive proposals de 


novo." They also instructed the committee to receive proposals for 
donations of land of "not less than five acres within one mile of the 
court house." 

In June the committee reported that Miller had offered to sell 
them a tract of eight acres in the southwest part of the city for $200 an 
acre. No action was taken on this proposal, however, and two months 
later they were considering propositions "submitted by Messrs. Allin, 
Dimmit, K. H. Fell and Wm. Evans and McClun" and accepting 
Allin's proposition of "Ten acres north of the city and immediately 
north of his residence, said lands to be surrounded by streets each four 
rods wide." But as it turned out, this was only the beginning of an- 
other period of uncertainty about the site of the university-to-be 
before a final decision was made. 

Equally inconclusive during this first year were the attempts to 
secure a president and faculty. Either well-qualified educators were 
scarce or those who might have been available were reluctant to 
risk their careers with a new institution whose future was uncertain. 
The quest had begun in March, 1851, when Andrus, as corresponding 
secretary, was instructed to "make inquiry for teachers." A month 
later he was authorized to "correspond with B. F. Taft, President 
Wentworth, Professors Goodfellow, Herrick, Crow, Clark, Leager, 
Sears and Brunk" and soon he was reporting that "the Rev. Messrs. 
Brunk and Crow could not allow their names to be used in connection 
with the Presidency or professorship of the Illinois Wesleyan Uni- 

At about the same time Barger and Magee had been instructed to 
write to "Dr. Tomlinson and Dr. Wentworth on the subject of the 
Presidency" and presumably their correspondence, or Andrus' with 
President William Wentworth of McKendree college, had resulted 
in a suggestion as to the availability of his brother, Dr. Erastus Went- 
worth of Dickinson College. At the annual meeting of the board in 
July, 1851, "Prof. Erastus Wentworth was elected to the Presidency 
of this institution." There must have been some doubt in the trustees' 
minds as to Wentworth's assuming the presidency, for at this same 
meeting, after naming Rev. William Goodfellow, professor of natural 
science, and Andrus, professor of mathematics and natural philo- 
sophy, they voted that "the school connected with Illinois Wesleyan 
University be placed under the superintendence and control of Prof. 


Goodfellow and that he, together with Prof. Andrus, arrange the dif- 
ferent branches to be taught as should to them appear advisable." 

Soon afterwards an article, written by Barger and reviewing Wes- 
leyan's first year, appeared in the Whig. 9 It told how the preparatory 
department had been in successful operation with 50 students in at- 
tendance, how two professors had been chosen for the coming year 
and how the trustees were making plans for the future growth of the 
institution. 10 They were, Barger wrote, seeking funds for the erec- 
tion of buildings, getting an apparatus and a library and endowing 
professorships — f 10,000 for each professor. If a surplus accumulated 
it would be used for equipment and the trustees had promised to make 
up any deficit in the professors' salaries if tuition didn't cover that 
expense, although they hoped that it would. 

In contrast to the somewhat rosy picture which Barger had 
painted were the stern realities of the situation. For the fact was that 
there was not enough money available even to pay the $156.75 still 
due on Andrus' salary, and a committee appointed to deal with that 
problem recommended that this deficit "be paid out of the moneys 
brought into the Treasury of the University by the Agent as soon as 
practicable." However, in addition to voting Magee "a Methodist 
Preacher's salary" for his services as agent, they had allowed him 
$150 "to procure himself conveyances in traveling as agent and his 
traveling expenses." The committee then appointed another com- 
mittee to "raise by loan the sum of one hundred and fifty dollars to be 
used by the college agent as an out-fit, which sum is to be refunded 
out of the first funds raised by the agent." 

This ambiguity must have presented something of a problem to 
Treasurer McClun. Which should he pay first: the deficiency in 
Andrus' salary or the cost of Magee's "out-fit"? Evidently he decided 
in favor of the teacher for Andrus later recalled that his salary that 
year was "Four Hundred and Fifty dollars ($450) all of which he 
received. In addition he had the present of a good broadcloth cloak 
from Mr. James Miller, then a dry goods merchant of the town and 
he also received a present of Twenty (20) dollars from Mr. John 
Magoun." n As a matter of fact he had to wait six months for his 
money and it was finally paid him on Christmas Eve only because 
Treasurer McClun had been authorized to "raise the money by allow- 
ing a liberal per cent to any one who will advance on his notes." 

Chapter 4 

During the summer of 1851 Andrus, accompanied by Barger, the 
presiding elder of the district, visited many parts of Central Illinois, 
"delivering educational lectures and distributing circulars everywhere 
— at quarterly meetings, camp meetings, etc., etc.," x to attract stu- 
dents to the new university in Bloomington. Barger also continued 
his publicity efforts through the columns of the Whig, suggesting to 
the youth of the Corn Belt region that they prepare for action in the 
learned professions or in business, pointing out to them and their 
parents that it was a "good speculation of capital" to invest in edu- 
cation and issuing a formal invitation to them to enroll at Wesleyan. 2 

The results of this effort were not particularly encouraging for 
only seven students responded when the bell rang in the steeple of 
the Methodist church on October 2 to summon them to the opening 
of Wesleyan's second academic year (1851-52). However, that num- 
ber was later increased to 80 and by the end of the year a total of 
135 "orderly, studious and respectful young gentlemen . . . entered 
upon a systematic course of study." 3 

This represented a 200 per cent increase over the maximum en- 
rollment of the first year and although 101 of these "young gentle- 
men" were in the preparatory department of which J. W. Sherfy was 
principal — 20 in the classical course and 81 in the scientific — the 
promise to establish an institution on the collegiate level had been 
kept, with seven freshmen and one sophomore in the classical course 
and 16 juniors and 10 seniors in the scientific, making a total of 34 
students taking advanced work. Seventy-eight of the 135 were resi- 
dents of Bloomington and the remainder from other communities in 
Central Illinois with only one out-of-state student — J. Mayfield of 
Terre Haute, Ind. 

Tuition rates were low even for those days. In the preparatory 
department, students in the primary courses were charged $3 per 
quarter; in the scientific course, $4; and in the classical, $5. In the 
collegiate department the tuition in both the scientific and classical 


John Dempster 

President in absentia, 


Reuben Andrus 

Founder and First Teacher, 



William Goodfellow 
President pro tern, 1852-1854 

Charles W. C. Mwisell 
Financial Agent, 1856-187: 



courses was $6 a quarter and there was also a 50-cent fee for "con- 
tingent expenses." Obviously it would require a much larger student 
body than was enrolled during the first part of the year if the income 
from tuition was to supply even a fraction of the money needed to 
keep the infant institution going. There seems to have been some 
talk among the trustees of opening Wesleyan's doors to women stu- 
dents, but early in the year this idea was abandoned when "on motion 
of Dr. Thomas it was resolved that it is inexpedient to introduce 
ladies into the University as students." 4 

Possibly one reason for the inexpediency was the feeling that 
the presence of young ladies might be a distraction to the earnest 
young gentlemen who were there to "form correct mental and moral 
habits and to cultivate a taste for intellectual pursuits." 5 To aid them 
in doing this the Rev. Messrs. Goodfellow and Andrus had laid down 
certain rules which were "few and simple but sufficient to secure 
quiet and order." They stated: 

"Punctuality in attendance at all college exercises, and careful 
observance of study hours, and gentlemanly deportment, are required 
of every student. Visits of pleasure, gathering in groups, taking 
amusements on the sabbath day — absences from rooms at improper 
hours, or unpermitted absences from town* — writing upon or defacing 
the furniture or rooms of the college or other public buildings — 
wearing fire-arms or other weapons — drinking intoxicating liquors, 
or keeping them except by the prescription of a physician — contract- 
ing debts without the knowledge or consent of parents or guardians — 
using obscene or profane language — refusing compliance with any 
requirement of the Faculty — and all other breaches of morals or good 
order or violations of gentlemanly demeanor are strictly and totally 

"No student who occasions trouble in any of these particulars 
shall be suffered to remain to exert on others his corrupting influ- 
ence." 6 

As a further aid to forming the correct habits desired, "prayers 
with reading of the Scriptures, are attended in the chapel, by every 
student, morning and evening of every day, except Saturday and 
Sunday, when the evening service is omitted. The students are also re- 
quired to attend public service twice on the Sabbath, at such church as 
the faculty understand to be preferred by parents or guardians. There 
are in the city seven houses of religious worship, belonging to as many 


different denominations." Thus it was certain that every student 
would be able to attend the church of his parents' or guardians' 

If this rather full program of study and religious instruction per- 
mitted the student any leisure time, he still had an opportunity to 
employ it usefully in other ways. Living expenses also were low for 
"boarding may be obtained in the city for from $1.50 to $2.00 per 
week. This charge includes room rent, furniture and fuel, but does 
not include washing or lights. Many young men greatly lessen their 
expenses at college by boarding themselves, which can be done for 
from 60 to 80 cents per week. Others accomplish the same object 
by laboring a part of each day or each week. This plan profitably oc- 
cupies the student's vacant hours, and affords him healthful exercise. 
The Faculty desire to encourage such praiseworthy effort, and the 
rapidly progressing improvements of all kinds, in the city, furnish an 
abundant demand for all kinds of labor." 

If the student had any vacant hours not profitably occupied in the 
healthful exercise of laboring to lessen his college expenses, there 
were certain student activities in which he could participate although 
these were rather limited. He could join the Rhetorical society or the 
Adelphia Literary society which provided an opportunity to listen to 
"masterly addresses" by such speakers as Rev. Mr. Goodfellow and 
Jesse Birch, Esq., a new member of the board of trustees, both of 
whom were capable of a "display of literary taste and use of eloquent 

Thus the Whig described Goodfellow's and Birch's speeches 
given during Wesleyan's semi-annual examination and "exhibition" 
on February 19, 1852. 7 The exhibition was enlivened by the presence 
of a brass band and all the students gave essays whose topics dealt 
with the questions of the day. Special honor was given to Howard 
Wilkinson of Jacksonville, a precocious youth who, although he was 
only in the eleventh year of school had a "mature intellect" which 
presumably qualified him for a prophetic utterance on "The United 
States of 1900." As for the examination, the results were declared 
highly satisfactory, reflecting "great credit on the professors and stu- 
dents and showing the results of work especially since it is realized 
what material they had to begin with." 

If the students were kept busy, that was also true of the two 
faculty members, as witness these words of Andrus: "There was no 


Professor of Greek employed and I volunteered to unite that depart- 
ment with my own, doing for the period double work. Prof. Good- 
fellow supplied the Department of Latin in addition to his own. 
The work of teaching went on all day, having classes in both depart- 
ments in nearly a full collegiate course." 8 

Early in December, 1852, the trustees named a committee to 
"employ an assistant teacher" and Andrus mentions a Rev. Harrison 
and a Mr. Stansberry serving as "tutors." But even with this help 
the burden on the two professors, especially Andrus, must have been 
heavy. "Recitations from six to eight hours per day and the re- 
mainder of the time given to reviews, collections of money and 
general management were more than could be borne." So it is under- 
standable that "under the continued stress my health gave way." 9 

Adding to that stress, no doubt, were Andrus' duties as corres- 
ponding secretary of the board of trustees and trying to help his col- 
leagues solve the multifarious problems that constantly confronted 
them. The most harassing, of course, were those of gaining financial 
support for the new institution. Magee's activities as agent had re- 
sulted in securing $15,000 for the university in Central Illinois before 
he made a trip east where the "liberality of friends in Boston, New 
York and Philadelphia" had made it possible to procure a "philo- 
sophical and chemical apparatus" and add 500 volumes to the li- 
brary. 10 By the end of the year he had raised nearly $17,000 but 
most of this was contributed for buildings which were to house 
the university. Moreover, nearly all of this was in notes and did 
not represent available cash for the current needs of the school. 
So in order to keep the school solvent the trustees were forced to 
give their joint note for money which they borrowed, and later to 
borrow more to pay the first lender. 

At the semi-annual business meeting in December, when new 
officers and four new trustees, including Kersey Fell's brother, 
Jesse W. Fell, 11 were elected, Linus Graves, who had succeeded 
McClun as treasurer, reported that he had on hand exactly $38.90. 
However, they were still in debt for equipment, so, in addition to 
passing a resolution instructing Andrus to thank "the gentlemen who 
have so kindly aided us in obtaining an apparatus and library" they 
instructed Graves to "raise funds to pay our indebtedneess for our 
apparatus and Judge McClun be politely requested to act as such 
agent in the case." 


Despite this unfavorable financial situation the trustees proceeded 
with plans for the expansion of the university. This included ap- 
pointing a committee to prepare a new charter, naming a building 
committee and passing a resolution that "in view of the wants of the 
Institution for buildings we instruct our Agent to obtain at the earliest 
possible day, $40,000." In addition "the amounts due the Trustees for 
Buildings should be promptly collected as they become due." They 
instructed Andrus to "open a correspondence with Gentlemen abroad 
with the design of filling the chair of Ancient Languages next year 
and also for the purpose of filling the Presidency of the institution by 
a man whose name shall be on the list of the Board of Instruction 
next year and who shall enter upon service when his presence shall be 
deemed necessary." 

The result of this correspondence was the election at the annual 
meeting of the trustees on June 7, 1852 of Rev. John Dempster as 
president and professor of natural science. Andrus, worn out by his 
exertions of the last two years declined a re-appointment despite the 
earnest pleas of his fellow-trustees that he continue as a teacher and 
fiscal agent. As his successor on the faculty they named Rev. William 
D. Godman and elected Rev. Clinton W. Sears to the dual position of 
professor of ancient languages and literature and fiscal agent. 

The Bloomington Intelligencer (the new name given the Western 
Whig by Publishers Merriman and Kersey Fell), in reporting these 
appointments, stated that Sears was coming from Columbus, Ohio, 
where he had proved his "abilities as a scholar and superior minister" 
and that Godman had been the principal of the Worthington (Ohio) 
Female seminary "which is indebted to him for its present rank 
among our present seminaries." As for Dempster, he had won a 
"world-wide reputation" as president of the Methodist Biblical In- 
stitute at Concord, N. H., and had "contributed much to the cause 
of education especially in the department of the Bible." 12 

Andrus has stated that "Dr. Dempster's appointment to the Presi- 
dency was understood to be only nominal. He was not expected to 
have any actual connection with the institution and to this arrange- 
ment he consented in deference mainly, it was believed, to the wishes 
of his son-in-law, Prof. Goodfellow." 13 So the board appointed 
Goodfellow to "act as President pro tern in the absence of Prof. 
Dempster" but they also resolved that the latter be "respectfully 


requested to obtain such assistance as he can for obtaining for us a 
more extensive apparatus." 

At this meeting the trustees passed a resolution thanking Magee 
for "the energy and success with which he has prosecuted the busi- 
ness of his agency" and another commending "the efforts and exer- 
tions of our Professors in promoting the interests and prosperity of 
our institution." But they also resolved that "the Professors' salaries 
remain for the year to come as they were during the last year" — 
possibly because Treasurer Graves reported that after paying all bills, 
the "Am't on hands" was exactly $11.90. After instructing the secre- 
tary to "draw an order on the Treasurer for the amounts respectively 
due the Professors" (what those amonuts were and how they were 
paid is unknown) the trustees adjourned to attend the exercises 
celebrating the end of the school year. 

Here they listened to addresses by Goodfellow and Rev. Daniel 
Wilkins, the youthful principal of the McLean Female Seminary 
who "gained much reputation for himself with his address on 'The 
Responsibilities of Age.' " The next day was "commencement" but 
since there was no graduating class they were entertained by songs 
by a choir of young ladies from the seminary, directed by Wilkins, 
and by declamations and orations by their own students. This year 
it was Master P. W. Bishop 14 of Money Creek, a student in the 
classical preparatory department, who assumed the role of prophet. 
He spoke on "The Future of the United States Confederacy," while 
J. Webb of Farmington, an erudite senior in the scientific course, dis- 
posed of one of the gravest problems of the day in his oration on 
"Slavery and Its Remedy." The whole program was, so the Intelli- 
gencer assured its readers, "a grand affair." 

Chapter 5 


To read the First Annual Catalogue of the Officers and Students 
of the Illinois Wesley an University for the Collegiate Year 185 1-2, 
a 19-page pamphlet "printed by B. Foster, Peoria, 1852" and issued 
soon after the trustees' annual meeting, is to gain the impression that 
here is a well-established institution, complete with faculty, student 
body, campus and extensive curriculum. Actually, Illinois Wesleyan 
at this time exists more on paper than in physical reality. 

Although "it is the purpose of the Trustees to commence, next 
year, the erection of a New College Edifice," the fact is that "for the 
present the basement of the M.E. Church is used for recitation rooms 
and chapel. One hundred and fifty Students can be accommodated 
with the conveniences we now have, and as soon as necessary, addi- 
tional rooms will be obtained for recitation." * 

Listed in the pamphlet are the names of the 135 students who 
attended the institution the previous year, but how many of them 
will be on hand on September 28, when the first quarter of the third 
school year begins, is problematical. Those who do so will find 
available for their use a 

Library & Cabinet 

The Library consists of about 1000 volumes, the donations of the 
friends of the Institution: and there are on the shelves of the Cabinet 
about 1700 specimens. It is intended to greatly increase the value of the 
Library and Cabinet during the ensuing year. 

Students will also make use of this 

The Philosophical and Chemical Apparatus and Chemicals are new 
and valuable, having been selected with care from the extensive catalogue 
of Messrs. Chamberlayne and Ritchie, Boston, and the Messrs. Carpenter, 
Philadelphia; and they afford ample facilities for the illustration of the 
Natural Sciences. 



The young gentlemen who enroll will find ready for them this 

Course of Study 

In order to meet the wants of our times, two courses of study are 
arranged, and left optional with the student. 

The course of study in the Scientific Deparment is arranged with 
reference to the wants and wishes of a large class of young men whose 
time, or means, or other circumstances do not admit of their pursuing the 
regular collegiate course. The object of it is thoroughly to prepare 
young men for teaching, or for business pursuits, by a thorough course of 
useful and systematic training. It embraces all the studies of the collegiate 
course except the Ancient Languages; and upon its successful completion 
the student is entitled to the Degree of "Bachelor of Science and English 
Literature." After leaving the Preparatory Department it may be com- 
pleted in two years. 

The course of Collegiate Study is, in the main, the same as is pur- 
sued at the oldest and best colleges in the United States. After the 
Preparatory studies, the completion of the course requires four years, 
and entitles the student to the Degree of Bachelor of Arts. This course 
is the only reliable one for making sound, practical, and accomplished 

In addition to the college department 

The Academical Department 
Will be under the immediate supervision of the Faculty, assisted by 
such Tutors as may be necessary to accomplish the work. It is preferred 
that students preparing for the college classes would make their prepara- 
tion here rather than prepare elsewhere for an advanced standing. If we 
must be responsible for the final credentials of the scholar we would 
prefer laying the foundations of his scholarship. 

As for the teachers who will make them "sound, practical and 
accomplished scholars, the faculty roll is headed by Dempster, as 
"President and Professor of Mental and Moral Science, and Biblical 
Literature." Although he was obviously a president in absentia, sub- 
sequent references to him in both the local paper and the Trustees' 
Proceedings indicate that he may have visited the Bloomington insti- 
tution several times but it is doubtful if he ever did any actual 

Dempster's colleagues on the roll are Goodfellow as "Professor 
of Natural Science," Sears as "Professor of Ancient Languages and 
Literature," Godman as "Professor of Mathematics and Natural 


Philosophy," and William S. Pope, who is listed as "Teacher of 

Accompanying Godman's name is this note: "The resignation of 
this gentleman has been received, but the name is retained to indi- 
cate that the Board intends to fill the vacancy immediately." Before 
school opened, it had been filled when, according to an entry in the 
Trustees' Proceedings, "Rev. T. A. Goodwin, A.M., of Indiana, was 
unanimously elected Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philo- 
sophy." But there is no record of Goodwin's having accepted the 
appointment, and Godman seems to have reconsidered his resignation 
and remained. At any rate, there is a record of his serving as pro- 
fessor of mathematics for the next three years. 2 In November the 
trustees approved "the introduction into Illinois Wesley an University 
of vocal music as a regular and daily branch of study" and appropri- 
ated "the sum of five dollars for the purchasing of 'Mason's Teacher's 
Instruction' for the use of said University," but who was the teacher 
of this course is unknown. 

It seems clear that the principal burden of conducting the uni- 
versity again rested upon two men — Goodfellow, in his dual capacity 
of president pro tern and professor, and Sears, doubling as a teacher 
and librarian. That they were overworked and underpaid — if indeed 
they were paid with any degree of regularity — is indicated by several 
entries in the Trustees' Proceedings which reflect the precarious 
financial condition of the university. Early in the year 1852 they had 
engaged Rev. W. J. Newman to succeed Magee as agent and in 
January, 1853, he reported that, although he had secured notes on 
subscriptions totalling more than $1,600 he was able to pay over to 
the treasurer only $137.50 which made Wesley an's total cash assets 
at that time $178.18. 

In May James Miller, who had succeeded W. C. Hobbs as presi- 
dent of the board, laid before his fellow trustees "a communication 
from Prof. Sears asking pay for his services as professor," also a 
report from the agent showing "no funds on hand belonging to the 
University." Therefore "John Magoun proposed to pay $100 to- 
ward paying off the professors" and Linus Graves also made a con- 
tribution to take care of current expenses. The year ended with 
$28.52 in the treasury but the university was still in debt for more 
than $600 of borrowed money. 

The financial difficulties that had prevailed throughout the year 

(Now Old North Hall) 


<£ <* *v c • 

:J» iucmuc 

1 &**&&&•* > 



(See "Notes on the Pictures", page 248) 


did not prevent the trustees from going forward with plans for ex- 
pansion of the university. Due largely to the initiative of Jesse W. 
Fell, two important committees were appointed and set to work. 
One was to "take immediate steps for the endowment of Professor- 
ships of this Institution" and its report, adopted at the annual meet- 
ing, resulted in the decision to seek an endowment of $150,000 "by 
the sale of scholarships at the following grades: scholarships for 4 
years at $25; for 9 years at $50 and 25 years at $100." A provision 
was also made that "in the sale of scholarships, notes for the purchase 
money shall be executed, payable whenever $150,000 of the proposed 
fund shall be available to the holders severally as soon as the purchase 
money shall be paid." Although this method of financing a new 
college was a fairly common practice in these days, 3 it contained pit- 
falls which invited embarrassment, if not actual disaster, as the trustees 
of Wesleyan later learned to their sorrow. 

At a meeting of the trustees in December, 1852, another notable 
in Central Illinois history had been elected to the board. He was 
David Davis, 4 then judge of the Eighth Judicial Circuit over which 
he rode with a group of young lawyers, among them Abraham Lin- 
coln. Eight years later Davis would be chiefly responsible for secur- 
ing the Republican nomination for Lincoln for the Presidency. At 
this meeting also, upon a motion by Jesse Fell, the trustees resolved 
that "in the erection of College buildings, we approbate the plan of 
having a main edifice with two wings or subordinate buildings situ- 
ated on either side and at convenient distances from the main struc- 
ture." They approved the erection of one of these subordinate build- 
ings during the ensuing year (1853) "provided, however, that the 
expense therein shall not exceed $6,000," and instructed the build- 
ing committee to "use the notes only that have been or may hereafter 
be executed for said object." The following March, however, this 
committee, composed of Allin, Graves, Miller, Magoun and Ewing, 
was designated an executive committee and given "full power to make 
whatever arrangements they may deem best calculated to secure the 
erection of a college edifice this season." 

Another important step taken this year was the drafting of a new 
charter which vested the ownership and control of the institution in 
the Illinois Annual Conference of the Methodist church and which 
was approved by the Illinois legislature on February 12, 1853. 5 
Although under control of the Methodist church one provision of 


the charter declared that the "university and its preparatory depart- 
ment shall be open to all denominations of Christians and the profes- 
sion of any particular religious faith shall not be required to those who 
become students." 

But the high point of this year in Wesleyan's early history was 
reached on July 7 when it held its first Commencement exercises. The 
commencement address was given by Rev. G. E. Wilson, of Chicago, 
who, according to the Intelligencer, "showed himself to be a ripe 
scholar, a sensible man and a Christian of sound, comprehensive and 
enlightening views and sentiments with occasional rich humor which 
evidently enters into the composition of his mind." President Demp- 
ster conferred the degree of "A.M. in course" upon Rev. Daniel 
Wilkins, Jr., A.B. "an alumnus of four years standing of the Michi- 
gan State University" and the degree of A.B. upon Barger's son, 
James Hugh Barger. Young Barger's graduation oration was "worthy 
of commendation" and as the "first graduate of Illinois Wesley an 
University" it was hoped that "his future career will be as bright and 
useful as his friends have a right to expect." 6 

"The prospects of the University have never been so flattering as 
now" declared the Intelligencer in its issue of August 31, 1853. "The 
trustees have just completed a contract with a reliable and highly 
competent architect for the erection of the first college edifice. It 
will be commenced in the ensuing autumn and completed as soon as 
permanence of building will justify. Professor Goodfellow has been 
East and secured another professor for the mathematics department 
whose recommendations are of the highest character." This new 
faculty member was Prof. W. T. Wright, successor to Prof. J. P. 
Johnson, who had resigned in July. 

A month later the paper announced the opening of Wesleyan's 
fall session and declared that "prospects are bright. President Demp- 
ster will spend much of the winter in the Institution, who in addition 
to the newly elected Prof. Mr. Wright will enable the faculty to 
devote a great deal of attention to those entrused to their care." 7 

Soon after school began a picnic was held on the site where the 
"college edifice" was to be erected "with a view of getting the public 
interested in the enterprise," according to Miss Mary Piatt, principal 
of the preparatory department of Rev. Daniel Wilkins' recently es- 
tablished Central Female Institute. She later recalled that "everybody 
was invited to the picnic and, it seemed, everybody came. We went 


in the afternoon and took a basket supper with us." We may be cer- 
tain that among those present were the young gentlemen from Wes- 
leyan and the young ladies from the Female Institute, and that this 
picnic marked the beginning of their association in the social and in- 
tellectual life of the little city. 8 

No doubt many of them were present when Dr. J. R. Freeze, a 
newcomer to the city and soon to be the builder of College Hall to 
meet the needs of the growing community for a larger place for 
public gatherings, spoke on "Resolution and Energy" at the M.E. 
Church on January 27, 1854. Later, they listened respectfully when 
Rev. C. C. Bonney came from Peoria to address a joint meeting of 
the literary societies of the two institutions on "The Responsibility 
of Students," which was, according to Miss Piatt, "an earnest, 
thoughtful discourse that was long remembered." In April, Bayard 
Taylor, the great American traveler, came to Bloomington and "for 
two evenings took us o'er land and sea to the wonderful climes he 
had visited." The students also heard talks on "Home and Mother" 
by Mrs. Cutter; on "Woman's Rights" by Mrs. Emerson, on "Spir- 
itualism" by Doctor Young, on "Clairvoyance and Mesmerism" by 
Dr. Henry Spencer and on "Practical Farming" by Henry Shaw of 

Indicative of the lively interest in education at that time was the 
appearance of large audiences to hear addresses by Prof. J. B. Turner 
"in the interest of the Industrial University" (later the University of 
Illinois) and by Ninian Edwards, newly-appointed state superintend- 
ent of education. The latter's official position was the direct result 
of a movement inaugurated in Bloomington in the autumn of 1853. 
Due largely to the initiative of Rev. Wilkins, a committee, which in- 
cluded President Dempster and members of the Wesleyan faculty, 
had been organized to plan a state educational conference or teachers' 

With the endorsement of Alexander Starnes, secretary of state 
and ex officio state superintendent of common schools, a call was 
issued for such an institute and on December 26 the delegates assem- 
bled for their sessions in the basement of the Methodist church, which 
had housed Illinois Wesleyan from its beginning. 9 After perfecting 
a permanent organization, of which Goodfellow was one of the vice- 
presidents, the convention adopted several resolutions, four of which 
were especially significant. 


One declared for a state teachers' institute which was organized 
the next day. This resulted in the establishment of a state teachers 
association which later began meeting annually in Springfield on a 
date as near as possible to the anniversary of the Bloomington conven- 
tion. A second demanded the appointment of a school superintendent 
as a new state official. Within three months the legislature had en- 
acted a law creating that office and Edwards was the first appointee. 

A third called for the founding of a state teachers paper or journal 
and the Illinois Teacher was the result. The fourth demanded that 
the state found and maintain a normal school for training teachers 
and the campaign for this, carried on largely through the columns of 
the Illinois Teacher, led to the establishment three years later of such 
a school in North Bloomington, which later became a separate muni- 
cipality with the name of Normal. In the light of the friendly rivalry 
existing for years between the two universities at each end of Franklin 
avenue in the twin cities of Bloomington and Normal, it is interesting 
to note that one of them is indebted, partially at least, to the pioneers 
of the other for its existence. Two years later when the Wesleyan 
trustees were trying in every way possible to raise money to keep the 
university alive, the first teachers' institute ever held in McLean 
county met at Bloomington and among the resolutions passed at that 
time was one asking the state to appropriate f 10,000 from its college 
and seminary funds to Wesleyan. Not only did the Bloomington 
university fail to get it but there is a bit of irony in the fact that 
these funds "were afterwards turned over to the use of the Normal 
University." 10 

Education, however, was only one of the problems of the day 
engaging the interests of the citizens of the McLean county seat and 
the faculty and students of its institutions of higher learning. "It seems 
that nearly every phase of life was presented by one or the other of 
those who addressed the people," Miss Piatt writes. "Some of the 
political speakers were Ex-President Fillmore, June, 1854, in favor 
of the North; Cassius M. Clay, Stephen A. Douglas, Abraham Lincoln, 
on the Nebraska question, and Joshua R. Giddings, Abolitionist. Some 
of these addresses were delivered at the court house and some at the 

Nor did Wesleyan students confine their interest in current issues 
to listening to such political orators as those listed. Many of them 
belonged to the Rhetorical society, a literary club which "met on Fri- 


day evening of each week and discussed the more important questions 
of the day: Does the slavery question interest us of the north? 
Should we have more strict naturalization laws? Should women have 
the right of suffrage? Was the war with Mexico just? Could our 
language be better represented by the phonetic alphabet? Should 
capital punishment be abolished?" 

The Wesleyan students were not too busy trying to settle such 
momentous questions, however, to take a day off and enjoy an event 
which must have been the climax of their social life that year. On 
May 24, 1854, they assembled with the young ladies of the Female 
Institute at the newly-built Illinois Central depot to board the steam 
cars for the hour-long 20-mile trip to a grove on the Mackinaw river 
near Kappa, there to enjoy an all-day picnic that had been planned for 
them by the professors of the two schools. Miss Piatt has left us a 
lyrical description of the simple pleasures of that day which, inci- 
dentally, seems to have resulted in the beginning of several romances, 
including her own with one of the Wesleyan students, Isaac L. 

While the students were occupied with such affairs as those des- 
cribed, the trustees were equally busy with affairs of a sterner nature. 
Despite the Intelligencer's optimistic statement about the bright 
prospects of the university, the young institution was facing even 
more difficulties than it had yet known. The "reliable and competent 
architect" who had been engaged to erect the edifice was Alex B. 
Shaffer and soon after he had begun work it was decided that the 
nearness of the site to the Alton and Sangamon railroad (later the 
Chicago and Alton), which had just extended its lines to Blooming- 
ton, would make this location an inappropriate one for the univer- 
sity. 11 So the problem of securing a site came up again, and, after 
considering several offers, the trustees accepted one made by Franklin 
K. Phoenix to sell them for $2,000 a tract of "8 l / 2 acres with two 
streets each 66 feet wide and 2 streets each 3 3 feet wide, including his 
fine grove situated a little east of Main street and north of the city." 12 
This is the site on which Illinois Wesleyan stands today. 

More troublesome than finding a new home for the university 
was the solution of the ever-present problem of how to finance the 
school. It had soon become apparent that there would be difficulty in 
raising the proposed $150,000 endowment, therefore that plan was 
modified "so as to make the notes payable when $25,000 worth of 


scholarships is sold." The building fund was reduced from $50,000 to 
$25,000. In January, 1854, the trustees were considering hiring addi- 
tional agents to solicit subscriptions, "the calling of a public meeting 
on the subject of endowment" and Barger was writing another long 
letter to the local newspaper, now the Weekly Pantagraph, appeal- 
ing to the public for support of the local institution. 13 

Apparently none of these efforts was especially productive of 
results. At the end of the year Agent Barger reported that he had 
sold 104 scholarships amounting to $5,325 but of this amount less than 
$500 had been collected and Treasurer Graves reported that not 
only was there a deficit of $41 in the treasury but that they still 
owed "about $575" to the faculty. Thereupon a committee was 
appointed "to prepare a statement and expression of the sense of 
the Board on the subject of collection by law of the notes due the 

The repercussions of this were almost immediate, for within a 
week they were instructing the secretary to "write under the direc- 
tion of the Executive Committee to all such persons as really feel ag- 
grieved by being sued and inform them that it is not our intention to 
sue such persons as are disposed promptly to meet their obligations to 
our contractor and that the amount of their cost shall be credited on 
their next payment." They also requested Shaffer to "present to the 
Executive Committee all notes which he thinks cannot be collected 
without suit to see if they cannot relieve him" and they modified the 
scholarship plan so as "to secure to the purchasers of scholarships 
heretofore sold and those to be sold fifty years tuition free of charge 
for one hundred dollars; twenty years for fifty dollars, and eight 
years for twenty-five dollars, provided that the agents be instructed 
to sell the $25 scholarship only to young men who will or desire to 
spend four years in college." 

At the annual Commencement this year, Wesleyan had one gradu- 
ate, albeit he had been "borrowed" for the occasion. During the year 
William Fletcher Short had come from McKendree College and en- 
tered Wesleyan "for the purpose of furnishing the university with 
a graduating class." 14 

That some friction among the trustees had developed during this 
trying year is indicated by the number of resignations from various 
posts within their organization which are recorded in the minutes of 
the annual meeting of July, 1854. 15 Similarly there may have been 


difficulties between the trustees and the faculty. At any rate, Wright 
resigned at the end of the third quarter, but whether it was because 
of non-payment of salary or for some other reason is unknown. No 
clue is given in the cautiously worded resolution adopted at a meet- 
ing of the students held soon after his decision to leave the university 
became known, and the trustees, in accepting a resolution confirming 
his resignation, made it a point to express their "kind feelings" 16 
toward him. 

At the end of the year Dempster resigned and the trustees while 
regretting the loss of his "presence and labors in our University" 
took the opportunity of expressing "approbation of his course in 
raising up a Biblical Institute in Chicago and congratulate him in his 
bright prospects of success." 17 

Once more the trustees embarked upon a quest for a president and 
faculty to teach in the university which they hoped to keep alive, 
although at the end of the fourth year the prospects for doing so 
seemed extremely doubtful. 

Chapter 6 

Now that Illinois Wesleyan was finally located on the site which 
it was to occupy henceforth and its first building was under con- 
struction, it would be a happy circumstance if a steady and uninter- 
rupted growth of the institution could be chronicled. That, how- 
ever, was still several years in the future. 

Early in the summer of 1854, "Mr. Shurfy (sic) was requested to 
do all he can during the vacation to solicit and gather students." 1 
But the results must have been so discouraging that the principal of 
the preparatory department felt it advisable to resign. 2 However, 
there seem to have been enough young men enrolled so that school 
could be opened in September. It had scarcely started when it lost 
another faculty member. On November 6, Isaac L. Kenyon, one of 
these students, recorded in his diary, "Professor Goodfellow has left 
the school. Mr. O. T. Reeves, a young man from Ohio, has taken 
his place." 3 Thus there came to the university a man who was des- 
tined to have a longer connection with Wesleyan in more different 
capacities than any other person in its history. 4 

Later in the same month Dr. J. R. Freeze formally opened the 
three-story brick building which he had erected on Center street west 
of the court house. Undoubtedly many of the young gentlemen from 
Wesleyan and the young ladies from the Female Seminary assembled 
there to hear the picturesque doctor tell how he hoped to establish in 
his College Hall "a medical college or an institution which would 
eventually grow into that" but it is doubtful if any of them remained 
for the dance which followed the dedicatory exercises and which 
raised something of a furore among the strait-laced citizens of the 
town. 5 

But that was probably forgotten by December 5 when Rev. F. M. 
Thomas, an Episcopal clergyman, addressed the members of the 
Philomathian society of Wesleyan in College Hall, and from that 
time on the auditorium which met the needs of the growing com- 
munity for a public gathering place, became the cultural center of 



"Private Joe" Fifer Lt. George H. Fifer 

Company C, 33d Illinois Volunteers Company C, 33d Illinois Volunteers 

Later governor of Illinois 

Weslevan's first battle casualty 


Bloomington. There were lectures by professors from educational 
institutions, concerts by the Musical association (of which Professor 
Sherfy had been the first leader and in which the Wesleyan students 
and their friends from the Female Seminary took an active part) and 
tableaus, lectures and exhibitions by the Riley Family and many other 
visiting notables. 

Goodfellow's departure presented a serious problem to the Wes- 
leyan trustees. To meet it they chose a former teacher as his suc- 
cessor and instructed Barger to "Wait upon the Rev. Reuben Andrus 
and inform him of his election and urge him to occupy his chair 
without delay." They also elected Rev. Peter Akers president but 
when they were unable to guarantee an endowment of $15,000 for 
the presidency, Akers declined his appointment, as did Andrus. By 
December the situation seemed hopeless but the trustees resolved 
"that it would be injurious to suspend school" so they made another 
effort to keep it going by inviting Andrus and William J. Rutledge 
"to take charge of the Institution at the beginning of the third quarter 
of the present term." They set Andrus' salary at $400 and Rutledge's 
at $300 for the half year. Although the trustees pledged themselves 
to pay for any deficiency in these salaries, "provided the deficit shall 
not exceed $400 for the half year" the two men declined to accept 
such a proposition. 

On January 22, 1855 Kenyon recorded in his diary that "the 
Illinois Wesleyan University suspended operations this morning. 
Several of us have made arrangements with Professor Wilkins to 
attend the Female College the rest of the year, and thus go on with 
our studies." But this co-educational experiment lasted only three 
months and on April 30 Kenyon reported that the 27 young men 
who tried it "have been thrown out of the school on account of the 
dissatisfaction of some of its patrons, their wish being that none but 
ladies be permitted to attend." 6 

Meanwhile the trustees were having their difficulties also. They 
had a disagreement with Shaffer, the contractor, over certain charges 
in his bill for "erecting the edifice" and especially for "removing 
brick from the old to the new college site." This was finally settled 
when they voted to accept Shaffer's offer to "loan the Board for two 
years at ten per cent all amounts which shall be found due on final 
settlement and on all other amounts for the time they may become 
due, giving said Shaffer a lien on the college building for security 


precisely the same in tenor and form as his present mechanic's lien." 
The board had also become involved in what must have been an 
acrimonious dispute with their fellow-trustee, James Allin, in regard 
to the ownership of the first college site. This controversy dragged 
along for six months and was finally settled when they gave him a 
quit claim deed to the land and also resolved to "cordially invite him 
to co-operate in behalf of the university and, conscious of their indi- 
vidual liability to err, do cheerfully attribute to every member of 
this Board in reference to the past all purity of intention, whatsoever 
errors may have been committed." 

This rather curious statement appears in the articles of agreement 
which they made with Sears in August, 1855. Declaring that "in the 
present depressed condition of the Illinois Wesleyan University, it is 
necessary that efforts be made immediately and energetically in its 
behalf by opening the school, by providing new buildings and per- 
fecting the endowment," they elected Sears president 7 and chairman 
of an executive committee of five trustees that was to have "the 
whole management of the Institution, including school building and 
endowment." They bound themselves to "put the college building 
in good condition for opening a school by finishing off the third 
story for the temporary occupancy of Students, providing stoves, 
tables, chairs, benches and desks for the school and recitation rooms, 
to build a substantial sidewalk from the college edifice to connect 
with the sidewalk in town" and to "so arrange the present indebted- 
ness upon the Institution that it shall not embarass the future opera- 
ions and prosperity of the university." 

Sears was to receive a salary of $800 a year in quarterly install- 
ments which was to be secured by individual obligations of one or 
more of the trustees or other persons and, in addition, ten per cent of 
the money received from such scholarships as he was able to sell. 
In return for this he agreed to raise the money to "build an edifice 
for a boarding house and student rooms" to raise the endowment to 
$50,000 and "to keep a good school in all the studies of a preparatory 
department for the space of two years without any expense (except 
as to the salary aforesaid) to the Trustees, looking to the tuition and 
room alone to pay the Board of Instruction and incidental expenses." 
If the trustees didn't have the building ready by October 1 and the 
sidewalk by October 15, Sears could withdraw from the contract 
"without blame." The agreement was to run for two years but if it 


was found that this was not sufficient the contract could be extended 
for five years although in this case his salary, instead of being $800 
a year, would be a sum to be fixed by the trustees at their annual 

If there seems to be undue emphasis upon the importance of the 
sidewalk in this agreement and in its subsequent history, it must be 
remembered that the Wesley an campus, now less than a 15 -minute 
walk from the center of present-day Bloomington, was then "out 
in the country," that the streets were as yet unpaved, and that after 
a heavy rain the rich black soil of McLean county produced a mud 
of amazing tenacity. So a sidewalk was a necessary part of the phy- 
sical equipment of a university. 

By the time the annual meeting of the trustees convened on July 
2, 1856, it was apparent that their attempts to keep the university 
alive were doomed to failure. They had been able to pay Sears less 
than half of his salary, owing him in addition more than $500 for cer- 
tain necessary expenditures (including money he had advanced to 
build that sidewalk!). After deducting "receipts from cash collec- 
tions of $17. 25" there was still a deficit of nearly $1,000 in the operat- 
ing fund and they were in debt on notes due January 1, 1857 (includ- 
ing Shaffer's judgment note) to the amount of $7,000. Despite the 
fact that agents for the university had sold more than $12,000 in 
scholarships, none of this money would be available until the total 
of $25,000 had been sold. 

In an attempt to keep the school going, they appointed a com- 
mittee to raise $10,000 by giving a mortgage on the college grounds 
and building but when they tried to raise this sum in the East, they 
learned that "money couldn't be obtained on Western Security." 
Accordingly on July 31, 1856, they resolved "that school be sus- 
pended until a sufficient amount can be raised to pay off all the indebt- 
edness of the Board of Trustees." Soon afterwards they appointed a 
committee to "let the college building to anyone who will carry on 
a good school in the same" and instructed the treasurer to "dispose of 
the sidewalk between the city and the college building." 

In September, 1856 the Board decided that the last hope of saving 
Illinois Wesleyan was to present it to the Peoria and Illinois Annual 
Conferences of the Methodist Church, amend the charter so that the 
university would be under the control of the trustees appointed by 
these Conferences, instead of trustees, who under the original charter 


appointed their own successors. This proposition was accepted in 
October and at a meeting of the trustees the next month the transfer 
of authority took place. At this meeting Sears presented to the board 
this communciation: 

From the present position and condition of the affairs of the Uni- 
versity, my services as President are no longer needed. In addition my 
assumption of the pastoral relation will render it entirely unappropriate 
that I should hold even a nominal relation to the University as President. 
I therefore herewith offer my resignation as President to take effect after 
the adjournment of this meeting. 

I am sorry I have not been more successful during the brief term I 
have held this office. A failure to meet the expectations of the Board and 
those of the public has been exceedingly humilitating, but I have done 
the best I could under the circumstances. With my present convictions it 
is doubtful whether I ever again assume any similar relation to our insti- 
tutions of learning, believing that to be a faithful minister of Jesus Christ 
is the highest and noblest calling which a human being can engage. I 
appreciate education and the importance of our literary institutions and 
shall not cease to labor in all suitable ways for their establishment and 
promotion. And if there is any one institution for which I feel an affec- 
tion and for which I am willing to labor and sacrifice it is the one whose 
interests have been committed to you. 8 

His resignation was immediately accepted and provision was made 
to pay him the balance still due him on his salary, amounting to nearly 
$800. Then the trustees began another campaign to find a man brave 
enough to assume the formidable task of reviving an educational 
institution that had twice been forced to close its doors. 

Chapter 7 

The special meeting of the board of trustees, held in the basement 
of the M.E. Church, Eastern Charge, in Bloomington on Monday, 
November 5, 1856, was a landmark in Illinois Wesleyan history. 

At this session a committee, composed of Sears, Peter Cartwright, 
R. J. White and Hiram Buck, reported their mission to Quincy the 
previous month to ''tender the Institution to the Illinois and Peoria 
Conferences" had been successful. The two conferences had agreed 
to accept the offer that Wesleyan be "under their exclusive control 
and to be held in trust by such Trustees as they may from time to 
time appoint . . . provided that said property owned by the University 
shall not be devoted to any other than educational purposes." Fur- 
thermore, these two bodies had adopted the following resolutions: 

First: That the Charter of the Illinois Wesleyan University be so 
changed as to be called a college and that a preparatory department be 
opened as soon as practicable and continued as such until an endowment 
is secured sufficient to establish a faculty. 

Second: That the Charter be so amended so that each patronizing 
conference shall elect an equal number of Trustees to the Institution. 

Third: That the President of the Institution shall be nominated by 
the Joint Visiting Committees of the patronizing conferences. 

Fourth: That the Bishop be requested to appoint C. W. C. Munsell 
as financial agent for the University for the coming year. 1 

When Bishop Simpson acceded to that request, it brought upon 
the scene the elder of two brothers 2 who had the peculiar genius for 
succeeding where others had failed and to them, more than to anyone 
else, Wesleyan undoubtedly owes its existence today. In addition to 
being named financial agent, Charles W. C. Munsell was also elected 
a member of the new board of trustees, as was another man who 
would play an important role in the future history of the university — 
Hiram Buck. 3 

Munsell immediately set out to raise $75,000 to pay off the debts 
that the trustees had incurred, to erect additional buildings and to 



provide for an endowment to keep the university alive once it had 
been revived. How successful he had been was indicated in a news 
story which appeared in the Daily Fantagraph the following summer. 4 
Declaring that "doubtless many of the citizens of Bloomington have 
been led to consider the Illinois Wesleyan University as defunct, to 
use a vulgar but expressive word," the paper said: "it is, perhaps, 
time that such a mistaken notion should be corrected." While ad- 
mitting that Munsell had not raised the entire sum desired, it told its 
readers that "the Trustees have made arrangements for the opening of 
the University this coming fall and are able to assure the public that 
the Institution, so far as the maintenance of the school for three years 
to come is concerned, is upon a reliable basis. Before the expiration of 
that period the Trustees confidently expect to have so far completed 
the endowment that the University will be a fixed fact for all time 
to come." 

It also revealed the fact that Wesleyan had a new president and 
that the trustees felt warranted "in assuring the public that under his 
supervision the school will be ably and successfully operated." He 
was Rev. Oliver Spencer Munsell who, after his graduation from 
Indiana Asbury University, had studied law and been admitted to the 
bar. He had chosen to enter the ministry, however, and had joined 
the Illinois Conference in 1851 when he was made principal of the 
seminary at Danville, which he had organized and conducted until 
1854. He was then transferred to the Rock River Conference and 
was teaching in the Rock River Seminary at Mount Morris when 
called to the presidency of the Bloomington institution. 

Years later another Wesleyan president, in chronicling the begin- 
ning of the Munsell regime, wrote this gem of understatement: "the 
outlook at that time was not a promising one." That is readily under- 
standable in the light of his further statement that "the assets of the 
institution consisted of ten acres of ground, beautifully situated in 
the north part of the city of Bloomington, the walls of a plain but 
substantial three-story brick building, and an encumbrance of nearly 
five thousand dollars, which was increased to $9,853 by the contract 
for the completion of the building; a few old notes, practically with- 
out value, an uncompleted scholarship campaign for the endowment 
of the President's chair, and an uncompleted general subscription 
conditioned on securing $50,000. Upon the $4,200 indebtedness the 
trustees were paying twenty-two per cent." 5 


In the face of such handicaps, Munsell signed a contract with the 
new board of trustees that was to run for three years. In it they 
agreed to furnish the grounds and buildings of the university free of 
charge and to lease him the furniture and equipment; to make such 
necessary improvements upon them as their finances permitted and 
to try to place the institution on a firm financial basis. In turn Mun- 
sell agreed to provide "such a course of instruction as the circum- 
stances of the Institution demand," to be responsible for selecting and 
hiring the faculty and to pay them out of the proceeds from tuition 
and room rents. 

Undaunted by the panic of 1857 which swept the country soon 
after he took charge, Munsell with the aid of his brother, Charles, the 
financial agent, plunged into the difficult task ahead. They advanced 
money for the completion of the building and by September had it 
ready for the 17 students who enrolled for the first quarter. Within 
a week, however, six of these 17 had left school because, as Munsell 
in later years recalled, "they said it was so lonesome. The students 
advised the faculty to leave also, but we stayed." Their faith in the 
future of the school with which they had cast their lot seemed better 
justified by the end of the year when the enrollment had increased 
to 60, even though only seven of these were in college classes. 

Undoubtedly some of these 60 students were present when "Hon. 
A. Lincoln" came to Bloomington during this school year and de- 
livered what was destined to be another "Lost Speech." 6 On the 
evening of April 6, 1858 he gave a lecture on "Discoveries and Inven- 
tions" before the Young Men's Association in Centre Hall where 
"at an early hour every seat was filled and the aisles were crowded," 
according to a writer in the Daily Pantagraph. This anonymous re- 
porter declared that "Mr. Lincoln is an able and original thinker, and 
in the department of literature fully sustains the reputation he has so 
justly earned at the bar." And, no doubt, President Munsell and the 
other reverend gentlemen on the Wesleyan faculty approved highly 
of their students hearing this lecture when they learned that it "dis- 
played great research and a careful study of the Bible, evidencing that 
the lawyer is not by any means unfamiliar with the Books of the 
Great Law Giver." 

The faculty, this fall, consisted of the president, another brother, 
Edward B. Munsell, as professor of mental and moral science; Rev. F. 
T. Tomlin, professor of natural science; Prof. Benjamin F. Snow, 


who taught Latin; and William A. Deininger, tutor in modern lan- 
guages. At the end of the year they were able to report to the trustees 
that "notwithstanding the difficulties incident to the opening of a 
new institution and the peculiar difficulties in this case growing out 
of the previous history of the school and the severe pressure of the 
financial crisis which swept over the country just at the outset of our 
labors, the faculty found themselves surrounded at an early period 
in the fall and winter with encouraging young men." The deport- 
ment of these young men had been "in general such as to merit our 
approbation . . . there has been a manifest and steady improvement 
in the moral tone and animus of the school . . . the attendance is 
gradually becoming more regular and the proportion of those enter- 
ing for an extended course of study as compared with the number of 
transient students is increasing." 

They also declared that "our course of study has been marked out 
with much care and may, we think, for completeness and scientific 
arrangement, challenge comparison with the best institutions of the 
land." They pointed out, however, that they were handicapped by 
some "awkward gaps in our chemical and philosophical apparatus" 
and suggested that "our Library and Cabinet may be greatly increased 
by a little attention on the part of our friends in gathering up such 
books, minerals, and curiosities, natural or artificial, as these friends 
of education would willingly bestow." (It is interesting to note the 
contribution of one of these friends which resulted in a "vote of 
thanks to Hon. Stephen A. Douglas for a donation of books published 
by order of congress.") 

Unfortunately the optimistic tone of the faculty's report to the 
trustees could not be matched by another report made by the execu- 
tive committee and the financial agent of the board. In the Trustees' 
Proceedings that year is revealed the story of continued financial 
distress — of their robbing Peter to pay Paul, with new mortgages 
made to secure claims against the struggling little university. "The 
account due Rev. C. W. Sears, without any blame attaching to him 
has been sued by others. It will be pressed to collection, if the parties 
now controlling said account succeed in establishing their claims to 
the benefit of said claim. The claims of A. B. Shaffer remains unad- 
justed, as we have been unable to effect a settlement with him." 

But worst of all "the financial revulsion that set in early last fall 
cast such a gloom over the country as to render the getting of sub- 





On Sunday, April 16, 1865, Illinois Wesleyan faculty and students attended this 
community "indignation meeting" in the court house square. 

On Wednesday, May 3, they saw the funeral train pause briefly at the Chicago 
and Alton railroad station before it went on to Springfield. 



scriptions in adequate amounts from parties who in ordinary times 
might be relied upon as liberal donors to the institution, impossible. 
It was determined to remain quiet until Spring should bring a revival 
of business and a renewed faith in the financial soundness of the 
country. But with the Spring came the rains, the storms and floods 
and continued to obscure the prospects of accomplishing anything of 
moment until the present gloomy harvest enshrouded in greater 
darkness the hope of bringing to a binding point any of the endow- 
ment schemes before sessions of the approaching conferences." And 
if this were not enough, "during the violent storm in the early part of 
the Summer, the roof of the College building was considerably in- 
jured, rendering repairs necessary, which were done at an expense of 
$22.75." Truly it seemed as though the forces of Nature were con- 
spiring with man-made economic forces to overwhelm the institution. 

There was, however, a brighter side to the picture for, "the 
financial condition of the country made it impossible to complete 
successfully the scholarship subscription begun by President C. W. 
Sears, which if completed would, in the end, have been a great dis- 
advantage to the institution, if not ruinous. It was therefore deemed 
advisable to start a new subscription specifically for the endowment 
fund conditioned upon the raising of cash and notes of hand to the 
amount of $25,000 within three years. The subscription was so 
drawn that if it was secured it would be available to bind the old 
conditional subscription for the payment of half the amount sub- 
scribed, and by means of which it was desired to liquidate the existing 
debt. The president, with his brothers, took the field and with untir- 
ing zeal pushed the canvass until an amount was secured which bound 
enough of the original subscriptions to liquidate the indebtedness 
upon the institution." 7 This, however, was still in the future and 
would not be accomplished without a great deal of effort and many 
misgivings as to its eventual success. 

In the meantime Munsell was continuing to build up the revived 
institution academically and to increase its prestige in the community. 
That his efforts were appreciated is indicated by various references 
to Wesleyan which appeared in the Pantograph during this period. 
In the spring of 1858 an anonymous contributor, signing himelf "An 
Educator," reviewed the efforts of the university "for the last 7 or 8 
years to maintain an existence," paid tribute to the "present active 
and enterprising faculty who have done so much within the last year 


to give character to the Institution" and declared that, "as citizens of 
Bloomington we ought to make the Illinois Wesleyan University all 
that its most ardent supporters could ever desire, not only by our 
sympathy and patronage, but by giving liberally of our substance as 
the Lord has prospered us. Then may we hope to send forth from its 
classic halls, men educated and prepared to battle with the realities of 
life, men fitted for high and noble stations, men who will honor our 
fine and magnanimous educational institutions." 8 

In July, the visiting committee from the two patronizing confer- 
ences who had attended the annual examination and exhibition of the 
students turned in a report that gave high praise to faculty and stu- 
dents. 9 Even more enthusiastic was the editor of the Fantagraph 
in recording a visit he made early in September to the campus "situ- 
ated in the center of a beautiful grove of locust trees," where "the 10 
acres of land belonging to the University can with trifling expense be 
made 'to blossom like the rose.' " He approved of the high moral 
tone of the place ("While all sectarianism will be rigidly excluded, 
the faculty will on all fitting occasions strive to inculcate principles 
not only of a pure morality but an evangelical Christianity"), de- 
clared that the "course of study arranged by President Munsell and 
his colleagues would compare favorably with that of the oldest uni- 
versities in this country," and earnestly recommended that young 
men avail themselves of its advantages. 10 

Evidently this favorable publicity had considerable effect, for the 
enrollment of the academic year of 1858-59 showed a gratifying in- 
crease. When the young men arrived to take up their work they 
found that they could live and eat in the college boarding house for 
$2.50 a week or in private homes for $3 a week, also that "a new 
building has been erected near the college edifice for special accom- 
modations of students who may desire to board themselves." Many 
of the students by doing so were able to reduce their expenses to less 
than $4 a month. A highlight of student activity that autumn was the 
organization of a new literary society. Finding the Philomathians re- 
luctant to enlarge their membership some of the new students founded 
the Belles Lettres Society with the imposing motto of "Veritas et 
Justitia Semper Vincent.'" (Truth and Justice Always Conquers.") 
During the next four years this society became an important factor in 
the growth of the new college. 11 

The editor of the Fantagraph visited the university again in De- 


cember and made it a point to pay tribute to Munsell who "has 
worked with greater zeal for the benefit of the Institution over which 
he presides than he ever worked for himself and the present condi- 
tion of Illinois Wesleyan University must be gratifying to him as 
to the many friends he has made since he took up residence in this 
city." He ended with the statement that "while we do not wish to 
disparage other institutions of learning in this city, we will say to 
young men who desire a thorough education that they cannot suit 
themselves better than by attending Illinois Wesleyan University." 12 

Again in March the editor attended the examinations at the 
close of the winter quarter and was even more fulsome in his praise of 
Wesleyan's president, "undoubtedly the right man in the right place," 
who had revived an institution that was considered dormant and who 
"has, literally, for about a year and a half been working for nothing 
and boarding himself. He has not received a penny from the univer- 
sity since he took charge of it and he has paid his travelling and 
household expenses from his private funds." 13 

That this praise for the man who had saved Wesleyan from ex- 
tinction was justified is indicated by the more optimistic tone evident 
in the reports of the faculty and administrative officers of the univer- 
sity at the close of the academic year of 1858-59. Pointing out that 
"the year has been marked by a gratifying and decided improvement 
both in the character and number of students that have been in at- 
tendance in our Halls," the faculty report stated that there was an in- 
crease in the aggregate attendance of almost fifty per cent over the 
previous year and that more and more students "who come to us 
designing to stay only for a temporary period have now determined 
to remain and participate in the advantages of a thorough education." 

The financial picture was also much brighter. The university's 
balance sheet showed resources of $11,700 as against liabilities of 
$12,584.72. The $25,000 endowment campaign was going well but 
it would require a determined effort to complete it by the time limit 
of October 15, 1859. That such an effort was made during the sum- 
mer of 1859 is indicated by the minutes of a meeting of the board 
held on October 12, when Agent C. W. C. Munsell reported that 
only $1,250 of the $25,000 remained to be raised. At an adjourned 
meeting the next morning he reported that $1,050 additional had been 
pledged leaving only $200 still to be raised. Who provided the neces- 
sary $200 is unknown but it is certain that it was forthcoming and 


for the first time in its nine unstable years, the financial support of 
Illinois Wesleyan was assured. 14 

The next academic year, 1859-60 started with the same faculty in 
charge and when it ended they could report that "the attendance for 
the year has been ninety-one, a slight advance upon last year. . . . 
With but few exceptions good order and peace have reigned in our 
halls and mutual harmony and confidence have marked the relations 
existing between the faculty and students." They also noted that 
Professor Tomlin was retiring from the chair of natural science, and 
that his place would be filled by the young educator upon whom 
Wesleyan had conferred its first master's degree — Daniel Wilkins. 
The report also called attention "to the generous propositions of Mr. 
Richard H. Holder of this city in reference to the formation of a 
cabinet of Natural History as well as to the noble contribution which 
he has already made to it." This, added to donations from the faculty 
and others, had made possible adequate equipment for instruction in 
that subject. 

In chronicling the end of the year the Fantagraph of July 4, 1860 
commented upon the fact that "Messrs. Munsell Bros, are laudably 
expending much money and labor to make their Institution what it 
ought to be and we trust their labors of love may early begin to meet 
their merited reward. They speak cheerfully of the prospects of the 
Institution and think the school will be large this fall, should the crops 
turn out favorably." 15 

In this optimistic statement there is no hint of a crop that would 
be harvested from seeds that were sown when Wesleyan trustees 
David Davis and Jesse and Kersey Fell had exerted themselves to 
bring about the nomination of Abraham Lincoln as the Republican 
candidate for President. Five months later his election would send 
South Carolina out of the Union and in April, 1861, the guns of Fort 
Sumter would be summoning some of Wesleyan's young gentlemen 
from her Halls to give their lives that "this nation of the people, by 
the people and for the people shall not perish from the earth." 

Chapter 8 

On September 19, 1860, the Daily Pantagraph reported that Wes- 
leyan had begun its fall term "with indications of a more encourag- 
ing attendance than last year" and throughout the next nine months it 
continued to publicize the university with optimistic reports on its 
progress and repeated praise for the Munsells' endeavor to put it on 
a sound scholastic and financial basis. Although their efforts to raise 
money and collect funds already pledged were greatly "embarrassed 
by the uncertainty connected with our currency in this State and the 
general troubles of the country," 1 they earned the thanks of the 
trustees at the annual meeting — President Munsell "for his great pe- 
cuniary sacrifice and his very efficient and successful efforts and inde- 
fatigable zeal for the cause and success of Illinois Wesleyan Univer- 
sity," and Agent Munsell "whose services and success have surpassed 
our expectation and, considering the financial condition of the 
country, it is almost marvelous that he should have secured any por- 
tion of the endowment fund." 

Both the uncertainty as to the financial structure of the state and 
nation and the threat of impending war were reflected in the enroll- 
ment which totaled 92, only one more than the previous year. But 
again the quality of the students' work earned the approval of those 
citizens who, in April, 1861, attended the "examinations and the first 
annual exhibition" of the Belles Lettres Society. 2 The latter, according 
to the Pantagraph, 8 consisted of an "anniversary address and a scene, 
representing a session of the United States Senate in which the orator- 
ical talent and genius of the young gentlemen of the university were 
developed with a gravity and dignity bordering on moral grandeur, 
deeply impressing the visitors with the value that should be attached 
to such an Instiution in the heart of Illinois." 

At its first war Commencement — held July 3, 1861, amid "tor- 
rents of rain" — Wesleyan conferred the bachelor's degree on two 
seniors, Peter Warner of Kappa and H. C. DeMotte of Metamora. It 
also gave an honorary Master of Arts degree to Richard H. Holder, 



Esq., (presumably for his gift of the Natural History cabinet and 
other contributions) and A.M. degrees in cursu to its first and second 
graduates, James H. Barger and W. F. Short, both of whom were 
now Methodist ministers. Within four months Barger, its first gradu- 
ate, would be dead of gunshot wounds — not on the field of battle, 
however, but in a hunting accident. 4 

When the next academic year opened in September, 1861, Rev. 
Thomas R. Taylor had joined the faculty as professor of Greek, re- 
placing Edward B. Munsell who had resigned. DeMotte, while doing 
graduate work, was occupying the chair of mathematics at a salary 
of $300 a year and serving as university librarian. The total enroll- 
ment was 96 — one graduate student, three seniors, three juniors, 12 
sophomores, 32 freshmen and 45 in the preparatory department. 

There would have been four juniors this year, had not Sophomore 
George H. Fifer joined the army soon after school began. Appointed 
orderly sergeant of Company C, 33 d. Illinois Infantry, he became a 
first lieutenant at Vicksburg and died of wounds received during the 
attack on Fort Esperanza, Texas, in the winter of 1863, thus becoming 
Wesleyan's first battle casualty. But his younger brother, who had 
also enlisted in Company C a month earlier, would serve until 1864 
before he was discharged because of the bullet that pierced his lungs 
at Jackson, Miss., the previous year. Then "Private Joe" Fifer would 
enroll in the preparatory department at Wesleyan, graduate in the 
class of 1868 and start on the career that would culminate in his being 
elected governor of Illinois. 5 

Thus far the impact of war on the university had been scarcely 
noticeable and, when the regular examination and exhibition were 
held at the end of the second quarter, the main feature was a debate 
which, instead of reflecting the mighty struggle that was convulsing 
the nation, was concerned with the rather innocuous subject of "Re- 
solved: that curiosity is a more powerful incentive to human action 
than necessity." 6 However, the restlessness of youth in wartime is 
reflected in President Munsell's report that "two were dismissed, one 
for bad conduct, the other for refusing to attend an examination and 
one expelled for bad conduct," although he did not state the differ- 
ence between dismissal and expulsion. 

Among the President's other troubles during the year was a vio- 
lent windstorm that unroofed the college building, necessitating re- 
pairs costing nearly $1,000, and an academic storm under that same 


roof a short time before it was demolished. "When the roof blew off, 
people thought it a misfortune, but I thought it a blessing," Munsell 
declared afterwards. "For the citizens of Bloomington came to our 
help and by their aid we got a new and better roof." As for the 
academic storm, it was precipitated when "complaints were made by 
the students in Professor Snow's Department, alleging that he inju- 
diciously combined classes by which some were greatly retarded and 
others prematurely hurried forward — that the members of the Fac- 
ulty had sought to induce the Professor to change his arrangement 
of classes, without success, and that some eight of the more advanced 
scholars in the Classical Department had announced their intention of 
quitting the institution unless there was a change in Prof. Snow's 
Dept." Although Snow vehemently denied these charges in a letter 
to the trustees, he was requested to resign and, when he refused to do 
this, he was dismissed from the faculty. 

During the night of May 24, 1862 the ringing of the college bell 
heralded the fact that the war had come closer to the campus. 
DeMotte, hurrying to the home of President Munsell, showed him 
a telegram from Governor Yates of Illinois asking for 200 volunteers 
to report in Springfield by 9 o'clock the next morning. More than 
three-fourths of the Wesleyan students immediately responded to 
the call and "with them gone the University seemed more lonely 
than ever." 7 Upon the recruits' arrival in the state capital they were 
assigned to the 68th Illinois Infantry which was mustered into service 
for three months and sent to Camp Butler near Springfield to guard 
Confederate prisoners. Later they served in camps and forts around 
Washington and at Alexandria, Va., where First Lieutenant DeMotte 
of Company G became assistant provost marshal. In July another 
three months' regiment, the 70th Illinois Infantry, was mustered in 
for guard duty at Camp Butler and Alton and for a trip to Vicks- 
burg to exchange prisoners. Colonel of this regiment was Owen T. 
Reeves, Wesleyan trustee. 8 

At the 1862 Commencement three students received their degrees: 
Henry W. Boyd of Bloomington, H. N. Howell of Twin Grove and 
William C. Adams of Center Point, Ind., who was in camp with the 
68th at the time and received his diploma there. Within a week after 
his graduation Boyd enlisted as a hospital steward in the 94th Illinois 
Infantry, the "McLean County Regiment," and eventually rose to 
the rank of brigade surgeon. 9 


When the fall term of the academic year of 1862-63 opened most 
of the students who had enlisted in the 68th were back on the campus 
to resume their studies in mathematics under DeMotte, in natural 
science under Wilkins, and in Greek and Latin under a new teacher, 
Rev. C. C. Knowlton, who had succeeded Taylor. 10 The total enroll- 
ment was slightly less than the previous year but, despite the distrac- 
tions caused by "the troubles of our country and the fact that so many 
of our young men are in the armies of the Union," faculty and stu- 
dents continued to do their work in a manner to merit the approba- 
tion of the community, according to its spokesman, the editor of the 
Daily Fantagraph. 

In carrying on their work both the faculty and students were 
greatly aided by additions to the museum of "expensive and valuable 
collections of specimens in the fields of ornithology, geology, bot- 
any, entomology, mineralogy and one of marine shells from the 
Smithsonian Institution," as well as a complete set of their valuable 
publications — "the first fruits of President Munsell's last visit to 
Washington." Other improvements consisted of "a good bell weigh- 
ing 750 pounds" to summon students to class, and a "good sidewalk 
connecting the College grounds with the city . . . constructed by the 
faculty and students chiefly at their own expense." Also there was a 
"beautiful hall that is a credit and ornament to the University" which 
was supplied and furnished by the Belles Lettres Society at a cost of 
about $250. 

The elegance of their new quarters, however, did not prevent 
eight members of that society from withdrawing from it because 
they "believed that its crowded membership and entire lack of 
healthy emulation necessitated the formation of a similar but separate 
society." 11 On May 22, 1863, this group organized the Munsellian 
Society, named for the university president. That spring also the 
faculty started a movement to hold a meeting of all the regular and 
honorary alumni during commencement week and the result was a 
gathering on July 1, at which Rev. William F. Short, "the oldest 
living graduate" delivered an address, after which the Alumni So- 
ciety of Illinois Wesleyan University was organized. 12 

At this Commencement the new alumni association gained four 
members when H. M. Ayers of Morton, J. V. W. Baumann and 
W. T. Collins, both of Pekin, were granted their B.S. degrees, and 
J. S. Millikin of Phillipstown was given an A.B. 13 Graduate Collins, 


Prof. Jabez R. Jaques Prof. John Wesley Powell 

President Oliver S. Munsell 
Prof. William R. Goodwin Prof. Harvey C. DeMotte 

Leonidas H. Kerrick 


aware of the conflict which was moving to its bloody climax at 
Gettysburg, chose as the subject of his oration "A Vindication of 
War," an "eloquent and logical address," in which he pointed out 
that "war was a necessity and was one of the means for the purifica- 
tion and elevation of the human race by sweeping away old abuses 
and evil institutions, the basis of his deduction being taken from 
ancient and modern history." 14 

Honorary D.D. degrees were conferred upon Rev. Philander 
Smith, one of the bishops of the Methodist Church in Canada, and 
Rev. Jonathan Stamper of the Illinois Conference, because the trustees 
believed "the time has now fully come in the progress of the Institu- 
tion when the proper use of our corporate powers will strengthen us 
both at home and abroad." An honorary M.A. ("Pro Causa") was 
also awarded to Maj. John Wesley Powell, "now in the armies of the 
Union at Vicksburg." Thus a name, which was to add to the luster 
of Wesleyan's fame, first appeared in its annals. 15 

At the annual meeting of the trustees held at this time they author- 
ized the addition of a department of vocal music to the collegiate 
department and the organization of a Model School for Boys. So 
when the academic year of 1863-64 began, Wesley an had on its fac- 
ulty its first woman teacher — Miss Sarah J. Kern. She was placed in 
charge of the Model School which started off by enrolling 42 little 
boys who attended classes in a wooden school house that had been 
built on the east side of the campus. 16 Her colleagues were DeMotte, 
who in addition to teaching mathematics, became instructor in the 
new department of vocal music, Wilkins, Knowlton, and two tutors, 
Rev. I. Schneider and William E. Banta. 

The enrollment this year showed a gratifying increase of 50 per 
cent over the previous year. Sixty-eight collegians and 71 prepara- 
tory students made a total of 139, but it seemed highly probable that 
before long some of this number would be called upon to fill the de- 
pleted ranks of the Union army. In the spring a volunteer contributor 
to the Daily Pant a graph reported that "the sunshine of college life 
has been overcast" by the death of Freshman Elmore M. McKibbin 
at Camp Yates on March 19. "The brother of the deceased, fre- 
quently a frequenter of our hall has been in the war from its beginning 
and in 30 engagements has fought his way upward to honorable dis- 
tinction and is now a captain of volunteers. He whose death we 
mourn, had he been spared, might have done likewise." 17 


Three months later an item contributed by Barger stated that 
"the Institution has shown its full share of patriotism in sending 18 of 
her sons into the army during the past year." 18 Other evidences of 
the impact of war upon Wesleyan and the community this year are 
chronicled in the following announcements which appeared at various 
times during the year in the Pantagraph: 

The Young men of Illinois Wesleyan University will give a public 
exhibition in Phoenix Hall next Thursday evening of a decidedly unique 
character. It will be a representation of the present National House of 
Representatives, in which will be included a discussion upon a series of 
resolutions concerning the French occupation of Mexico, the President's 
Emancipation and Amnesty Proclamations and our relations toward 
England. This will be an interesting entertainment conducted by young 
gentlemen of ability and the friends of the school will be glad to witness 
it. 19 

Let all dancers of the city remember the Grand Ball at Phoenix Hall 
on Wednesday complimentary to Companies C of the 20th Illinois and 
C of the Fifth Cavalry. All surplus above expenses will be used to pur- 
chase sanitary supplies for the companies. 20 

Rev. Sidney H. Morse of the Unitarian Society, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
will deliver a patriotic lecture tomorrow at 8:00 p.m. Subject of the 
lecture "Out of the Wilderness, or The Lesson for Today." 21 

Everybody, and the rest of mankind, who love their country and dare 
"toss the dust" in Johnny Bull's eyes should attend the ladies' covenant 
meeting this P.M. in Phoenix Hall. The ladies of our sister cities have 
acted in this matter, and we know that Bloomington ladies are without 
rival for patriotism. Ladies, if you can't serve your country "clerking," 
you can do so "purchasing." 22 

Phoenix Hall — Mr. Stone delivered an interesting address in this hall 
on "Vicksburg Within the Rebel Lines." He is an orator of more than 
ordinary ability. 23 

On June 29, 1864 Phoenix Hall was "crowded with the best 
audience ever seen in Bloomington' ' to greet with "rounds of ap- 


plause" a returned war hero who would soon become governor of 
Illinois. He was Gen. Richard J. Oglesby who was there to deliver 
the annual address before the Belles Lettres Society. At this meeting 
President Munsell told of the prosperity of the university and revealed 
the cheering news that "the debt of the board has been removed, not- 
withstanding the financial embarrassment of the times." 24 The next 
day an equally large crowd gathered in the Methodist church for the 
annual Commencement exercises, and saw degrees awarded to five 
graduates. 25 DeMotte was given the A.M. Degree ("Pro Merito") 
and the same degree ("Pro Causa Honoris") was awarded Dr. George 
Vasey of Richview, 111., who had been a generous contributor to the 
collections in the museum, and to Rev. G. W. T. Wright, a member 
of the Minnesota Conference. 

At this Commencement the title of James T. Hoblit's salutatory 
oration was "The Philosophy of Peace" although at that time the 
shambles of Cold Harbor and the desperate fighting of Grant and 
Lee's men in the Wilderness made it seem as though peace were a long 
way distant. But despite this dismal prospect for the continued exist- 
ence of the Union, which became little brighter during the summer 
of 1864, Wesley an started its fourth war year with the largest attend- 
ance in its history thus far. A drop in the enrollment in the college 
department was more than offset by an increase of nearly 100 per cent 
in the preparatory department, so that the total was 179 students, not 
including the 51 little boys in the Model School. 

That President Lincoln's draft law already had taken its toll from 
Wesleyan's classrooms — or would soon do so — is indicated by the 
action of the faculty in voting that "Drafted Students will be placed 
upon the same footing in regard to the return of tuition with those 
absent on account of personal sickness." 26 By now, however, the war 
clouds were beginning to lift. Thomas, "the Rock of Chickamaugua," 
had smashed Hood's army at Nashville, Sherman had started his 
march through Georgia and Grant had begun to tighten his strangle- 
hold on the Confederate capital. Looking forward to the end of the 
war, the Wesley an faculty on January 20, 1865 called a meeting of 
the executive committee "to consider the matter of raising a fund to 
provide for the free tuition of disabled young soldiers and the sons of 
needy or deceased soldiers." 

The minutes of the April 3 faculty meeting include this laconic 
but significant entry: "Half holiday granted. Richmond captured." 


It was the beginning of the end. But, although the spring of 1865 
brought peace to the war-weary land, it also witnessed one of the 
greatest tragedies in the nation's history — the assassination of Presi- 
dent Lincoln on April 14. On the following Sunday most of the Wes- 
leyan students attended the "indignation meeting" in the court house 
square to hear Rev. H. J. Eddy read resolutions expressing the horror 
of the community over John Wilkes Booth's dark deed and to listen 
to the eloquent Rev. F. M. Ellis of the Baptist church voice the sor- 
row that the death of the Great Emancipator had brought to all of 
the 6,000 gathered there — all except one. 

He was a certain John Hinzey (or Kinzey) who, so ran the ru- 
mor, had boldly declared he was glad "Old Abe" had been murdered 
and it is quite likely that, among the yelling mob that pursued him 
through the streets, were some of the "young gentlemen" from Illinois 
Wesleyan. After he had found refuge in the Ashley house, cooler 
heads prevailed and the threatened lynching was averted by his abject 
apology and his promise to leave town in four hours. 27 

At five o'clock on the morning of May 3 many of these same 
students were among the 5,000 persons who gathered at the Chicago 
and Alton depot on West Chestnut street to see the black-draped 
funeral train pass under a large arch bearing the inscription, "Go To 
Thy Rest," and halt for a few moments before continuing its sad 
journey to the state capital. There were no classes at Wesleyan the 
next day for the faculty had already voted to "adjourn college on 
Thursday for Pres. Lincoln's funeral at Springfield." 28 

A few weeks later the faculty recommended that an honorary 
D.D. be conferred upon a man destined for future martyrdom — 
Rev. Eleazer Thomas who was completing a decade of service as 
editor of the California Christian Advocate and who, eight years 
hence, would fall a victim to Modoc Indian treachery in the Oregon 
Lava Beds. 29 But the trustees, passing over this recommendation, 
awarded only one honorary degree that year: an LL.D. to David 
Davis, a former member of the board, now a justice of the United 
States Supreme Court to which he had been appointed by his good 
friend, Abraham Lincoln. 

There were only four graduates this year and at the Commence- 
ment exercises one of them made a "neat little speech" in presenting a 
silver-headed cane to President Munsell and also "called out" Profes- 
sor Knowlton who was leaving the faculty to become an itinerant 


preacher again. 30 To succeed him as professor of languages the trust- 
ees elected Jabez R. Jaques, an Englishman, who had been a professor 
in the Collegiate Institute at Rochester, N. Y., and who would in the 
future become president of an Illinois institution which Wesleyan 
would later absorb — Hedding College at Abingdon. Rev. W. H. 
Daniels, pastor of the Congregational church, was chosen professor, 
pro tempore, of belles lettres and Martin A. Lapham, named tutor in 
ancient languages, was to relieve DeMotte of his duties as librarian. 
Professor DeMotte had deprived the Model School of its head by 
marrying Miss Kern and Joseph Pancake, an 1864 graduate, was 
chosen her successor. 

Wilkins had declined reappointment as professor of natural sci- 
ences and when the 1865-66 year opened his place was filled by Maj. 
John Wesley Powell, home from the war, but minus his right arm 
which he had left on the bloody field of Shiloh. Upon his return to 
civilian life Powell had been told that he could have the nomination 
of clerk of DuPage county. But when President Munsell offered him 
the position on the faculty of the "struggling Methodist college at 
Bloomington . . . there was no hesitation on his part. He declined the 
political honor and its emoluments and accepted the professorship." 31 

Home from the war, too, had come several young men to resume 
their interrupted schooling and win Wesleyan degrees: Orlando W. 
Aldrich, Melchior Auer, Richard Watson Barger, Marion Victor 
Crumbaker, and two hard-riding troopers, John Wesley Denning of 
the Second Illinois Cavalry and Benton Valentine Denning of the 
Fourth. Two others were destined for future fame when they 
went adventuring in the West with Major Powell — Capt. Francis 
Marion Bishop, still bearing scars from the bullet that had plowed 
through his chest during the desperate assault on the heights at Fred- 
ericksburg, and Lewis Walter Keplinger, who had fought with Grant 
at Fort Donelson and Vicksburg, marched with Sherman to the sea 
and ended four years service at the "Grand Review" in Washington. 32 

These, with the other returned soldiers, helped swell the Wes- 
leyan enrollment to a new high of 198 students, 57 in the collegiate 
and 141 in the preparatory department. They also multiplied the 
problems of President Munsell and his colleagues for, whether or not 
the relief of these veterans at being freed from army discipline was 
responsible, the fact remains that the minutes of faculty meetings 
this year contain an unusual number of such entries as "punishment 


for willful violation of college rules" and "required to acknowledge 
by written apology obstinate disobedience and promise obedience in 
the future." 33 Despite such incidents, however, a new spirit seems to 
have been infused into the school by the newcomers to the faculty 
and before long the Daily Pantagraph was telling its readers that "the 
two new instructors, Professor Jaques and Professor Powell, are 
spoken of so highly that it would give us pleasure to introduce them 
to the public." 34 

The one-armed major was proving to be a veritable dynamo. Be- 
sides teaching courses in botany, chemistry, comparative anatomy and 
physiology, systematic zoology, natural philosophy, the logic of nat- 
ural science, geology and mineralogy and giving lectures on cellular 
histology, the vertebrate skeleton and insects injurious to vegetation, 35 
he also began enlarging and improving the museum by adding to it 
many of the specimens he had collected. Believing as he did that the 
study of science should be more than a textbook and classroom 
course, he led his students into the field, there to study the phenomena 
of nature at first hand and to collect materials for the museum and 
the science laboratories. 

Toward the end of the year, with the aid of Jaques, Powell de- 
signed a seal for the university 36 and the word "scientia" in its motto 
"Scientia et Sapienta" reminds the Wesleyan of today that "its first 
scientific impulse was originally given and often quickened and guided 
by so distinguished an explorer, scholar, teacher and gentleman." 37 
He must have done much else besides, for when the trustees held their 
annual meeting in June, 1866 he was singled out for special commen- 
dation and given "the thanks of the board for his labors in improving 
the college campus and for his contributions to the Museum." 38 

The 1866 Commencement was a brilliant affair, symbolizing as it 
did the past four years of war and the years of peace and progress 
ahead. There was a tree-planting ("a large evergreen brought from 
the nursery of Mr. Phoenix") in front of the university hall as the 
first of a group of living memorials to the Wesleyan students who had 
lost their lives in the conflict. There were speeches by Graduates 
Edward W. Hamilton and Leonidas H. Kerrick at this ceremony, 
after which "three cheers were given" for a Bloomington war hero, 
Maj. Gen. Giles A. Smith who "by special request had consented to 
act as marshal in leading a parade and march to Royce Hall" and who 
was assisted by Captain Bishop in forming the procession. Led by a 


cornet band, it consisted of "visiting and resident ministers, faculty of 
the University, the college classes (in order), the scholars of the 
Model School, and citizens. Besides these, over twenty carriages ac- 
companied the marchers, making in all a procession the length of five 
blocks." 39 

Chapter 9 

The year 1866 was the 100th anniversary of the founding of 
Methodism in America and to celebrate this event the church raised a 
centennial fund to be used for church extension but more specifically 
to pay off the debts of the churches and the church-sponsored schools. 
"It was agreed in the Illinois Conference that 70 per cent of this be 
devoted to the three conferences to pay their debts, the residue to go 
equally to their endowment and to church extension. . . . The hope 
was that an endowment of $100,000 might be raised for Illinois Wes- 
leyan and $50,000 for the Female College." * 

In June Agent Petner, assistant to C. W. C. Munsell, was able to 
report "remarkable progress in getting funds for the University. He 
said that by October 1 he hoped to report $100,000 cash for the col- 
lege endowment funds, that the students themselves had raised $2,500 
towards endowing a professorship and that it was expected to increase 
this to $10,000 by the time all who ever attended had made contribu- 
tions." 2 Meanwhile Agent Munsell had been using the centennial for 
"awakening an interest in an offering to the University. It was 
under the inspiration of these offerings and the prosperous condition 
of the school so far as attendance was concerned that the main build- 
ing was projected, toward the completion of which Mr. Munsell con- 
tributed a large share." 3 

The annual catalogue issued that summer mentioned the expected 
addition to the endowment from this centennial fund and also stated 
that the family of the late Isaac Funk had provided for a professorship 
of agriculture, that friends of the school in various Illinois cities were 
about to establish two chairs to be named in honor of "the late Revs. 
Jonathan Stamper and Isaac C. Kimber" and that liberal donations 
by J. E. McClun, John Magoun, C. W. Holder and C. W. C. Munsell 
"all of the 'Home Bank,' Bloomington" had endowed another chair 
yet to be named. 

So when the fall term opened on September 11, DeMotte was 
"Stamper Professor of Mathematics, pure and mixed," Jaques was 


The Young Explorers in Camp in Wyoming 
(See "Notes on the Pictures" page 249) 

Maj. John Wesley Powell in the Field. 



"Kimber Professor of Ancient Languages and Instructor in German," 
Rev. William R. Goodwin was professor of English language and 
literature and principal of the preparatory department and Leonidas 
H. Kerrick, the recent graduate, was in charge of the Model School. 
A short time later he was appointed librarian of the university and was 
"invited to a place in the Faculty," 4 the first time that this recogni- 
ion had been given to the head of the Model School. 

With the energetic Major Powell setting the pace, President 
Munsell and his colleagues started on a year of great activity. Named 
to a committee to organize the faculty were DeMotte and Powell and 
a short time later the major and Goodwin were instructed to propose 
a plan for adding a commercial department to the university. One of 
the chief concerns of the faculty was adequate space for the steadily 
increasing enrollment and early in January they recommended the 
appointment of an additional agent to solicit funds for a new build- 
ing, also a committee to raise money to pay his salary. 

At this time there seems to have been some talk of erecting this 
building "for the joint use of the college and the M.E. Church on the 
lot now owned by the church on Main Street," 5 or of relocating the 
university at some point "within a radius of 2 1 / 2 miles from the public 
square in the city of Bloomington." 6 But when opposition to moving 
the school developed, nothing came of either proposal. In March 
Powell presented a plan for the new edifice to his colleagues who 
recommended it to the trustees. Presumably this plan was incorpo- 
rated in the structure that rose on the campus three years later, so 
that "Old Main," which housed Illinois Wesley an for the next 75 
years and a part of which survives as Duration Hall, is, in a sense, 
another monument to John Wesley Powell. 

Along with such important matters as urging upon the trustees 
"to take into consideration at the earliest practicable moment the 
question of erecting a new building," making changes in the curricula 
of the college and preparatory departments 7 and deciding what their 
policy would be when "an American citizen of African descent ap- 
plied for admission to our Institution," 8 the faculty was also called 
upon to handle a multitude of minor details connected with the opera- 
tion of the university. Today it may seem amusing that Munsell 
should have to take time from his presidential duties to act as "a com- 
mittee to procure a door and lock for the coalhouse," 9 that "the Sec- 
retary was instructed to report a leak in the roof of the University 


Building and the broken grates in the furnace to the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Board of Trustees" 10 and that "Mr. Jackson (the jani- 
tor) was instructed to buy two cups." n But such were some of the 
momentous affairs with which Wesleyan professors had to concern 
themselves 80 years ago. 

There were problems, too, created by the roughhousing proclivi- 
ties of some of the "young gentlemen" or the mischievious little boys 
in the Model School. Therefore "Mr. Kerrick was instructed to 
divide the expense of repairing a broken desk among the parties en- 
gaged in breaking it" 12 and "the price of a broken light of glass was 
fixed at 50 cents." 13 Action was also necessary in the case of "Mr. 
Free, residing six miles from the University," who evidently found it 
difficult to wade through the snow-filled country roads that cold 
winter of 1866-67, so he was "excused from morning prayers." 14 In 
October, the "request of the students for a Sociable on Tuesday eve- 
ning next" was granted, but when they asked for another one in 
March, permission was given "provided" (and Secretary Jaques un- 
derlined the word in his minutes) "their plan of exercises met with 
the approval of the faculty." 15 

What would not have met with their approval (if they had known 
about it) wps the fact that "six enthusiastic and zealous young men" 16 
had banded themselves together and on December 4, 1866 received a 
charter for Alpha Deuteron chapter of Phi Gamma Delta, the first 
Greek letter fraternity on the Wesleyan campus. These pioneer fra- 
ternity men were Charles Atherton, '69; Melchior Auer, Jr., '70; 
Andrew J. Banta, '67; Francis Marion Bishop, '66; Stamper Q. David- 
son, '68; and Louis C. Wagoner, '69, who were "forced to keep their 
activities in the dark. Meetings were held in private homes, offices of 
alumni or any place where secrecy was possible. Minutes of the meet- 
ings were not kept and about the only endeavor seemed to be conceal- 
ing their existence." 17 In fact, the fraternity existed sub rosa for two 
years before receiving formal recognition from the college authori- 
ties. 18 

Undoubtedly, however, the faculty did approve of their students 
taking advantage of a cultural opportunity offered that year by the 
Ladies' Library Association of Bloomington, whose members included 
Mesdames David Davis, William H. Allin and J. E. McClun. This was 
a course of lectures, the first ever given by any organization in Mc- 
Lean county. During the next two years to Schroder's Opera House 


or Royce Hall or Phoenix Hall went townspeople, faculty and stu- 
dents to see and hear such notables as Wendell Phillips and Frederick 
Douglass, the Abolitionists; Carl Schurz, Civil War general and states- 
man; J. S. C. Abbott, historian; and Ralph Waldo Emerson, essayist 
and philosopher. 19 

They also went to listen to John B. Gough in "one of his inimit- 
able temperance lectures," to hear George Alfred Townsend 
("Gath," the famed Civil War newspaper correspondent) describe 
"The Lands North of Us" and to be inspired by the messages of 
Theodore Tilton, the crusading editor of the Independent, and Rev. 
W. H. Milburn, the "Blind Chaplain of Congress." More enjoyable 
for the students, perhaps, than any of these learned discourses were 
the drolleries of "Petroleum V. Nasby" (David R. Locke) in his 
lecture on "Cursed Be Canaan," or the spine-tingling account of Paul 
Du Chaillu's adventures with gorillas in Equatorial Africa ("illus- 
trated by a cabinet of specimens collected by Mr. Du Chaillu and by 
charts and drawings"), or the lecture on "Perpetual Motion" by their 
own Professor Powell. 20 

Soon after the first of the New Year (1867) Wesley an students 
began hearing disturbing rumors that they were about to lose this 
popular teacher. During the two years Powell had been building up 
the courses in natural sciences, he had also been active in the affairs 
of the Illinois Natural History society. With the aid of C. W. Holder, 
president of the Wesleyan trustees, and Dr. C. R. Parke, he had 
formed a branch of the society in Bloomington to "act as an auxiliary 
to the state society" 21 and started a collection to which local members 
contributed specimens. Because no space was available in Wesleyan's 
cramped quarters, this collection was housed on the third floor of the 
main building of her sister institution, Illinois State Normal Univer- 

At the annual meeting of the state society in Bloomington in June, 
1866, Powell had proposed that a committee be appointed to confer 
with the State Board of Education about getting a legislative appro- 
priation for this museum. This led to a request from President Richard 
Edwards of Normal that the Wesleyan professor make a special trip 
to Springfield to get the money. Powell had convinced the legislators 
of the value of the society's work, which included a plan for distribut- 
ing specimens from its collections among the schools of the state, and 
in February, 1867, they unanimously passed a bill incorporating all 


of his requests. One item provided for an annual salary of $1,500 for 
a curator, to be appointed by the State Board of Education with the 
approval of the society, and an additional $1,000 for "the necessary 
expenses of improving and enhancing the value of the museum." 22 
Soon afterwards, the officers of the society offered Powell the cura- 
torship which he accepted. 

At the close of the winter quarter on March 23 the students at 
Wesley an staged a mock graduation ceremony at which J. W. Den- 
ning "caned" Professor Goodwin. "Joseph C. Hartzell then caned 
Professor Powell and he acknowledged his handsome present in a 
most excellent manner" said the Fantagraph which also stated that 
"we are sorry to learn the Institution is about to lose Prof. Powell. 
Be this as it may, he will always bear with him the respect and best 
wishes of the students of the University." 23 

Years later James B. Taylor, one of Powell's students who was 
destined to succeed him in the chair of natural history at Wesleyan, 
recalled how "textbooks went to the winds with Major Powell. 
Ordinary views of physics and geology seemed insignificant under 
his broad generalization. He made us feel that we had conquered the 
commonplace, broken our way through the accepted and come into 
the heritage of free thinkers — and there was no sham in it anywhere. 
What intrepidity, indeed, the Major had! The same spirit, which 
took him along the walls of the Colorado Canon and sent him calmly 
into its twilight and over its falls, made him a leader in thinking and 
inspired his students. How many have been nerved to brave things 
in the mental world and in life by the Powell that came into them in 
those days, who can tell?" 24 

On March 26 Powell appeared before a special meeting of the 
State Board of Education in Normal for a formal acceptance of the 
curatorship of the museum. He announced that he had already plan- 
ned an expedition into the West to explore "regions not hitherto can- 
vassed fully by naturalists but which were known to be rich in mater- 
ials and specimens, especially in the departments of geology, paleon- 
tology, etc." 25 He asked the board for $500 of the museum's funds 
for this purpose and his request was granted. Bradford S. Potter, the 
Isaac Funk professor of agriculture, became pro tern professor of 
natural sciences and curator of the museum when Powell was granted 
a year's leave of absence by the trustees. 

When Wesley an's spring term opened on April 2, Powell's work 


was divided among his colleagues 26 and on May 10 Kerrick was re- 
leased from his duties as principal of the Model School to become 
mineralogist with the expedition. Mrs. DeMotte was called upon to 
take over his work and she served until June when the trustees voted 
to discontinue the school as a separate entity and merged it with the 
preparatory department. Presumably Goodwin, as the latter's prin- 
cipal, was not too pleased at being made responsible for nearly a hun- 
dred lively youngsters in addition to his other duties, for he resigned 
soon afterwards. The trustees also approved admission of Negroes to 
the university, 27 voted bachelor's degrees to seven young men, 28 
awarded two honorary master's degrees to preachers in the Indiana 
and Kentucky Conferences and conferred an honorary D.D. upon 
Rev. William Crook, editor of the Irish Evangelist in Ireland. 

When the students returned to Bloomington in the fall of 1867 
they found that the university was now "directly on the line of the 
new Bloomington & Normal Street Rail Road, thus rendering it easy 
of access from every part of the two cities" and its horse-drawn cars 
were "running regularly." 29 They also found that plans were being 
pushed forward to erect the new building and that DeMotte had been 
relieved of part of his duties on the faculty to serve as special agent 
for raising funds to pay for the structure. 

At the annual meeting of the trustees the following June (1868) 
DeMotte was able to report subscriptions amounting to $28,000 and 
$27,000 in pledges. "Two very neat and attractive drawings were 
presented, one by O. S. Kenny of Chicago, the other by Richter of 
Bloomington. Prof. Jaques made some earnest remarks urging the 
necessity of commencing on the new building immediately." There- 
upon the trustees authorized its building committee to make out 
"plans and specifications . . . and so soon as the subscription reached 
the amount of $30,000 that they contract for the laying of the foun- 
dation so that so much of the building may be completed the present 
season." 30 

The graduating class in 1868 again numbered seven, including 
four veterans of the Civil War. One of the four would become a 
governor of Illinois and two, after migrating to the new state of 
Kansas, would become prominent in politics there. Within the next 
two months one of the graduates was to win renown as a member 
of a Powell exploring expedition in the West and in future years one 
of his classmates would achieve greater distinction as the first Wes- 


leyan graduate to become a bishop in the Methodist church. 31 

When the school year of 1868-69 opened, the 219 students in the 
classes of President Munsell and Professors DeMotte, Jaques, Potter 
and S. S. Hamill, the new teacher of elocution, could look out of their 
classrooms and see a crew of masons busy at their work in a huge 
excavation just south of the college hall. A contract had been made 
with Hayes and Evans of Bloomington for the basement walls of the 
new building and the trustees, undaunted by the fact that the first 
estimate of $65,000 to $70,000 had now been increased to "the real 
cost of $85,000 complete in all parts," were renewing their efforts to 
raise enough money to guarantee its successful completion. 

The annual catalogue, issued in December this year, stated that 
"a second University Building — a model of taste and beauty — of im- 
posing dimensions, (70 by 140 feet, five stories in height), is soon to 
be erected. The foundations have been already laid, and the work will 
be energetically prosecuted until the building is completed and occu- 
pied. It is confidently believed that this will be second to no similar 
building in the State, in architectural beauty and internal conven- 
ience." At the Commencement exercises in June, 1869, at which 12 
seniors, 32 the largest graduating class thus far, received their degrees, 
most of the speeches were devoted to the new structure. President 
Munsell gave the students the assurance that "the building should cer- 
tainly go on to completion, and that even if it went slowly, it must 
go on and be out of debt." 33 Another year, however, was to pass be- 
fore he would be able to translate that promise into a reality by laying 
the cornerstone of the new building. 

June, 1869, was a red-letter month in Wesleyan history for a 
reason that is probably more important to her students than to her 
trustees or faculty. Although the young men of Wesleyan during 
its first two decades "promoted and engaged in games and contests 
which furnished them with plenty of fun and recreation," there was 
as yet no organized athletic program. "The playgrounds were the 
campus; the commons across the street (where the car barns once 
stood) ; the skating rink park, located in the north end of the block 
now occupied by Kemp Hall, and the ball grounds known as the 
Depot diamond, located on West Chestnut street near the Chicago 
and Alton Railroad station. The games played were baseball, tennis, 
quoits, and such running games as three-legged races, shuttle or potato 
races, hopping races, etc." 34 


On June 19 the Daily Pantagraph printed a news item which be- 
gan with the statement that "a match game of Base Ball was played 
yesterday between the Wesleyan club, of the Wesleyan university, 
and the Normal club, of the Normal school." It then gave the names 
of the eight men on each team, the positions they played (there was 
no shortstop) and the number of "Outs" and "Runs" made by each 
player. It was a five-inning contest "in which the Wesley ans were 
victorious" and the score was 22 to 10. 35 

Thus was inaugurated intercollegiate athletics at Illinois Wesleyan 
and thus began a traditional rivalry which for 80 years has rejoiced 
the hearts of thousands of undergraduates in Bloomington and its 
sister city, the measure of their joy depending upon whether "the 
Wesleyans" (the Titans) or "the Normals" (the Redbirds) win on 
the diamond, the gridiron or the hardwood floor. 

Chapter 10 


Late in April, 1867, Major Powell bade farewell to his faculty 
colleagues and students and went to Washington to get assistance 
from the War Department for his Western expedition. In a letter to 
his Civil War friend, U. S. Grant, now General of the Army, he told 
of his plan to make a geological survey of the Bad Lands in South- 
western Dakota and then explore the mountain parks of the Rockies. 
He asked for a military escort from Fort Laramie to the Bad Lands 
and return, requested that this escort aid in transporting the scientific 
collections and that the party be permitted to draw rations from army 
posts in the regions they would visit. 1 

Grant immediately issued the necessary orders and, by securing 
this aid from the War Department, Powell saved his expedition nearly 
a thousand dollars. He also applied for and obtained passes over sev- 
eral railroads for his party and from the express companies free 
transportation of shipments of specimens, thereby saving another 
thousand dollars or more. But even with this help the major still had 
to find ways of financing the expedition. From the trustees of the 
newly-founded Illinois Industrial University (now the University 
of Illinois) he obtained an appropriation of $500 by promising to 
send the university duplicates of all natural history specimens the 
party collected, as well as duplicates from his own cabinet. From 
the Chicago Academy of Science he got $100, besides tools and other 
materials. Added to the $500, appropriated by the State Board of 
Education from the Natural History Museum funds, this made a total 
of $1,100. It was about half the amount necessary for the expedition 
so Powell supplied the balance from his own funds. 

About the middle of May four Wesleyanites reported to their 
geology professor at Council Bluffs, Iowa, where the expedition was 
being organized and outfitted for the journey across the Plains. Be- 
sides Leonidas H. Kerrick, recently released from his duties as the 
principal of the Model School to serve as minerologist, there were 
Joseph C. Hartzell, a senior, and Francis Marion Bishop, a sophomore, 
































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as zoologists, and Martin Titterington, a junior, as herpetologist. 
Other members of the party were the professor's wife, Emma Dean 
Powell (assistant geologist), his brother-in-law, Almon H. Thomp- 
son, superintendent of schools in Bloomington, (entomologist); T. J. 
Burrill, a graduate of Normal who was then principal of the Urbana 
public schools (botanist); S. H. Huse of Evanston (assistant orni- 
thologist) ; and Rev. William E. Spencer (entomologist), Edward W. 
Spencer (ornithologist) and George D. Platte (artist), all of Rock 
Island. 2 

During Powell's two years at Illinois Wesleyan, he had com- 
bined out-of-doors instruction with classroom and laboratory work. 
But this journey into the West was more than an extension of that 
idea. For several reasons it was an epochal event. It was the first 
expedition of its kind in the history of higher education in the United 
States and it marked the beginning of student field trips to distant 
places and on a large scale. 3 Not only was it the beginning of Powell's 
own career as one of the best known explorers of his time but, more 
significantly, it would lead eventually to his part in establishing the 
United States Geological Survey and his becoming the founder of 
the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Before the party started from Council Bluffs a warning from 
General Sherman that there was danger of encountering hostile 
Indians in the Dakota country caused the major to change his plan to 
visit the Bad Lands. Instead, the party followed the Platte river 
across Nebraska and headed for Denver, where they arrived on 
July 1. It had been a tedious trip on horseback and in mule-drawn 
wagons but it was also a profitable journey, since the major's youthful 
scientists had collected many specimens along the way. From Denver 
they went to the canyon of the South Platte, still adding to their 
collections, and then crossed a range of the Rockies into a mountain 
park at the base of Pikes Peak. 

Back in Bloomington, friends of the explorers read with interest 
an account of their activities as chronicled in two articles which Hart- 
zell had sent to the Daily Pant a graph. 4 In the first of these, written 
on July 26, the Wesleyan student, viewing the splendid panorama 
with eyes accustomed to the flat prairies of Illinois, declared that: 

"The grandeur of the Rocky Mountains is in their snowy heights 
and their towering peaks, but the beauty of them is in their numerous 
parks or inclosed valleys. A few of the most noted of these are laid 


down upon the maps, and have been written about by those who 
have seen them, but nestled among the hills reposes in beauty and fer- 
tility hundreds of lesser parks of which but little is known. 

"The mountains are usually thought to be great ridges of rocks, 
barren and worthless, save for their mineral productions, but nothing 
can be more erroneous. The valley in which I am now writing is 
twenty miles long and from half a mile to three miles wide, then, 
opening into this upon the sides are numerous others, each with its 
sparkling stream of the purest water, its groves of trees and broad 
acres of pasture land. Perhaps not less than forty thousand acres of 
available pasture is here spread out invitingly as rich as can be found 
in its natural state in the famous Mississippi valley. It is not so good 
for agriculture. The climate is too cool for corn ... we wear our 
woolen clothes with comfort, and at night sleep soundly under warm 
covering." 5 

His article ended with the statement that "Tomorrow we start for 
the ascent of Pikes Peak." But it was not until two weeks later, after 
the party had crossed over into South Park, that he continued his nar- 
rative of events between July 27, when the ascent was made, and 
August 8, the date of his second dispatch. In it he told how eight of 
the party had determined to make the attempt, and how one of them 
was Emma Dean Powell, the major's wife, who thereby won the dis- 
tinction of being one of the first white women ever to scale that 
historic peak. Hartzell paid her this tribute: 

"She has uniformly borne the hardships of the trip with a courage 
and a fortitude far beyond that usually attributed to her sex, but now 
endurance and fearlessness was to be put to the test, and I hasten on 
beyond the order of the narrative to say that the triumph was com- 
plete. Mounted as usual, when marching, upon her white-eyed Indian 
pony, which evidently is accustomed to mountain travel, she kept 
pace with the rest, dismounted and climbed when necessary, and in 
the end, bore the fatigue with hardly an equal. Few indeed of the 
'weaker vessels' have ever accomplished the feat, and few ever will, 
till society ceases to forfend them hearty, health-giving exercise." 6 

The conquest of the mountain was recorded as follows: 

We were now at the foot of one of the spurs of the Peak itself, still, 
however, between two and three direct miles from the summit. We 
stopped but a few moments, for the day was rapidly passing away. We 
pressed on, hoping to eat our dinner upon the summit, and had not mis- 


fortune happened us, such would doubtless have been the case. But 
climbing nearly to the top of one of the peaks from which the main route 
could be reached, we encountered what had been a great slide of rocks, 
lying then upon the mountainside in rough, unstable irregularity. An 
attempt to cross, mules stepping or jumping from rock to rock like goats, 
falls and bruises for both man and beast, the snow was reached, but rocks 
continued, the attempt was abandoned and a perilous descent began, firm 
footing at length gained in comparative safety, and a new place selected 
for the ascent — all this consumed time and muscle, but no enthusiasm, and 
halting by a snowbank hidden in the recesses of the rocks we ate our 
simple fare, mounted and were away again. This time we prospered, and 
at half past 2 o'clock picketed our animals upon the flat top of a high 
mountain, from which the snowy crest above us could be readily gained. 
This was the upper limit: a few dwarfed pines, the highest upon the 
mountain, furnished our camp with fuel. The snow in northern ravines and 
sheltered places extended far below us, but here we found good grass and 
numerous flowers. Above us, five hundred feet, extended barren rocks 
and snow, relieved only by an occasional light, bright-colored flower or 
patches of moss. 

We found that we should have to pass the night upon the mountains, 
contrary to our expectations and preparations. Plenty of blankets and 
ponchos had been taken, but insufficient food. A little, however, re- 
mained, and all determined to scale the summit, doing the best we could 
for the night's and morning's repast. Leaving everything and starting on 
foot, the ascent again began. The day was beautifully clear, and we felt 
favored and grateful that so rare an occurrence was ours to enjoy. 
Among those grand old monuments of the ages, with a picturesque land- 
scape hundreds of miles in extent spread out beneath us, the clear, blue 
arch of heaven above, no wonder that it seemed to our rapt vision some- 
thing like enchantment. Surely the Creator intended the grandeur and 
beauty of the world as foretastes of the hereafter. What a prediction of 
the unknown! Eternity itself may easily seem short! 7 

Soon after the Pikes Peak climb Powell led his party up the South 
Platte to its headwaters, camped in Lincoln Park near Lincoln Moun- 
tain, which they also scaled, then headed again for Denver via the 
Central City region where they added to their collections gold and 
silver ore and many geological specimens. Upon their return to the 
Colorado capital, the expedition disbanded and the teachers and stu- 
dents started for Illinois and their classroom duties. The Powells, how- 
ever, remained in Colorado. During September and part of October, 
accompanied by several mountaineers, they visited Middle Park and 


explored the headwaters of the Colorado river. It was during these 
two months that there was "kindled a desire to explore the canyons 
of the Grand, Green and Colorado rivers" 8 which, two years later, 
would result in the Wesleyan professor's epic voyage through the 
Grand Canyon. 

After spending some time in Denver sorting and packing the spe- 
cimens the major and his wife also returned to Illinois in order to 
attend two important meetings. One was the regular session of the 
State Board of Education, held at Normal on December 17 and 18, 
and the other was the annual meeting of the State Natural History 
Society in Schroder's Opera House two days later. At the former 
President Richard Edwards of Normal University, reporting that 
Powell had "returned from his trip to the Rocky Mountains and 
entered vigorously upon his work in the Museum," declared that "in 
the exploration of the country and the collections he was successful 
beyond expectations. In the prosecution of this enterprise Professor 
Powell has exhibited indomitable energy and rare skill. The money 
appropriated by the legislature for this object has been most judi- 
ciously expended. It has been efficiently used in the cause of science 
and education." 9 

Powell then made a complete report of the expedition, includ- 
ing a detailed statement of its cost. 10 In addition to adopting a reso- 
lution authorizing him to distribute, as he thought best, duplicates 
of the specimens among the principal schools of the state, the board 
also put the seal of their approval upon his work by appropriating 
f 600 to help finance another expedition the next year and an addi- 
tional $300 to pay him for his private collection which he had placed 
in the museum. 

At the meeting of the State Natural History Society Dr. George 
N. Vasey, the president, was unable to be present, so President Mun- 
sell of Wesleyan presided in his place. Powell gave an account of his 
trip and upon his motion two members of his party — Thompson and 
Hartzell — were elected to membership in the society. Voted in, also, 
were two other Wesleyanites, — Prof. B. S. Potter, then occupying 
the chair of natural science, and Lewis W. Keplinger, a senior, — as 
well as Rev. J. B. Harrison, pastor of the Free Congregational church 
in Bloomington. In the annual election of officers Munsell was named 
president and Powell was chosen corresponding secretary, curator of 
the museum and "general commissioner" (an office which he later 


succeeded in having abolished) . John Magoun was chosen treasurer 
to succeed C. W. C. Munsell who, in giving the report of that office, 
made a statement that must have been all too familiar to him as Wes- 
leyan's financial agent — "No money in the treasury!" n 

The society also appointed a committee to arrange for a public 
lecture by Powell in Schroder's Opera House on January 6. Al- 
though "the theme was a magnificent one and the Professor gave 
some very interesting descriptions of the grand scenery he visited and 
details concerning the vast wealth there deposited," the Fantagraph 
had to admit that the lecture was "but thinly attended, principally 
owing to the slippery state of the streets and sidewalks which pre- 
vented locomotion with any degree of safety." 12 However, Powell 
had a larger, though no more appreciative, audience when he re- 
peated his discourse on "Peaks, Parks and Plains" in Normal a month 
later. 13 

In the meantime the collections made in the Rockies had arrived 
and Powell had been busy labelling, cataloging and arranging them. 
The editor of the Fantagraph who visited the museum expressed his 
"surprise at the amount of material there collected and the work being 
done. Huge boxes of minerals, fossils, birds, mammals, insects, rep- 
tiles, shells and plants were piled here and there while the Professor 
and four assistants were busy unpacking and preparing the various 
specimens for the cases. The Professor is emphatically 'master of the 
situation' and everything seems to be going on like clockwork. . . . 
The additions made the last year exceed in number and value all 
the previous collections. Some of the specimens are very rare. . . . 
Too much credit can not be given to Professor Powell. He works 
sixteen hours a day and pays his assistants out of his own meager 
salary." 14 

In the midst of this activity Powell was busy making plans for 
"his new trip of exploration to the Rocky Mountains" according to 
the Fantagraph which also stated that "Rev. W. H. Daniels, having 
resigned his pastorship of the Congregational Church for the pur- 
pose, will accompany the Professor and his scientific coadjutors in 
the capacity of historian of the party. As correspondent of the 
Chicago Tribune and Advance, and other prominent journals, he will 
keep the public fully informed of the progress of the explorers." 15 
A week later a news story reported that Powell "left for Washington 
yesterday to solicit aid from the Government in prosecuting the sci- 


entific expedition to the Rocky Mountains. The professor has about 
made up his party and proposes to leave Bloomington about the 
middle of April." 16 

This announced date of departure for the West was a bit pre- 
mature, for late in May the Pantagraph editor was telling his readers 
that "the scientific expedition for the Colorado country, under the 
conduct of Prof. Powell, having received the necessary appropriation 
from the General Government, expects to be off some time early 
in June." 17 The delay, however, had its advantages, for in the mean- 
time the Smithsonian Institution became interested in the expedition 
and contributed not only its endorsement of the project but also 
valuable instruments and apparatus for the use of the scientists. The 
last week in June the Pantagraph was able to announce that "the 
Rocky Mountain Scientific Expedition will start next Monday (June 
29). The Company will assemble at Chicago preparatory to the 
start and expects to be absent for a considerable length of time. A 
number of correspondents will accompany the expedition so the 
public may expect to be well posted regarding its Progress." 18 

Just before leaving, Powell appeared before a meeting of the 
State Board of Education and told its members of his plans for the 
trip, whereupon they voted to appropriate $400 from the museum's 
funds for his use. His year's leave of absence from the Wesleyan 
faculty having expired, he presented his resignation to the university 
trustees and it was accepted at their meeting on June 23. This ended 
the geology professor's official connection with Wesleyan although 
it by no means marked the conclusion of his contact with, and 
interest in, the university he had served so well. 

The 1868 party was much larger than that of the previous year 
and included five students from Wesleyan and one from Normal. 
The Wesleyanites were L. W. Keplinger, who had just been gradu- 
ated and was topographer for the party. James B. Taylor, a junior, 
was a geologist, as was Edmund D. Poston, a second year prep stu- 
dent. Rhodes C. Allen, a freshman, was an ornithologist, as was Lyle 
H. Durley, an "irregular" in the scientific course. The Normal stu- 
dent was Samuel M. Gar man, a sophomore, serving as an entomolo- 
gist. 19 

Other members of the party besides Powell (geologist) were: 
Mrs. Powell (ornithologist); his brother, Capt. Walter H. Powell 
(zoologist); W. H. Bishop of Bloomington (botanist); J. J. Aiken 


and Henry Wood, both from Joliet (geologists) ; Dr. George Vasey 
of Richview (botanist); Rev. George Smith of Minneapolis, Minn, 
(ethnologist) and Rev. W. H. Daniels, the former professor of belles 
lettres at Wesleyan (historian). 20 Accompanying them, "without 
portfolio," were Rev. J. W. Healey of Chicago and Dr. Henry Wing, 
a member of the State Board of Education who, at the meeting just 
prior to the departure of the expedition had given the enterprise his 
blessing in these words: 

"This Board regards with deep interest this expedition to the Rocky 
Mountains, which Professor John W. Powell is about to undertake. The 
general and even national interest which is felt in the expedition, and the 
confidence reposed in its leader, have been abundantly manifested by the 
cordial endorsement and cooperation of the Smithsonian Institute, and of 
other scientific bodies, and by prominent men of science in different parts 
of the country. As the expedition is undertaken in the interest of science 
alone, and not of any particular individual institution, state, or portion of 
the country, we earnestly solicit for Professor Powell and his party such 
facilities and favors from our liberal and public-spirited railroads, steam- 
boats, and other transportation companies, as their generosity may 
prompt, and as may be necessary to promote the worthwhile objectives of 
this trip." 21 

Again, as in 1867, the "public-spirited transportation companies" 
provided "facilities and favors" and on June 29 the party left Chicago 
"on the Omaha train" and went via the Union Pacific to Cheyenne, 
Wyo., where each member was provided with a horse and pack mule 
for the journey south into Colorado. On July 6 Publisher William N. 
Byers' Rocky Mountain News in Denver announced that "Rev. Mr. 
Healy of the Powell Colorado Expedition arrived in town yesterday. 
Major Powell is expected by tomorrow morning's coach and the re- 
mainder of the party in a day or two." However, another week 
passed before the Denver paper recorded the news that "Prof. Powell 
arrived in town last evening. His train with a year's rations for 20 to 
30 men turned off at Church's for the mountains. He designs to ren- 
dezvous in the Middle Park and to be there on the Grand and Green 
Rivers this fall and winter." 22 

Subsequent issues of the News told how "many ladies and gentle- 
men connected with Prof. Powell's expedition, now encamped at 
Church's, are in town, among them several correspondents of Eastern 
papers who have called on us," 2S and how Powell had engaged Ned 


E. Farrell, Jack Sumner and other experienced frontiersmen as 
guides. 24 By July 18 Powell had moved the camp to the mouth of 
Bear Creek Canyon at the foot of the Rockies. There a member of 
the party wrote a letter to the Chicago Journal (later reprinted in the 
Pantagraph) that was read, no doubt, with envy by their friends, 
sweltering in the mid-summer heat of Bloomington. "We are grateful 
that Plains life is over and that we are luxuriating upon mountain 
water and purer air," the writer declared. "We can roll in the luxuri- 
ant grass, wander among the woods and dales, hunt and fish, drink 
from the sparkling stream and sing and halloo as loud as we please, 
without seeming unprofessional. ... In health we are all improving, 
and our hardy looks, bronzed complexion, and full beards, would 
make us hardly recognizable by our friends." 

To the young explorers, enjoying this primitive life, the class- 
rooms and chapel at Wesleyan must have seemed very far away in- 
deed. But this did not mean that they were to forget their religious 
duties even though "in this region Sundays are no better than other 
days and the broad church rules. This is true of all the region west of 
the Missouri. Nor is it confined to the red man who knows no relig- 
ious distinction of days; but here all men as a rule, work Sundays as 
well as week days. Stages run, mule whackers drive their teams, trap- 
pers hunt, mines are dug, stores are open, stamp mills crush, and 
travelers journey. But our party, true to the custom of Christendom, 
kept a note of passing time, and religiously kept the Sabbath. . . . We 
had no long and formal prayers, nor cold and polished essay, but a 
truly common sense talk upon the adaptation of the Gospel to present 
needs, and an earnest supplication for the blessings upon ourselves 
and the loved ones far away." 25 

On July 23 Powell broke camp at Bear Creek and led the party 
over Berthoud Pass into Middle Park. There a week later he was 
joined by Publisher Byers "who expects to be gone several weeks," 
the News stated. The principal reason for Byers joining the Powell 
party was that the latter had announced his intention of climbing 
Long's Peak and Byers, who had been a member of an expedition 
that had failed to reach the summit in 1864, wished to share the honor 
of being among the first to conquer that towering mountain. After 
careful preparation seven men — the major, Walter H. Powell, Byers, 
Farrell, Sumner, Keplinger and Garman — set out on August 20 from 
their camp to make the ascent. Taylor, Allen and Durley started 

Clint on W. Sears 

Samuel J. Fallows 





William H. H. Adams 

William H. Wilder 



with them but turned back after a short time and returned to 
camp. 26 

Each man was mounted and led a pack mule carrying bedding, 
scientific instruments and 10 days' rations for the party. For two 
days they struggled over the rocky ground, twice being forced to 
turn back and seek another route. On the night of August 22, Kep- 
linger, scouting ahead, returned to report the discovery of a trail that 
seemed to lead to the summit. The next morning they started at 
6 o'clock for the final climb over a dangerous stretch of seven or eight 
hundred feet of smooth rock and by 10 o'clock had reached the 

There they took barometric observations, erected a small monu- 
ment of rocks in which was placed a tin can containing data on the 
expedition. After raising the American flag, the major made a short 
speech declaring that they had been successful in an "undertaking in 
the material or physical field which had hitherto been deemed im- 
possible" and predicted that their feat was "but the augury of yet 
greater achievement in other fields." 27 After staying three hours on 
the summit, the first men to climb Long's Peak began their return 
journey and arrived safely at their camp two days later. 

Although the ascent of Long's Peak was the highlight of the 1868 
expedition, this dramatic event should not obscure the less spectacular 
achievements of the party during the two months they spent in Mid- 
dle Park. There were short excursions into the surrounding regions 
during which the task of collecting specimens of all kinds continued. 
It was a thrilling experience for the "tenderfeet" from Wesleyan to 
"camp on the backbone of the continent" where they could find 
water "that runs in both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans." 28 But they 
had to learn to endure the discomfort of sudden soaking rainstorms 
and the bitter cold of the high peaks in mid-summer, hardships which 
caused occasional spells of sickness (including "homesickness"). They 
had to learn, too, how to track down and bring back livestock that 
seemed to have a positive genius for pulling up picket pins and 
wandering away even though hobbled. And they had to be alert 
while riding, lest their temperamental Western ponies begin bucking 
at unexpected times and dump their riders into a cactus bed. 29 Ever 
present, too, was the possibility that the Utes, the Arapahoes and the 
Cheyennes, who roamed over that region, might take time off from 
fighting each other to "lift the hair" of an unwary white man. 30 


The expedition ended, however, with no serious mishap to any 
member of the party and late in October Powell started for the White 
River in western Colorado to set up a winter camp in preparation for 
his exploration of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado the next spring. 
With him went Mrs. Powell, Walter H. Powell, Garman, Keplinger, 
the four Wesleyanites (Allen, Durley, Poston and Taylor) and O. G. 
Howland, a member of Byers' Rocky Mountain News staff. 31 By the 
first week in November they were established on a tributary of the 
White near the camp of Chief Douglass and his band of friendly 
Utes. 32 The four Wesleyan students remained with Powell until late 
in the month, when they returned to Illinois, so that Poston and Tay- 
lor could resume their studies at the university at the beginning of 
the winter quarter. 33 

Although no Wesleyan students or other Bloomingtonians ac- 
companied Powell when he started on his historic trip down the 
Grand Canyon on May 24, 1869, his friends in Central Illinois read 
with interest such meager news as came back from the West during 
the progress of the expedition. For a time, they were greatly alarmed 
when various newspapers printed a rumor that the expedition had 
ended in tragedy and that all except one of the party had perished. 
But they were reassured by letters written to the press by Mrs. 
Powell and Keplinger which utterly discredited the fantastic story 
of the alleged "survivor." They were further reassured by a letter 
from Powell himself, which was printed in the Daily Pantagraph 
during the month of July. 34 

By the end of August they learned of Powell's triumph over the 
treacherous Colorado and a month later he returned to his duties as 
curator of the museum in Normal. 35 With him came Walter H. 
Powell, to enroll as a freshman in the scientific course at Wesleyan. 36 
No doubt young Powell's fellow students often asked him to repeat 
his tales of the voyage through the Grand Canyon, tales of heroism 
and danger which modesty would have prevented the major from re- 
lating in his lectures in Bloomington and Normal that fall and 
winter. 37 

Powell was occupied most of the winter and spring of 1869-70 
with his duties as curator of the museum and secretary of the State 
Natural History Society, but he took time off for a trip to Wash- 
ington to seek funds for another exploration of the Colorado and its 


tributaries. His canyon voyage had made him a national figure so he 
had little difficulty in persuading Congress to appropriate $10,000 for 
that purpose. The proposed expedition, however, did not get under 
way for another year but in the meantime Powell made careful pre- 
parations which enabled him to avoid some of the mistakes of the 

1869 expedition. 

He engaged Almon H. Thompson as chief topographer and as- 
tronomer and set him to preparing a base-map of the river. While 
his brother-in-law remained in Bloomington working over the notes, 
maps and sketches made by the 1869 scientists, the major went to 
Salt Lake City to organize a small field party. In August Francis 
Marion Bishop, who had received his degree from Wesleyan in June, 
and Walter H. Graves, a sophomore, who had been engaged as assist- 
ant topographer, joined Powell in the Utah capital. 

"Major Powell had three principal objectives in mind for his 

1870 land exploration: first to locate several trails by which food 
supplies could be carried down the river to replenish a river party, 
and thus spare them the near-starvation which had plagued the pio- 
neer party of 1869; second, to learn, first hand, from the Indians the 
true story of the murder of O. G. Howland, Seneca Howland and 
William Dunn; and third to visit the several Moqui (Hopi) towns of 
the 'Tusayan province' of northeastern Arizona, to observe and com- 
pare these people with the Utes he had studied previously." 38 

All of these objectives were accomplished by the autumn of 1870 
whereupon Powell proceeded to Washington to organize his second 
Colorado river expedition. That winter Congress approved an addi- 
tional appropriation for the expedition, making a total of $12,000, a 
sum which would obviate the necessity of Powell's using his personal 
funds, as he had done previously. This trip was to be made under the 
direction of the Smithsonian Institution but again the War Depart- 
ment permitted the scientists to draw rations from army posts and 
again the railroads furnished free transportation for members of the 
party and their equipment. 

When the expedition set out in May, 1871, Bishop was the only 
Wesleyanite in the party and he kept his friends in Bloomington in- 
formed of its progress in a series of letters he wrote for the Daily 
Pantagraph. 39 As a result of his work that year he became known 
as the "man who made the first map of the Grand Canyon ever drawn 


from personal observation and notes." 40 In 1872 he accompanied 
another Powell expedition into southern Utah and northern Arizona, 
as did Professor DeMotte. 41 

Before setting out on this expedition Powell resigned his position 
as curator of the museum in Normal, 42 thus ending his residence in 
McLean county. Thereafter, between expeditions into the West, he 
made his home in Washington, D.C. but he always cherished the 
friendships he had made in the twin cities of Bloomington and Nor- 
mal and he retained an active interest in the two universities which 
had helped launch him upon his distinguished career. 43 

Chapter 11 

In 1851, when some of Wesley an's trustees suggested admitting 
women to the new university, the proposal had been immediately re- 
jected. 1 The proponents of the new idea were at least a decade ahead 
of their times, but a change in the attitude of its opponents was al- 
ready on the way. For, as the historian of the Illinois Female College 
has pointed out: 

"The movement for the higher education of women gained new 
impetus with and after the Civil War. New colleges for women — 
Vassar, Smith, Wellesley, and others — organized on a more generous 
scale, began to raise the standard of collegiate instruction beyond that 
reached by the best colleges of the ante-bellum era with respect to 
curriculum, faculties, administration, libraries, and laboratories. The 
ante-bellum colleges and seminaries could not compete very long 
with these new institutions. . . . The western college for women had 
to compete, too, with the neighboring co-educational college or uni- 
versity. The idea of separate schools for men and women declined 
more rapidly in the West, for it had never taken such deep root 
there. The Methodists were quick to welcome the idea of co-educa- 
tion." 2 

That some of the Methodists responsible for the destiny of Illinois 
Wesleyan still were not receptive to that idea is indicated by their 
action at the annual meeting of the trustees in June, 1869. When Rev. 
A. C. Higgins of Galva, representing the Central Illinois Conference, 
offered a resolution "asking for a change of the charter so as to admit 
Females to the University as students," it precipitated a "spicy de- 
bate" after which the resolution was laid on the table. The idea was 
destined not to die there, however, for the Wesleyan faculty kept it 

At two of their meetings during the academic year of 1869-70 
they passed resolutions endorsing the admission of women students 
to the university 3 and in June, 1870, when the trustees and visitors 
again gathered in Bloomington, the report of the faculty, submitted 
by President Munsell, contained these two paragraphs: 



"Your faculty would further recommend the consideration of the 
possibility of admitting ladies as students to the University and here- 
with beg leave to present a resolution adopted at their last regular 
meeting for the year, viz. 

"Resolved, that we recommend to the joint Board of Trustees and 
Visitors of the University that the privileges of the University be ex- 
tended to all regardless of Sex." 4 

That portion of the faculty report was referred to a committee 
consisting of Trustees John Magoun, Jesse Birch and William M. 
Smith, Rev. J. N. Noble of Decatur, visitor from the Illinois Confer- 
ence, and Rev. P. A. Crist of Wenona, a Central Illinois Conference 
representative. When this committee reported to the board that they 
"unanimously and heartily concur with the recommendations of the 
faculty," it started another spicy debate that soon became a confusing 
parliamentary tangle. 

First, Trustee L. B. Kent offered an amendment to the report 
which referred the matter to the patronizing conferences with the 
recommendation that they take action on it. Thereupon Trustee 
J. S. Cummings offered a double amendment to this amendment: 
"Resolved 1 : That we recommend that the classes of the University 
be opened to Ladies; Resolved 2: That if the patronizing conferences 
concur in this action said classes shall be opened to Ladies from and 
after such concurrence." 

Next Rev. William Stevenson of Carlinville, visitor from the 
Illinois Conference, offered a resolution that "the matter lay over for 
a year." When this resolution was tabled, Trustee Owen T. Reeves 
offered as a substitute motion: "Resolved, that upon the abstract 
question of the admission of females as well as males to all our institu- 
tions of learning, this Board of Trustees are in favor of such admission 
but on account of the relations of this institution to the other educa- 
tional institutions of the patronizing conferences we decline to act 
on the question until the conference shall have given their instruction 
on the subject." Reeves' motion was also tabled and the Cummings' 
resolution was accepted by the committee as its report. 

But this did not end the controversy, for Trustee W. D. R. Trotter 
of Jacksonville, who had been active in the affairs of the Illinois Fe- 
male College in that city since its founding, evidently believed that 
opening the doors of Wesleyan to women would affect the enroll- 
ment in the Jacksonville institution. To avert that possibility he 


offered a resolution to "lay the whole matter on the table," thus post- 
poning action on it indefinitely. President Munsell countered by 
"moving the previous question" and when the presiding officer upheld 
this parliamentary maneuver, the report of the committee was voted 
on in two parts. The first part "that we recommend that the classes 
of the University be opened to ladies" won by a vote of 17 to 5 and 
the second part, "that if the patronizing conferences concur in this 
action said classes shall be opened to ladies from and after such con- 
currence," carried by a vote of 20 to 1. Presumably the lone nega- 
tive vote was cast by Trotter. 

Having settled this controversial question, the trustees next turned 
their attention to two other matters, both of which provoked "very 
spirited discussions." One of these was the report of the committee 
which recommended six seniors for the bachelor's degree 5 but pro- 
tested against "the growing frequency of conferring honorary degrees 
upon persons without evidence of corresponding scholarship and thus 
lowering the standard of scholarship for such degrees." However, 
they were overruled and the trustees voted one honorary D.D. and 
five M.A. degrees. 

The second problem was the report of the building committee 
which declared that it was "vital to the success of the University to 
complete the enclosure of the new building this fall." Although 
there was in sight the sum of $45,000, only $20,000 of this was in 
"unconditional bona fide subscriptions." But the trustees recom- 
mended accepting the bid of $42,000 made by Hayes and Evans of 
Bloomington, and endorsed the idea of "making a loan by bond and 
mortgage upon the ground and buildings to produce the necessary 
funds." They could not then realize that, through future circum- 
stances over which they had no control, this loan would nearly prove 
disastrous to the university. They accepted the report, appointed 
Rev. G. W. Gray, late president of Quincy College, professor of 
natural science, and named him chairman of the building committee 
in place of President Munsell to supervise the progress of the new 

Within three months there was tangible evidence of that progress 
for, on September 10, the Daily Pantagraph reported that the corner- 
stone of Wesley an's new building "was laid yesterday with a large 
number of ladies and gentlemen assembled to witness the ceremonies." 
Symbolic of the fact that this was a community institution rather 


than a strictly sectarian school was the attendance of all the Blooming- 
ton ministers, with Rev. Dr. Morrison of the Episcopal church, Rev. 
C. E. Hewitt of the Baptist church and others offering prayers, read- 
ing the Scripture lesson or leading in the hymn singing. 

In President Munsell's address on the history of Wesleyan, he re- 
called that on September 12, 1857, when he took charge of the uni- 
versity, it was $10,000 in debt and "of the half of the $32,000 to be 
collected when $50,000 had been subscribed, about $5,000 was not 
worth 10 cents on the dollar." He had reviewed the efforts to raise 
$25,000 to endow the university, but "it was three years before that 
amount was subscribed and another three years before we had a dollar 
in the treasury." Despite such difficulties and the various misfortunes 
of the past decade, especially during the war years, the institution had 
survived and would, he promised, continue to live and grow. He then 
deposited a great variety of documents and mementoes in the corner- 
stone, 6 it was sealed and the ceremonies came to a fitting close with 
the benediction pronounced by the man who had contributed so 
much to Wesleyan's founding — Rev. John H. Barger. 

On September 28 the Pantagraph chronicled the aftermath of the 
"spicy debate" in the trustees' meeting three months earlier. "Illinois 
Wesleyan Admits the Ladies" read the headline over this news story: 

The question of admitting ladies to the privileges of the Illinois Wes- 
leyan university which was decided favorably by the Board of Trustees 
at their session in June, but left the matter subject to ratification by the 
patronizing conferences, has at last been settled. 

The Central Illinois Conference in session at Pekin September 19 
passed a resolution by almost unanimous vote ratifying the action of 
the Board. 

The action of the Illinois Conference now in session at Shelbyville has 
prompted the following laconic dispatch: 

Shelbyville, September 23 
To Professor H. DeMotte: Open your doors to the ladies. 

O. S. Munsell 

To the ladies who have desired to share the privileges of the Univer- 
sity, a hearty welcome is extended in behalf of the faculty and students, 
knowing the great unanimity of feeling among them in regard to this 


Annual Catalogue 


W e $ hn m II mm cs if n , 





This was the first to bear an illustration and shows the new building that "cost 


Soon afterwards 22 young ladies were on hand to test the hearti- 
ness of the welcome. One of them, Kate B. Ross of Dover, was ad- 
mitted as a sophomore; two — Delia Henry of Bloomington and 
Rhoda M. Wiley of Lexington — were freshmen, and the other 19 
were in the preparatory department. 7 These newcomers to the cam- 
pus saw another symbol of Wesley an progress: the rising walls of 
the new college hall. The annual catalogue continued to describe it 
as "a building of imposing dimensions" but added that it would have 
a "Aiansard roof and Rvt towers" and that it was "now nearly fin- 
ished externally, and will be ready for occupancy the Collegiate year, 
1871-72." Moreover, the catalogue displayed on its cover an artist's 
conception of this handsome structure with the statement that "it 
cost $100,000." 

The coming of the co-eds this year had helped the university's 
enrollment again pass the 200-mark. Coincident with a registration 
of 212 was a graduating class of 12, 8 double the number who had re- 
ceived diplomas the previous year. Symbolic of the school's having 
become a co-educational institution was its conferring an honorary 
degree upon a woman for the first time when Miss Esther (Essie) 
Finley, a teacher in the Illinois Female College and daughter of a 
Wesley an founder, was awarded an M.L.A. 

The college year of 1871-72 opened with Wesley an "enjoying 
especial prosperity," according to the Pantagraph, and this optimism 
was reflected in the catalogue, which addressed to prospective stu- 
dents and their parents these 

General Remarks 

It is with peculiar pleasure that the fact is noted here that the Illinois 
Wesleyan University, by the complete organization of all the regular 
College Classes, the breadth and completeness of its Courses of Study, and 
the steadiness and firmness with which its Undergraduates are held to 
those Courses, in fact and not merely in name, has vindicated its right 
to the Collegiate title which it bears. 

By a late decision of the Trustees and Patronizing Conferences, ladies 
are now admitted to all departments of the University. Some have already 
entered, and by their deportment and success as students, have given no 
occasion to doubt the wisdom of this "advanced step" of the institution. 

The Illinois Wesleyan University now being established upon a firm 
and permanent financial basis, furnishes a safe investment for the dona- 
tions, bequests and legacies of our friends who may wish to perpetuate 


their names and beneficence through future generations. Considerable 
amounts of money and lands have lately been secured by the Wills of 
large-hearted patrons and benefactors, but large amounts are still needed 
to furnish such endowments, Library, Apparatus, Museum, and other 
facilities as are worthy of our great Church, our great State, and the great 
Future of our Country. Donations for founding Professorships, Free 
Scholarships, Prizes, etc. are earnestly invited, as being worthy objects 
of an intelligent Christian beneficence. 

The enrollment this year was 216, of whom 43 were women. "The 
friends of co-education have as yet no reason to regret the recent 
action of the Board of Trustees admitting ladies to all the privileges 
of the University," the Alumni Journal assured its readers, adding 
"what was looked upon as a doubtful experiment by some of our best 
friends, including our own President, has thus far proved a success 
and has already won to its approval and hearty support some who at 
first were disposed to oppose the measure." 9 

That "the doubtful experiment" had the approval of Wesleyan's 
"young gentlemen" is indicated by a news item which appeared in the 
Daily Pantagraph soon after the young ladies were admitted to the 
university. In reporting a meeting of the Belles Lettres Society it 
stated that the program, in addition to the usual orations, essays and 
recitations, consisted of "quartette selections accompanied on the 
organ by Miss Ross, one of the students. The gentlemen in the quar- 
tette show much improvement. This may be attributed in part, at 
least, to the fact that an effort has been put forth by the members 
from night to night to secure the presence of young ladies. The salu- 
tary effects of the result of such effort have made themselves apparent 
in the care exercised in the productions rendered and in the grace and 
manners of the members." 10 

Although the faculty had suggested that the "young ladies not 
join the Literary Societies" n the girls evidently thought otherwise 
and by the time the school year of 1871-72 was well under way they 
were taking an active part in the affairs of both the Belles Lettres and 
the Munsellian organizations. On February 23, 1872 six of them (Belles 
Lettres members) staged a debate on the woman suffrage question 
which was "the first attempt of the kind in the annals of the Univer- 
sity," according to the Alumni Journal. 12 "Whatever may have been 
the opinions of those present concerning the abilities of the debaters, 
all were surprised to hear them discuss the question in such a masterly 


manner," observed the Journal reporter. "Both sides handled the 
question in a manner that gave evidence of thorough examination and 
honest convictions, " he continued and then conceded that "again the 
ladies have proven themselves the equals of the gentlemen." 

Shortly before the 1872 Commencement, the Fantagraph an- 
nounced that the Wesley an trustees "simultaneously with the comple- 
tion and occupancy of the new building, are making arrangements 
to extend correspondingly the facilities for instruction within its 
walls. It is their fixed purpose to offer to students of both sexes facili- 
ties for thorough culture unsurpassed by those of any similar institu- 
tion in the land." 13 President Munsell, who for two years had "been 
detached from his usual duties as professor by the necessities of the 
building fund" would resume his place in the recitation room and 
devote his time and energies exclusively to the academic interests of 
the school. Other plans for improving the curriculum were described 
as follows: 

The Faculty has been strengthened for the coming year by the elec- 
tion of Hon. R. E. Williams of this city to the Professorship of Inter- 
national and Constitutional Law. Of the legal ability of Mr. Williams it 
were idle to speak and we anticipate a rich treat to the bands of earnest 
students who, from term to term, will be permitted to listen to the course 
lectures he will deliver to the classes in International and Constitutional 
Law which are regular studies in all the graduating courses. It is hoped 
and confidently expected that this special course will develop in due 
season into a full Law Department. 

To meet a clearly recognized want in the Institution, more especially 
realized since the admission of ladies to its halls, Professor F. A. Parker 
of the Bloomington Conservatory of Music has been elected Professor 
of Vocal and Instrumental Music in the University, thus offering to its 
students in that important department facilities that are unsurpassed in any 
institution in the land. The University does not propose to substitute 
music for other and severer studies, but it does propose to add the grace, 
the sweetness and the moral power of music to the graver duties of mental 

Finally we may just hint that negotiations are in progress looking to 
the election of a Professor of Anatomy, Physiology and Hygiene from the 
ranks of the medical profession of our city who will supplement the ordi- 
nary instruction by courses of lectures illustrated by demonstrations in 
human and comparative anatomy to the regular classes in the University. 

We hail these movements one and all as onward steps in the work of 


the development in our midst of a true University, of which this or any 
other community may be proud. 14 

No doubt the citizens of the community were proud of their uni- 
versity when they gathered in the new building two weeks later for 
what the editor of the Alumni Journal, with rare restraint, later de- 
clared "had never before been a more pleasant and satisfactory Com- 
mencement." The festivities began on June 16 with the formal open- 
ing of Amie Chapel, named for the mother of Col. W. N. Coler of 
Champaign who had given $5,000 "to finish the chapel on condition 
that he be allowed to select the name for it." 

On this occasion President Munsell had secured the services of 
Rev. B. I. Ives, known as the "Prince of Dedicators" and the reason 
for choosing him soon became apparent. After preaching an hour- 
long sermon, Ives called for subscriptions to a fund of "about $10,000 
to furnish heating apparatus for the chapel, finish the passageways, 
etc." This seemed an almost "fabulous amount to a people who had 
previously given so generously of their means for the completion of 
the building externally." But Ives, by his "abundant humor and ready 
tactics firmly held the audience . . . that had been sitting for four 
or five hours" until they pledged more than $12,000. Then, "owing 
to the lateness of the hour" the baccalaureate sermon and dedicatory 
exercises were postponed until that evening when Ives preached an- 
other sermon and issued another appeal for funds that netted an addi- 
tional $2,000. So it is easy to understand why "the friends of the insti- 
tution consider the results of the day's efforts a grand success and 
look upon it as the dawning of a brighter day for the university." 15 

Rev. Reuben Andrus, who had started the institution on its way 
22 years earlier, was there the next day to give "the Annual Address 
before the University" and "drew a large house notwithstanding the 
intolerable heat of afternoon and evening." Present also was Major 
Powell who looked "hale and hearty and seemingly good for a cen- 
tury's labor among the wild excitement and hardships of frontier life. 
He returns early in July to his field of labor in Colorado, his head- 
quarters being at present at Kanab." 16 

The climax of the Commencement came the following day when, 
after the dedication of the Belles Lettres Society's "elegant and com- 
modious" hall in the new building, degrees were conferred upon six 
students. In officiating, President Munsell stated "that there were two 
especial facts that made the occasion one of unusual interest to him. 


One was that, while it seemed to him but yesterday that he stood in a 
like position as a student to receive his diploma, it today became his 
duty of President to bestow a similar parchment upon his own son. 
The other was that, in the history of Illinois Wesleyan University, he 
was for the first time called upon to confer the regular degree of the 
University upon a lady. The appearance of Hannah I. Shur upon the 
platform to receive her diploma was greeted with hearty applause by 
the audience, showing a genuine sympathy with the 'advance step' 
taken by the Institution." 17 

The same month the editor of the Alumni Journal announced that 
the university had "the good fortune to secure the services of C. P. 
Merriman, editor of The Leader, as instructor in French, Spanish and 
Italian languages," and soon after the 1872-73 school year opened, the 
Journal was pointing with pride to the fact that Graduate Fifer had 
been chosen state's attorney of McLean county, that Graduate Kerrick 
had been elected state senator, and that the fall term of Wesleyan 
had opened "more prosperously than that of any preceding year dur- 
ing the history of the Institution" with 252 students on the rolls. 

In January, 1873, the Journal advertised six more lectures in the 
medical course "like the Law lectures, the entire course will be free, 
not only to all students of the University, but also, to the public 
generally." A news item from the same issue revealed that "a Young 
Men's Christian Association has been organized in the University 
which will take the place of the old 'Society of Inquiry' and, it is 
hoped, that this more thorough organization will continue the good 
work with greater effect." 18 

The next month the editor of the Journal was reporting that "the 
winter term of the University opens with flattering prospects. The 
attendance is unusually large, and both teachers and pupils are endeav- 
oring to make the work of the present an improvement, both in 
quantity and quality, upon any preceding term." That the teaching 
load of the faculty in those days was a heavy one is indicated by this 
statement in the same issue: 

"The following classes, twenty-eight in number, were taught 
during the last term in the University by six professors: Evidences 
of Christianity, Civil Government, Arithmetic A, Arithmetic B, 
Algebra A, Algebra B, Geometry, Astronomy, Greek, Grammar, 
Greek Prose, Composition, Herodotus, German, Anabasis, Mechanics, 
Physiology, Natural Philosophy A, Natural Philosophy B, Minera- 


logy, English Literature, Analysis, English Grammar, Elocution, Rhe- 
toric, Geography, Caesar, Cicero, and Latin Grammar. The faculty 
find their only consolation in Poor Richard's saying — 'It is better to 
wear out than to rust out.' " 

Another item recorded the fact that "Dr. Munsell's new work on 
Psychology was adopted by the last General Conference as a text- 
book in the conference course of study of the M. E. Church. This is a 
rare compliment." Soon afterwards the Journal was printing another 
brief item about the president, but this time it was announcing he had 
resigned. 19 In accepting his resignation, the trustees gave Munsell 
a vote of "hearty thanks for his long and faithful self-sacrificing 
services in behalf of the University and regard the rapid and healthy 
growth of the University as being largely due to his labors." 20 

At the 1873 Commencemet diplomas were given to nine gradu- 
ates, one of whom, then known as William H. Wylder, would later 
become President William H. Wilder of Illinois Wesleyan. 21 At 
their annual meeting the trustees announced that Munsell would "re- 
main as financial agent of the University building fund this year, in 
which position he has been acting efficiently for some time past." 
Then, after appointing DeMotte as acting president, they set about 
to choose a new executive to carry Wesleyan through another trying 
period which lay just ahead. 

Chapter 12 

After several unsuccessful attempts to obtain a successor to Mun- 
sell, the trustees found one in a neighboring state. He was Rev. 
Samuel Fallows, a native of England whose parents had migrated to 
Wisconsin in 1848. There he had grown up on a farm, joined the 
Methodist church and, at the age of 19, had been licensed to preach. 
A student at Lawrence University in Appleton, he later transferred to 
the University of Wisconsin where he was graduated as valedictorian 
of his class in 1859. 1 

Fallows was vice-president and principal of the Galesville (Wis.) 
University for two years, then became pastor of a church in Oshkosh. 
He entered the Union army in 1862 to serve as chaplain of the 3 2d 
Wisconsin Infantry, but left the army the next year to become pastor 
of a Methodist church in Appleton and professor-elect of natural 
sciences at Lawrence. In 1864 he helped recruit the 40th Wisconsin 
and became its lieutenant-colonel. 2 The next year he was appointed 
colonel of the 48th Wisconsin and ended his military career with 
the brevet of brigadier-general "for meritorious services." 

From 1865 to 1870 the soldier-churchman held pastorates in Mil- 
waukee and in 1871, when the state superintendent of public instruc- 
tion died, Governor Fairchild asked Fallows to accept the appoint- 
ment to that position. He reorganized and strengthened the badly 
jumbled school system of the Badger state and was twice re-elected 
state superintendent. He could have had another term had it not been 
for his decision to accept the presidency of Wesley an "where the 
student body, composed largely of ambitious farmer boys and girls, 
was the kind of unspoiled human material with which he loved to 
work. His creative schoolmaster's eye saw his pupils as the stuff out 
of which tomorrow's society would be made." 3 

Because of Fallows' "suavity of manner, thorough scholarship, 
extended experience as educator and orator," the trustees hoped that 
"under his wise management and masterful presentation of the cause 
of Christian education, large gifts would be secured and money would 



flow more readily into the treasury of the institution." 4 They may 
also have felt that bringing to Wesleyan such an eminent clergyman 
and successful educator from another state would increase the prestige 
of their struggling little university. That their hopes were soon 
realized is indicated by a statement in the Alumni Journal which said: 
"President Fallows is making hosts of friends for himself and the Uni- 
versity as he becomes acquainted with the pastors and people of the 
patronizing conferences" and it added that, since "the Dr. has but 
one body and can consequently be in only one place at a time," he 
was unable to comply with all the requests for his services as a 

Besides thus serving as an ambassador of good will for the school, 
Fallows also set about vigorously to make Wesleyan a university in 
fact as well as in name. Under his direction the curriculum of the 
classical course was expanded 5 and he was soon announcing the in- 
auguration of a special course of study for ministers, leading to the de- 
grees of Ph.B., B.S., and A.B., and a course for graduates of colleges 
"whether ministers or otherwise" which would lead to the degrees of 
A.M. and Ph.D. 6 

The new president also introduced an innovation in higher educa- 
tion — a series of courses that might be taken in absentia by non-resi- 
dent students. Several British universities — Oxford, Cambridge, and 
especially the University of London — had offered such courses but 
Wesleyan was the first American institution to do so. It was an ex- 
periment in adult education, for these courses could be taken only by 
persons who were more than 24 years old, who were supposed to be 
accustomed to independent study and who had to give good reasons 
why they could not attend college in person. 7 

Fallows believed that offering this type of home study would fill 
an urgent and legitimate need of many mature persons who wished to 
take college work and get a degree but who, because of professional 
duties or financial handicap, could not enroll for resident study. 
Despite his optimistic hope for these courses, enrollment in them was 
small, matriculations averaging only six students a year for the first 
five-year period they were offered. 8 Later the numbers increased ma- 
terially but eventually this apparently successful experiment brought 
about an unhappy sequel of diminished prestige for Wesleyan, a result 
which Fallows, of course, could not have foreseen when he inaugu- 
rated the project. 

Joseph Cither Hartzell, '68. 
First Wesleyan graduate to become a bishop. 


In contrast to this was the history of the Wesleyan law school 
which was founded during Fallows' administration, although the prin- 
cipal credit for it belongs to Reuben M. Benjamin, McLean county 
judge, 9 and Owen T. Reeves. The first term opened on April 6, 1874, 
with Judge Benjamin as dean and teacher, assisted by Reeves and 
R. E. Williams as instructors, 10 and with 23 students enrolled for the 
two-year course. Modelled after that of the best law schools in the 
United States, the curriculum was a combination of the lecture and 
quiz system and the quality of the work done in this new department 
was destined to spread the name and fame of Illinois Wesleyan far 
beyond the borders of the state. 

The addition of the law school increased the Wesleyan faculty 
this year to 17 members which now included two women, Mrs. Jennie 
F. Willing, professor of English, and Miss Mary H. Kuhl, instructor 
in German. Their presence was due to the fact that the admission of 
women to all departments of the university had "awakened greater 
interest in the education of young women among patrons of the col- 
lege, especially among the women themselves," n 70 of whom (41 in 
the collegiate department and 29 in the preparatory school) had en- 
rolled this year. One immediate result of this was the appearance on 
the campus of its first Greek letter sorority, the Epsilon chapter of 
Kappa Kappa Gamma. 12 

Another result was the organization later in the year of the Wo- 
man's Educational association, the objects of which were "first, the 
endowment of a woman's professorship; and second, the raising of a 
fund to provide a home and assist young women to educate them- 
selves — especially such as are planning to teach or are called to mis- 
sionary work." 13 Officers of this association were Mrs. Fallows, 
president; Mrs. Harry G. Reeves, recording secretary; Mrs. Hannah 
I. Shur, Wesley an's first woman graduate, corresponding secretary, 
and Mrs. Jaques, financial agent, and they soon succeeded in enlist- 
ing the interest and financial aid of a number of prominent Blooming- 
ton women in the enterprise. 

Besides their membership in the literary societies, women students 
were also taking part in other activities usually regarded as reserved 
for men. For instance, when it was decided that "muscle as well as 
brain should have a chance to develop" and, under the leadership of 
Prof. George R. Crow, the Latin teacher, a gymnasium society was 
formed, its officers included both men and women faculty members 


and students. A short time later the Alumni Journal reported that 
one of the rooms in the university building had been fitted up as a 
gymnasium "with quite a fair supply of apparatus . . . Prof. Willing 
proposes to devote a portion of time regularly to the physical train- 
ing of the young ladies exclusively, thereby meeting one of the great 
objections urged against the higher education of the gentler sex." 

Except for the gymnasium society, however, athletics played a 
small part in the undergraduate life of the Wesleyan of that day, as 
witness the scant notice given some time previously to the fact that 
"a match game of base ball was played by the Normal and Wesleyan 
nines, resulting in favor of the Wesley ans." 14 Much more important 
were debating and oratory. So the Alumni Journal devoted consid- 
erable space to a meeting held in the Ashley House in the spring of 
1874 to organize an Illinois Collegiate association that would sponsor 
an annual oratorical contest, an event which was to have a particularly 
happy sequel for Wesleyan students. 

The 1874 Commencement Week was an outstanding event, in- 
cluding as it did the formal inauguration of Fallows as president. For 
this occasion Governor John L. Beveridge of Illinois and President 
Richard Edwards of Normal University were on hand to give ad- 
dresses, followed by Fallows' inaugural speech which the Alumni 
Journal praised highly although suggesting that, lasting an hour and 
50 minutes, it did seem a bit long. The "Annual Address before the 
University" was given by Newton Bateman, state superintendent of 
public instruction, and at the alumni reunion and banquet "several 
gentlemen identified with education in different parts of Illinois" 
were present, proving that "Illinois Wesleyan university has taken a 
high place among the rank of Institutions of Learning." 15 

Among the 1 3 who received their diplomas at this commencement 
were two women — Martha Benjamin and Kate B. Ross, who would 
later become a professor of elocution and English at Hedding and 
Chaddock colleges. Another graduate was Walter H. Graves who 
was in the party, consisting of Professor and Mrs. DeMotte and Mr. 
and Mrs. Almon H. Thompson, who left Bloomington on July 1 1 to 
join another Powell expedition in the West. "The plan was to divide 
the party, Thompson taking the main division to Central Utah to con- 
tinue the survey of the Sevier and San Peat valley and Powell lead- 
ing another detachment, which included DeMotte, to explore the 
Uintah mountain country and visit the Uintah Indian reservation." 16 


Arriving at Green River, Wyo., the party found that the major 
had been detained in Washington, so the DeMottes and the Thomp- 
sons took the opportunity to visit the capital of Utah. En route to 
Salt Lake City, they met and talked with Mrs. Ann Eliza Young, 
former wife of Brigham Young, who was returning from a lecture 
tour she had made through the East to speak against Aiormonism. A 
few days later the DeMottes were present when she attended services 
conducted by Rev. C. C. Stratton, pastor of the Methodist congrega- 
tion in Salt Lake City, and united with that church. 17 The Bloom- 
ingtonians also visited the Mormon Tabernacle and there heard a 
sermon by Apostle Orson Pratt, father-in-law of Francis Marion 
Bishop, Wesleyan graduate and fellow-member of the Powell explor- 
ing expedition of 1872 in Utah and Arizona. 18 This visit to the capi- 
tal of Brigham Young's empire provided the Wesleyan professor with 
material for some interesting observations on the Mormons which he 
wrote for the Central Christian Advocate and reprinted in the Alumni 
Journal. 1 * 

Later in the summer his substitute as editor of the Journal re- 
corded that "A 'postal' from Prof. DeMotte intimates that he is doing 
some hard work during his pleasure (?) trip to the Uintah mountains. 
He frequently spends from ten to twelve hours a day 'in the saddle,' 
in the performance of his duties as surveyor with the party exploring 
this comparatively little known region. He expects to report himself 
for duty at the University at the beginning of the term." 20 

When DeMotte returned to his duties as professor of mathematics 
and vice-president of the university that fall it was to find an in- 
creased enrollment over the previous year. It totalled 366, including 
nearly 100 women students. There were 13 men enrolled in the law 
school (later increased to 21) and the Pantagraph reported that the 
first session was devoted to "examining those who had attended the 
school the previous term. Several members of the McLean County 
Bar were present and expressed themselves as very well pleased with 
the class." 21 

By November the principal topic of conversation on the campus 
was the first Inter-State Oratorical contest, which was to be held un- 
der the auspices of Wesleyan, when her Thomas I. Coultas would 
compete with the best orators from "the North-Western university, 
Chicago university, Illinois Industrial university, Monmouth College, 
Knox college, Illinois college and Shurtleff college." So perhaps it 


was only natural that a visit to the campus by the vice-president of 
the United States should receive scant mention in the Alumni Journal, 
which chronicled the fact that "Hon. Scuyler (sic) Colfax honored 
the University with a brief call, as he was returning from the unveil- 
ing of the Lincoln statue. He was present at chapel service and in 
response to a call spoke briefly but eloquently upon the value of 
thorough culture." 22 

There was much more important news the next month, for "to 
see victory perch upon the walls of Wesley an and waive (sic) its 
bright wings in joy as the well-earned laurel crown was placed upon 
the head of one of her sons was truly gratifying." The result, in other 
words, of the oratorical contest was "as we had anticipated, a com- 
plete victory for Mr. Coultas." 23 And when, the following May, Mr. 
Coultas went to Indianapolis and there vanquished the best orators 
from six states in the Middle West it called for a special celebration 
a week later in Amie Chapel. There the champion was asked to repeat 
his prize-winning oration, and was "made the recipient of a hand- 
some Bagster Bible, a present from the students and friends in attend- 
ance" after which "all present were invited to pass into an adjoining 
room, where the young ladies of the University had in waiting a plen- 
tiful supply of ice-cream, cake and lemonade." 24 

An even bigger news story that month was the announcement that 
Fallows was resigning, effective at the end of the school year. He was 
withdrawing from the Methodist church to become rector of the St. 
Paul's Reformed Episcopal church in Chicago and superintend its 
plans for starting an educational institution for his new constitu- 
ency. 25 In his last chapel address Fallows told his faculty and students, 
"My resignation is not because of any dissatisfaction with the students 
or faculty or trustees of the institution; not for the sake of gain or 
glory; but because Providence has brought about what has been the 
hope of my life — an opportunity to preach to the masses of a great 
city the Gospel of Christ, and to train laymen and laywomen for the 
same great work." 26 

Fallows' impending departure was a source of deep regret on the 
Wesleyan campus especially among the students. As a teacher he 
had "charmed them. They all adored him." 27 But inspiring instruc- 
tion was only part of what he had given them. "The reports from 
those days are full of his human relations with his boys and girls. By 
precept and example, he tried to teach them to be all-around men and 


women. He wanted no cloistered recluses among his graduates. 'You 
must vote' he told the young men. 'You must talk and act and con- 
trol by all lawful influence the votes of others. If you shrink from 
duty as politicians in the best sense of that most abused term, you are 
unworthy of your diplomas and a place among Americans.' " 28 

Besides losing its president this year, Wesleyan also lost two 
veteran faculty members and the first woman teacher in the collegiate 
department. At the close of the winter term Potter had left to be- 
come head of the mathematics department in a normal school in Mis- 
souri and soon after the year of 1875-76 began he was followed by 
Jaques, who became president of Albert University in Canada. Mrs. 
Willing was returning to the active ministry, accompanied by her 
husband, Rev. W. C. Willing, who had been professor of history and 
civil polity at Wesleyan the previous year. 

The 1875 Commencement, at which Fallows' baccalaureate ser- 
mon for the departing seniors was also his farewell to Wesleyan, saw 
the graduation of the law school's first class with Justice David Davis 
of the United States Supreme Court and Chief Justice John M. Scott 
of the Illinois Supreme Court present to witness the ceremony. The 
seven law graduates, 29 added to the 17 from other departments, made 
it the largest graduating class in the history of the university thus far. 
Included among them were two women — Delia Henry and May 
Round — Oratorical Champion Coultas, Thomas Sterling (destined 
for future renown in the new state of South Dakota) 30 and Samuel 
Van Pelt, who would soon join the faculty of his alma mater and who 
today (1950) is Wesleyan's oldest living alumnus. 

Chapter 13 

In reporting the business transacted by the Wesleyan trustees at 
their annual meeting in June, 1875, the Daily Pantagraph announced 
that they had elected Rev. C. M. Sims, a prominent Methodist min- 
ister in Maryland and New Jersey, as Fallows' successor. But, as it 
turned out, Sims declined the honor and it was not until August that 
the presidential chair was filled by the appointment of another Meth- 
odist minister. 

He was Rev. William Henry Harrison Adams who, as a boy in 
Coles county, helped his father with the farm chores in the summer 
and went to a log cabin school in the winter. While attending the 
preparatory department of Northwestern University, he had been 
licensed to preach, although only 19 years old at the time, and during 
his collegiate course he had served as a student pastor in Chicago. 

In the second year of the war Adams had enlisted in Company A 
of the 111th Illinois Volunteers, "carried a musket the first nine 
months and in 1863 was elected first lieutenant. He organized the first 
company of 'contrabands' (Negro soldiers) for service, drilling 2,000 
of them and turning them over to their command." 1 Later a captain 
in the Fourth United States Cavalry, a Negro regiment, he was pro- 
moted to major, the rank which he held when he resigned in 1865 to 
continue his studies in Evanston. Graduated from Garrett Biblical 
Institute in 1870, he had been admitted to the Illinois Conference and 
was in the third year of his pastorate at Clinton, 111. when called to 
the Wesleyan presidency. 

The former cavalry major was "of low stature, robust physical 
frame, florid complexion and sandy hair ... a man of energy who has 
the reputation of being an original, vigorous thinker and talented 
speaker." 2 He was then 35 years old, the youngest president Wes- 
leyan ever had, but he would need all his youthful resilience to cope 
with the problems ahead. As had been the case with Munsell, he be- 
gan his administration "under gravest discouragement. The panic of 
1873 had depreciated values, prostrated business and indirectly added 



to the indebtedness of the Institution for its main building. But with 
zeal and energy rarely surpassed, he devoted himself to the task of 
saving the institution from its financial embarrassment" 3 and, in doing 
this, so overworked himself as to contribute to his early death. 

To chronicle all, or even a small part of, the university's involved 
financial transactions during Adams' administration would make tedi- 
ous reading, so only some of the highlights of its struggles to avoid 
bankruptcy and suspension need be recorded. In September, 1875, 
the trustees had borrowed $35,000 for Rvt years, securing the loan by 
a trust deed on the college buildings and grounds. During the next 
Hve years Adams and various agents for the university bent every 
effort toward having the money available when that obligation fell 
due. Although a large part of the amount was subscribed, payment 
was contingent upon securing the entire amount. 

By 1880 the debt had mounted to $50,000 and the college authori- 
ties decided to use a celebration of the university's 30th anniversary 
during Commencement Week as the occasion for an effort to free it 
from debt. It was to be "celebrated on an extensive scale" with a 
number of "distinguished gentlemen friends of the university to take 
part in the jubilee," 4 at which Bloomington's own prima donna, Mile. 
Litta (Marie Von Eisner) was to sing. 

After Bishop Andrews asked the people "of Central Illinois and 
friends of the Institution to stand by it and not let it go down upon 
this, the thirtieth anniversary, for want of financial assistance," the 
Rev. Mr. Ives, who had helped raise funds before, was called upon to 
"take subscriptions in his own peculiarly happy and successful man- 
ner to lift the bonded debt threatening serious embarrassment to the 
Institution." 5 Although his efforts produced $16,000 in pledges, at 
the closing exercises Adams felt it necessary to appoint a committee 
to "take up a cash collection on the floor and in the gallery. ... In a 
short time $564.76 was raised." 6 

There still remained a mortgage debt of $9,000 which Adams 
hoped to raise before the opening of the next school year but, 
despite his most strenuous efforts, he failed to attain his objective. 
The climax of Wesleyan's financial difficulties was chronicled the fol- 
lowing December in a headline in the Pantagraph which announced 
"A College For Sale." The trustees had failed to meet the $35,000 
obligation when it fell due in September and Gilbert and Fay of 
Connecticut, "the Eastern parties who furnished the money had ac- 


cordingly advertised the University to be sold on January 1, 1881, at 
10 o'clock from the south door of the court house 'to the highest 
bidder for cash in hand'." 7 

The news story went on to explain the factors, which had brought 
Wesley an to this crisis, in these words: 

When the $35,000 loan was negotiated, the members of the board and 
possibly one or more outside the board gave their individual notes for the 
whole sum. This joint note was further secured by the trust deed on the 
college property. The loan was more readily effected because of the re- 
puted wealth of the men who signed the note. There were John Magoun, 
C. W. Holder, John E. McClun and others. The reverses of time have 
destroyed the financial credit for large amounts of every living signer of 
that note, and possibly others. The lamented Magoun is dead. 

A few months ago the attorneys for Gilbert and Fay secured an in- 
junction in court restraining the Hon. Lawrence Weldon, assignee of the 
Home Bank, from paying out any portion of the funds derived from the 
Magoun estate. It appears that Magoun's note for $35,000 for the Wes- 
leyan note must be paid before the creditors of the Home Bank can get 
a dollar from the Magoun estate, which is, of course, the main reliance of 
the creditors of that defunct concern. 

The creditors of the college see in the Magoun estate a certain chance 
to get out whole. They know that the college property would not bring 
$35,000 at auction in all probability, and they don't care what it brings. 
They see that Mr. Weldon, as assignee, holds, perhaps, $25,000 in his hand 
for the bank creditors, realized from Magoun lands, and there is more 
to follow at a subsequent period. They are, therefore, but little interested 
in what the college buildings will bring. Having gotten what it will bring, 
be it $5,000 or $20,000, they will receive of Mr. Weldon, through legal 
proceedings, whatever is necessary to make up the $35,000. 

The first step taken to cope with the situation was to make De- 
Motte acting president and arrange with Rev. W. N. McElroy, pre- 
siding elder of the Bloomington district, to take over Adams' classes. 
This would enable him to "give his individual attention to raising the 
necessary funds to redeem the mortgage and subsequently to secure 
funds to wipe out the floating indebtedness." 8 Meanwhile the trustees 
had made arrangements with the creditors to have the sale postponed 
for 30 days and early in March the Pantagraph was able to herald the 
good news that "Wesleyan Pays Its Debt." The trustees had handed 
over to Gilbert and Fay the full amount due them — $15,000 from 
cash on hand and another $20,000 which they had obtained by a loan 

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"negotiated with New York City capitalists, payable in quarterly in- 
stallments in two, three, four and five years." 9 

Within the next three months, due to the efforts of Adams and 
two financial agents, Wesleyan had "almost emerged from the cloud 
of financial distress which has overshadowed it since the panic." Dur- 
ing Commencement Week of 1881, "the floating debt of $15,000 was 
reduced almost one-half by subscription on Sunday and Thursday. 
When that floating debt is wiped out, the college will be out of debt 
and have a sufficient endowment to meet all running expenses with 
the help of the tuition fees." Thereupon, the Pantagraph reported, 
the trustees by a unanimous vote had granted Adams a "three months' 
vacation, his salary to continue, with the request that he take the op- 
portunity to visit Europe and recruit his exhausted energies. Presi- 
dent Adams is an incessant worker and has several times during 
the past year been obliged to suspend work for a time." 

What an "incessant worker" he had been is indicated by a state- 
ment in the Alumni Journal early in his administration that "President 
Adams is abundant in labor in the interest of the University. On the 
17th ult. he preached twice, rode 25 miles on horseback and reached 
the railroad station at 1 1 p.m. in order to be at home on the following 
day for his classes in the University. Such labors remind one of the 
Methodist preachers in the early times of Illinois." 10 Three months 
later the Journal recorded that in less than 30 consecutive hours he 
had "preached five sermons, presided at the quarterly meeting confer- 
ence, administered the sacrament of the Lord's Supper and collected 
$15, the amount of the elder's claims." n 

Despite its financial difficulties, Wesleyan had been going steadily 
ahead under Adams' administration. The enrollment during his first 
year (1875-76) had been 410. At the beginning of his second year 
"the partial failure of crops and the depression in financial circles had 
led some to fear that the halls of Illinois Wesleyan might lack for oc- 
cupants." 12 But even though the collegiate department showed a 50 
per cent decrease, gains in other departments brought the total to a 
new all-time high of 494 students. 

Part of this increase was in the law school, the success of which 
"has exceeded the expectations of its most sanguine friends. . . . The 
graduates of this department are admitted to practice in the courts 
without further examinations." 13 The preparatory department also 
showed an increase 14 but the biggest factor in the record enrollment 


was the addition of 110 students in the new "College of Music," 
formerly a collegiate department. 15 The next year (1877-78) the 
total was 508 and the Pantagraph commented that "notwithstanding 
hard times, the university has a satisfactory growth. We predict that 
it will not be many years until Wesleyan will enroll the names of 
over 1,000 young men and women," 16 (a prophecy which was ful- 
filled 13 years later.) The next two years the enrollment dropped back 
to less than 450 but the addition of a college of commerce 1T during 
the school year of 1880-81 put the total registration over the 500- 
mark again, increased it to 600 in 1881-82 and thereafter it never 
dropped below that figure. 

Meanwhile the number of women students was also increasing 
steadily and in 1878 the Woman's Educational association went into 
debt to purchase the Major's College building with its campus of 
nearly three acres. 18 Even with the help of the Bloomington women 
interested in this enterprise it was something of a struggle to keep it 
going, but help came unexpectedly six years later when Charles and 
Henrietta Cramp gave $4,000 to liquidate the indebtedness of the 
property. Thereupon the association renamed the building Henrietta 
Hall in honor of its benefactor and spent several thousand dollars in 
remodelling and repairing it. 

For a number of years Mrs. Sue M. D. Fry, the only woman on 
the faculty, served as matron of the hall in addition to her duties as 
professor of belles lettres. Eventually Henrietta Hall was discon- 
tinued as a residence for women students and when the association 
disbanded, the property, with the remaining obligations on it, was 
turned over to the trustees who had the building torn down and the 
campus platted as a Bloomington subdivision. 

In 1878 Wesleyan acquired another asset when it took over Chad- 
dock College, a Methodist school in Quincy, which because of poor 
management was having a hard struggle even though it was "well 
endowed, with buildings costing $200,000, well furnished, with a 
library, etc." The Quincy school was to be a "tributary and subsi- 
diary" to the Bloomington institution, "taking the place of a high 
academy whose students may complete their higher education at 
Wesleyan and obtain their degrees from it. It will add vastly to the 
completeness and effectiveness of Wesleyan which will soon be the 
most complete University in the west." 19 

With the expansion of Wesleyan during this era, student activities 


also increased. In 1878 the Adelphic Society, named for one to which 
Adams had belonged at Northwestern, was organized to provide 
competition for the Munsellian and Belles Lettres societies. In the 
same year a chapter of Phi Delta Theta was installed on the campus, 
followed by a chapter of Sigma Chi in 1883. 

Undergraduate journalism also made its first appearance on the 
campus during this decade. The Alumni Journal, which had been 
edited by Professors DeA4otte and Potter since its founding in 1870, 
was taken over in 1876 by the literary societies who published it for a 
year. In 1877 its name was changed to the Students' Journal with the 
idea of making it an undergraduate publication and placing it on a 
firmer financial basis. Three years later the Journal Publishing com- 
pany was dissolved and the Journal was suspended, not to be revived 
until 1885. "It was a period of intense rivalry between different or- 
ganizations and the cessation of one publication seemed to be the 
signal for the beginning of another. The Bee which made its appear- 
ance in 1882 came to an apparently untimely end in 1887. For one 
year, 1884-85, it exercised its sting upon it rival, the Students' Jour- 
nal, and it in return worried The Bee." 20 

When the students weren't thus feuding among themselves, they 
were making things lively for the faculty and, incidentally, adding to 
the already heavy burden which Adams was carrying. 21 Although, 
as a former army officer, he may have been something of a martinet, 
apparently he was popular with most of the students and at one time 
about 100 of them held "an indignation meeting to correct vague ru- 
mors affecting Doctor Adams' efficiency and popularity as President 
of the College." 22 Most of his troubles seem to have been with the 
law students and in one case, as the result of a heated exchange of 
words between the president and the barristers-to-be, one of them 
was expelled. Thereupon his fellows, who were "considerably in- 
censed" held a meeting to petition the trustees for "a separation of 
the law school recitations from the University in which they are now 
held." 23 But they soon cooled down and nothing came of the in- 

Although never entirely free from financial worry, the second 
half of Adams' administration proved to be less harassing than the first 
half. One reason was that during this period the university began re- 
ceiving substantial additions to its resources. Heretofore its largest 
gift had been the donation of a McLean county farm, valued at 


$10,000, from Hugh Meharry, father-in-law of Rev. A. J. Kumler, 
who had become a trustee in 1879. In 1885 Adams announced that 
he had secured two donations worth more than $40,000. One of these 
was 360 acres of land in Macon county, given by Charles and Hen- 
rietta Cramp, recent benefactors of the Woman's Educational asso- 
ciation. Valued at $27,000, this property increased the university's 
endowment to $100,000. 24 A short time later Rev. and Mrs. Hiram 
Buck deeded a 400-acre farm in Douglas county to the Wesleyan 
trustees. In recognition of this $16,000 contribution, which showed 
that "Doctor Buck has faith in the future of the University," they 
voted to establish a professorship named in his honor. 25 

A week after this gift was announced, the Fantagraph published 
more good news. H. G. Reeves, attorney for the trustees, had won a 
legal victory that would have an important bearing on the status of 
unpaid pledges to the university's building fund. The pastor of a 
church in Jacksonville had given two notes for $100 each, payable 
when a total of $25,000 had been subscribed for the completion of the 
new college building. Asked to liquidate the notes, he had refused. 
When the issue was tested in court, the judge had ruled in favor of the 
university and since "there are a large number of unpaid notes of this 
kind given to the Wesleyan, this judgment virtually settles all liti- 
gation upon them." 26 

Twice, during the early years of his presidency, Adams had tried 
to resign because the burden he was carrying was undermining his 
health, but each time he was persuaded to continue. Finally, in June, 
1887, when it seemed certain that the university was firmly estab- 
lished, he again offered his resignation. When the trustees refused to 
accept it, he then asked for a year's leave of absence. The board 
voted to grant a six months' leave, authorizing the executive com- 
mittee to extend it another six months if necessary, and named Wil- 
liam H. Wait, professor of Latin, to serve as acting president until it 
became known whether or not Adams would return. 

Chapter 14 

When it became apparent that Adams would not be able to re- 
turn to Wesleyan at the end of his leave of absence 1 the trustees at 
their annual meeting in June, 1888, elected to the presidency one of 
Adams' closest friends whom he had suggested as his successor. He 
was Rev. William Henry Wilder, named presiding elder of the 
Decatur district at the age of 34, making him one of the youngest 
men to hold that position in the Methodist church. He was also the 
first Wesleyan alumnus to become president of his alma mater. 

Wilder seems to have had some hesitancy about accepting the 
task for "from the year of his graduation he had held successful 
pastorates in the Illinois Conference and was highly esteemed by his 
fellow ministers and by the people whom he served. With the Wes- 
leyan he could expect years of arduous labor, periods of discourage- 
ment, uncertainty of successful issue." 2 But the promise of loyal 
support from older members of the conference, especially from Rev. 
Hiram Buck, reassured him and he assumed office at the beginning 
of the school year of 1888-89. 

This support was soon forthcoming in the form of promises of 
large donations to the endowment fund but all of them given on con- 
dition that he raise like sums. Chief among these donors was Buck 
whose last gift, made just before his death, was another farm valued 
at $15,000. In order to secure this, double that amount had to be 
raised by January 1, 1893. Thereupon Wilder and Rev. B. W. Baker, 
financial agent, launched a campaign which not only secured the 
necessary $30,000 in subscriptions but also more than $7,500 to ap- 
ply on current expenses. By July 1, 1895 the total endowment fund 
was approximately $188,000, including the Cramp fund which also 
had been given with certain conditions attached. 3 

Meanwhile some $15,000 had been spent in improvements on the 
buildings and grounds, $2,000 had been paid for an athletic park 
and $1,900 for two city lots as the site for a gymnasium and the 
janitor's house. Henrietta Hall, which the trustees had purchased 



from the Woman's Educational association, had been remodelled 
and repaired for use as a women's dormitory and, as an adjunct to 
the library, the Wilder Reading Room association had been organ- 
ized and made available to all students its magazines, newspapers, col- 
lege exchanges and foreign publications. 4 The donation of a large 
telescope and other astronomical equipment by C. A. Behr of Chi- 
cago had resulted in the erection of an observatory, named in his 
honor, and there had been important additions to the museum and 
laboratories. Among these were the private chemical laboratories of 
David S. Shellabarger and Henry S. Swayne, but most outstanding 
was the gift of the George W. and Rebecca S. Lichtenthaler concho- 
logical collection, valued at $25,000. 

Accompanying these improvements in the physical equipment 
of the university was a strengthening of the faculty. During Wild- 
er's first five years he added to the teaching staff a group of men and 
women whose names are still a bright memory in Wesleyan history. 
Among them were Melvin P. Lackland, who left the presidency of 
Chaddock College to take the chair of chemistry and geology; Robert 
B. Steele, professor of Latin; Wilbert Ferguson, a graduate of Ohio 
Wesleyan who as professor of Greek would become one of Wesley- 
an's most beloved teachers; Luella M. Denman, who succeeded Mrs. 
Sue M. D. Fry as Charles Cramp professor of belles lettres; Morton 
J. Elrod, assistant professor of natural science, later professor of 
biology and physics and curator of the museum which had been 
named the Powell Museum in honor of the former professor of 
geology. 5 

During these years also John M. Scott, former justice of the Illi- 
nois Supreme Court, joined the law faculty to help make it an out- 
standing group of practitioners and teachers who greatly increased 
the prestige of that school. His colleagues included Lawrence Wel- 
don, judge of the United State Court of Claims, Owen T. Reeves 
(soon to succeed Judge Benjamin as dean), Ezra M. Prince, Colostin 
D. Myers, Rolland A. Russell, James J. Morrissey and Jacob P. Lind- 
ley — "Jake" Lindley, whose eccentricities and unconventional teach- 
ing methods survive as a Wesleyan legend even though the school, 
where "he put the fear of God and Blackstone into his boys," no 
longer exists. 6 

Other additions to the faculty came about by action of the 
trustees at the annual meeting in 1890 when "Professor Wilson pro- 


posed to start an art school in connection with the University and 
under its control" 7 and "the subject of uniting the college of music 
with the conservatory of music was approved." 8 Soon afterwards 
the annual catalogue announced that "The College of Music, the 
result of the union of the Bloomington Conservatory of Music and the 
the Illinois College of Music, is one of the largest and best equipped 
musical schools in the West. . . . The members of the Faculty have 
established reputations as artists and teachers, having had the best 
advantages of both this country and Europe, and the high standard 
of the College of Music should make the institution deserving of the 
patronage of all who wish thorough instruction in the branches 
taught." Co-directors of the new college were John R. Gray, who 
had been elected dean of Wesleyan's college of music three years 
previously, and Oliver R. Skinner. Their faculty consisted of eight 
assistants who taught piano, organ, violin and vocal music to more 
than 600 students who were added to the Wesleyan enrollment as 
the result of this consolidation. 9 

The next year the Wilson School of Arts was affiliated with Wes- 
leyan as the college of arts with Prof. Oscar L. Wilson as its dean, 
and a faculty of 14, who gave instruction in 16 different subjects. 
This added another 162 students to the Wesleyan enrollment bring- 
ing the total to more than 900 resident students. In 1892 Delmar 
D. Darrah, a Wesleyan graduate, became instructor in elocution and 
began developing a course which resulted in the founding of the 
Wesleyan School of Oratory that would become famous throughout 
the Middle West, as would its director as author and director of 
Bloomington's annual Passion Play. 10 

Meanwhile two other departments of the university were showing 
a steady growth. Soon after Wilder became president Calvin W. 
Green, another Ohio Wesleyan graduate, was made principal of the 
preparatory school, with Miss Lyde R. Porter as assistant. The depart- 
ment then became known as the preparatory and academic depart- 
ment because two curricula were offered. One was the college pre- 
paratory course which covered three years' work. The other was 
the academic course, which required four years to complete and was 
designed to meet the needs of those who did not care to graduate 
from college but desired a more extended course than the college 
preparatory. During the previous decade the enrollment in the pre- 
paratory school had steadily declined but under the new arrangement 


registrations increased until 1894-95 when they reached a peak 
of 250. 11 

There was also an encouraging growth in the non-resident 
courses which had made little progress until Prof. C. M. Moss was 
named director, the number of courses increased and their content 
enriched. This was reflected in a rise in registrations, especially after 
the trustees combined the non-resident and post-graduate depart- 
ments of the university into a separate college and opened branches 
in Canada and the British Isles. 12 In the spring of 1891 Moss left 
Wesley an and Prof. R. O. Graham became director of the non- 
resident work. Again the content of the courses was revised and 
both entrance and graduation requirements were raised. According 
to the Wesleyan catalogues during these years, the non-resident plan 
had the endorsement of ministers, college presidents and educators 
throughout the country, and "the most distinguished scholars of 
various religious denominations and gentlemen of state and national 
reputation," as well as Wesleyan alumni, were consenting to serve 
as proctors for non-resident examinations. By 1895, with enrollments 
averaging between 70 and 90 each year, more than 400 "mature, 
earnest and talented men and women" were taking systematic courses 
of study at home, knowing that "rigid examinations will test the 
thoroughness of their work." 

While these older students were poring diligently over their 
lessons, the 190-odd undergraduates on the campus were doing the 
same, but finding an increasing number of distractions from their 
studies as the tempo of "collegiate life" increased. A few months 
before Wilder became president, the Avenger, a "semi-monthly paper 
published by the Barbarians of Illinois Wesleyan University in the 
Interests of Right, Honesty and Justice" reported that the "Wes- 
leyan has maintained a very good reputation for being a quiet 
school. But the prospects are that things will be rather lively during 
the spring term. There are now three papers published, there are five 
secret societies, three literary societies, two parliamentary societies, 
there is an Oratorical Association, a fire department, an athletic asso- 
ciation, a chess club, a Y.M. and a Y.W.C.A., three quartettes, a prac- 
ticing orchestra, a republican club, prohibition club, and a janitor, 
all of which tend to make things lively." 

A part of the liveliness was due to the rivalry between the fra- 

Edgar M. Smith 

Francis G. Barnes 

Theodore Kemp 

William J. Davidson 



ternity and non-fraternity men, expressed through the two rival pub- 
lications: the Elite Journal, established in January, 1888, as the voice 
of the non-fraternity men and followed the next month by the Greek 
Oracle, spokesman for the fraternities. With the Avenger taking pot- 
shots at its non-fraternity contemporary as well as the Oracle, this 
journalistic war continued for two years. Then the Oracle gained an 
ally in the form of the Athenian which, however, survived only a 
year when it was succeeded by the Wesley an Echo. 13 In the spring 
of 1894 Wilder and his colleagues, tiring of these factional journals 
which "at no time reflected the actual life of the institution, " 14 in- 
vited seven representative students from the junior and senior classes 
to a conference to organize a permanent publishing company. The 
result was the founding of the Argus, the weekly newspaper that has 
been the voice of the Wesleyan student body since that time. 

An addition to the three literary societies came in 1890 when the 
preparatory students founded the Amateurean Society, despite strong 
opposition from the older organizations, one of which, the Belles 
Lettres Society, soon afterwards disbanded. At first the new society 
was for men students only but later it took in women and its activity 
was a reflection of the increasing importance of that department of 
the university. 

Other evidences of the growth of "college spirit" at Wesleyan 
were chronicled by the Daily Pantagraph at various times during 
these years. One was a description of a flag rush that took place dur- 
ing Commencement Week in 1894. The juniors had hoisted a flag 
"with the figures '95 painted in large characters on it to the top of the 
flagstaff on the University building which was a signal for action as 
soon as it caught the eye of the seniors who were soon to pass above 
college tricks and inconveniences resulting therefrom. Soon after- 
wards the flag was no longer to be seen except in shreds as trophies 
in the hands of the seniors to be kept as a remembrance of the last 
stale joke of the Wesleyan junior class." 15 

The Pantagraph also recorded the fact that the Commencement 
speaker that year was the Rev. Frank Bristol, "the noted preacher of 
Evanston" and stated that "the plan of having a commencement 
address by a prominent orator is something new in the custom of the 
Wesleyan, as it has been the usual arrangement to have each member 
of the class deliver his oration. The class this year, however, adopted 


a new plan and it seemed satisfactory to all, particularly as the class 
this year was a large one and it would be next to impossible to hear 
from each of the twenty graduates." 16 

Six months later it was announced that "the Senior class of the 
College of Letters are to introduce a new departure in the way of 
wearing caps and gowns. The new articles of wearing apparel have 
already been ordered and the difficulty of distinguishing between the 
ladies and the gentlemen of the class on swell occasions will soon 
begin. There is a vague rumor afloat that the seniors of the law school 
may decide to do likewise. This new feature in college life at the Wes- 
leyan is commendable and following classes should be encouraged to 
perpetuate the custom when introduced." 17 

Chronicled, too, in the local paper during this decade were the 
events which marked the real beginnings of Wesleyan's athletic his- 
tory. Baseball had been the only sport of any importance during the 
Fallows' and Adams' regimes, 18 although intercollegiate football had 
been introduced the year before Wilder became president. Its incep- 
tion was due to Charles C. Craig of Galesburg, who had transferred to 
the law school from Columbia University. When the Wesleyan stu- 
dents learned that Craig had played in the East, they asked him to 
teach them the game. Normal University students were also inter- 
ested and in April, 1887, Craig had arranged a practice game between 
teams from the two schools, in which he served as referee and coach 
for both. It was the first game between two college teams in Illinois 
and the first in the Middle West played under intercollegiate rules. 

At the beginning of the next school year a team was organized at 
Wesleyan with Craig as captain and quarterback. Its members 
practised on a vacant lot near the university and kept in condition by 
racing the muledrawn streetcars that ran between Bloomington and 
Normal. That fall began the traditional football rivalry between the 
two institutions with Wesleyan winning two games by scores of 10 
to and 6 to but when the two teams played another game the 
next spring, Normal was victorious. 19 

The year 1890 ushered in a new era in sports. A varsity football 
team was organized and when the University of Illinois eleven came 
to Bloomington to play its first game of intercollegiate football they 
returned with a 16-0 defeat. The "Wesleyans" defeated the "Nor- 
mals" three times, played a scoreless tie with the Peoria high school 
team and then went to Urbana where the future Illini won their first 
football victory with a score of 12 to over the visitors. 


"It was in this year that the athletes of the different colleges com- 
posing the Oratorical League of Illinois prevailed upon the governing 
board to allow games such as football, baseball, track and tennis to 
be held at the time and place of the annual intercollegiate oratorical 
contest, which was held this year at Wesleyan." 20 Hugh S. Magill 
won the oratorical contest for Wesleyan and her football players 
were champions in that sport, but Illinois took both the track meet 
and the baseball tournament and Knox and Monmouth divided hon- 
ors in tennis. 

During the next two years interest in athletics declined somewhat 
although it revived in the spring of 1893, when Wilder Field became 
available for use by the students who, incidentally, had contributed 
$500 toward its purchase price. Prof. Ed. Manley, principal of the 
Bloomington high school, who had played at Harvard, became coach 
of the baseball team and the Pantagraph announced that "the boys 
will practice Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday P.M. of each week 
and visiting teams will find that they have no easy work in securing a 
victory over them. In order not to be behind other colleges, the new 
nine will have a yell that would be an honor to a much larger college 
and the boys will not be timid about using it, either. The first game 
to be played this year will be on April 20 in which the Wesleyan 
will contest the field with the club from Ann Arbor." 21 

The next year the football team played a full schedule; the base- 
ball team won the state championship at the tournament at Carlinville; 
the track team, captained by Dwight Funk, took its share of events 
in that sport; Mark Wilder won the tennis singles and joined with 
Clarence E. Snyder in taking the doubles. When the new gymnasium 
was opened, D. D. Darrah, who was director of physical education as 
well as head of the oratory school, introduced basketball to Wesleyan. 
It was played by the girls as well as the boys although the co-eds held 
their contests in the Illinois National Guard armory, then located on 
Center street near the campus. 

Early in the school year of 1895-96 the faculty, disturbed by com- 
plaints that had come to them, threatened to expel the football captain 
and manager if they played "ringers" (non-students) on the team. 
After two games the team was disbanded. The following June the 
board of trustees, taking notice of this situation "adopted resolutions 
favoring a closer faculty supervision of college athletics, during the 
coming year." 22 

The baseball team had only indifferent success in its schedule in 


the spring of 1896 and although the track team won the intercollegiate 
meet, held in Bloomington in connection with the state oratorical 
contest, there was such a lack of interest and the track meet was so 
poorly attended that this annual event was abandoned. The next year 
there was neither a baseball nor track team at Wesleyan and opposi- 
tion to football grew so strong in the community that Professor Gra- 
ham, who was also a city alderman, had hard work preventing the city 
council from passing an ordinance abolishing the game in the city. 
Mothers of the Wesleyan co-eds also had been questioning the value 
to their daughters of playing basketball (and possibly the propriety 
of their participating in contests open to the public) so the girls' 
team was disbanded. Thus athletics, which had developed so rapidly 
during this decade, went into a decline coincidental with the end of 
Wilder's administration. 

In June, 1897, the Pantagraph carried the news that President 
Wilder would "tender his resignation to the board of trustees at their 
meeting on Monday next and expects that it will be accepted. The 
reason given is a desire on the part of Dr. Wilder to return to pastoral 
work, which has always been his preference. The same request has 
been made to the trustees for two years past, but they have urged 
him to remain and, deeming it his duty to do so, he has withdrawn 
his resignation in each instance. He is now fully decided to take a 
pulpit and has no intention of recalling his resignation." 23 

Although Wilder had given up the presidency, he consented to 
serve through the summer as financial agent for the university to 
raise money to cover a deficit of $5,000 in current expenses that had 
been incurred during his last year. Within a short time he was able 
to announce that he had secured pledges from residents of Blooming- 
ton and the vicinity to meet this deficit. Wilder's resignation became 
effective August 31, 1897 and at that time the trustees elected Rev. 
John A. Kumler chancellor of the university and appointed Professor 
Graham as acting president until a new executive could arrive on the 
campus to guide Wesleyan into its second half-century. 

Chapter 15 

Within two weeks after the trustees' August meeting, the Daily 
Pantagraph was denying a report in the Chicago papers that Wes- 
ley an was in severe financial straits. "The facts are the institution has 
large resources far in excess of all debt," it said, "but the peculiar con- 
ditions of some of the endowments is such as to greatly reduce the 
present income." 1 It then went on to give this analysis of the situa- 

As against liabilities of $33,741 the university had endowment 
fund assets of cash and notes totalling $80,744. Added to this was its 
real estate (town lots and farm lands worth $36,775), buildings and 
grounds valued at $103,500, and special bequests of $47,000 to make 
total assets valued at $269,019. "These assets are exclusive of $38,815 
in notes which are regarded as worthless because little or nothing has 
been paid on them, but they were previously reckoned in the assets 
which accounts for the apparent shrinkage of the same. . . The pay- 
ments of some of the endowments require the payment of annuities 
for a time and this, with the taxes and other charges, reduce the net 
income from endowments to a small figure. The figures show the 
college to have a valuable lot of property and while present economy 
has to be exercised, there seems no doubt the institution will ulti- 
mately flourish and develop rapidly." 

When the university opened in September, DeMotte was back on 
the faculty as professor of political economy (also as secretary of the 
board of trustees) and Prof. Alonzo A. Waters had succeeded Elrod 
as professor of biology and physics. 2 Other newcomers to the teach- 
ing staff were Dr. Richard Edwards, former president of Normal 
University, as professor of ethics and metaphysics; and Mrs. Vera 
De Blumenthal as instructor in French. The Pantagraph, in comment- 
ing upon various indications of a large enrollment that year, declared 
that "there is about the college a spirit of hopefulness that seems to 
augur well . . . that Illinois Wesleyan is to rival in greatness the Wes- 
leyans of Ohio and Connecticut." 



In December it became known that a graduate of the Connecti- 
cut Wesleyan had been named as Wilder's successor in the presidency. 
He was Rev. Edgar Moncena Smith who then was serving as head of 
the Montpelier Seminary in Vermont. Because he had "speedily freed 
that institution from a $30,000 debt and met with such marked suc- 
cess there," 3 the trustees felt that he was particularly well fitted to 
perform a similar service for the debt-ridden Wesleyan in the Middle 
West. That this New England educator would fail to accomplish all 
that was expected of him would be due to no lack of effort on his 
part but to a number of factors which could not be foreseen at that 

Before Smith arrived to take up his duties, war with Spain had 
begun but the effect on Wesleyan of this brief conflict was negligi- 
ble compared to that of the Civil War. In May the Argus reported 
that "the war fever has broken out in the literary college and a num- 
ber of young men have formed themselves into a military company. 
About 70 have said they would attend drill and the company is one 
of which the school may be proud. It has met for drill several times, 
and, although its members are raw recruits they do good work. They 
expect to get caps and guns soon. Prof. Ferguson has been elected 
captain, J. D. Coldwell first lieutenant, and Mr. Stevens second 
lieutenant." 4 

Three weeks later the Argus reported that some of the college 
boys who had enlisted in Col. Bogardus' regiment expected to be 
called to the front, and that Schuyler C. Scrimger, a senior, who was 
at Chickamauga with an infantry company from Bloomington, had 
been overcome with the heat while drilling. 5 A short time later it 
reported that this soldier would return to Bloomington to get 20 
recruits for Company D of the 5th. Illinois regiment. "He has spent 
a month enjoying camp life at Camp George H. Thomas at Chick- 
amauga." 6 Except for these incidents, the war seemed to have made 
little impression on the life of the students, for when the Argus issued 
its commencement number, including a review of the year at Wes- 
leyan, there was no mention of the war in it. 

Smith was inaugurated during Commencement Week of 1898 
with Professor Graham welcoming him on behalf of the faculty and 
students and Joseph C. Hartzell, now Bishop of Africa, speaking for 
the alumni. In receiving the keys of the university from Judge Owen 
T. Reeves, president of the corporation, Smith declared that he recog- 


nized fully the hard work connected with his new position but felt 
capable of handling it successfully. At the trustees' annual meeting 
they appointed a new finance committee composed of five of their 
members with President Smith and Chancellor Kumler serving ex 
officio. The purpose of this committee was to "originate, plan and 
consummate the financial policies of the institution, under the ulti- 
mate control of the joint board just as the directors of a bank manage 
the business of such an institution, subject to the control of the stock- 
holders." So said the Fantagraph which pointed out that "the value of 
the property of the school now amounts to almost $400,000 and the 
university people have begun to believe that this great property 
should receive the attention any other property of equal magnitude 
receives. " 7 In working with this committee Smith soon came to real- 
ize the magnitude of the task ahead of him, including the problem of 
raising money to cover the deficit of $4,800 in the previous year's 
operating expenses. 

Meanwhile the new president had made himself popular with the 
students by declaring that he was "heartily in favor of manly sports 
of all kinds and would encourage their propagation to a reasonable 
and well-defined limit" although warning them that "an excess of 
athletics to a degree where it worked injury to the studies would not 
be tolerated." Before the school closed for the summer he had gone 
"among the scholars with the leaders of athletics and succeeded in 
raising $200 by subscription. Early in the season last year, the boys 
raised $125 but it was not used, leaving a balance in the treasury on 
the next term, with the exception of money expended for football 
suits. With nearly $300 to start on and lots of interest, Wesley an is 
bound to come to the front in the athletic world." 8 

That fall C. D. Enoch, who had played at the University of Illi- 
nois, was hired to coach the football squad and in October led it to 
victory over his alma mater when "the University of Illinois boys 
were unmercifully dragged in the dust by the lighter but much more 
scientific players of Wesleyan." 9 The score was 12 to 6. "The day 
was an ideal one for football and about 500 paid admissions, including 
many ladies, were taken in at the gates. The students and faculty 
were out in full force, weighed down with green and white ribbons, 
and college yells." 10 

Another event of student interest during this school year was the 
announcement in the Argus that on January 10, 1899 five students 


had formed an organization called the Knights of Classic Lore whose 
purpose was to devote a portion of their weekly meetings to literary 
pursuits and especially to examination of the classics. 11 Three years 
later this group would rent a dwelling near the campus, thus estab- 
lishing the first fraternity house in Wesleyan history, change the 
organization's name to Tau Kappa Epsilon and become the first of 73 
chapters of a national fraternity which now has a membership of 
more than 70,000. 

While the students were busy with such affairs, alumni and friends 
of the university had organized a committee, headed by Oscar Man- 
del, to try to raise money to liquidate Wesleyan's accrued deficit in 
operating expenses which by this time totalled $36,000. Early in 
June Ex-governor Fifer presided over a public meeting in the court 
house in the interests of this campaign. There Mandel gave the dis- 
couraging report that only $4,000 had been raised and Alumnus 
T. C. Kerrick in his appeal for aid bluntly declared that "the naked 
truth is that Wesleyan can't live unless this debt is paid." The gravity 
of the situation was confirmed by President Smith who stated that 
"for the Institution to go on next year as at present is to go into 
bankruptcy and the trustees feel it can not be honorably done unless 
this debt is wiped out. Some of the creditors will likely demand their 
money and the school can be closed at any time." 12 

Spurred on by this crisis, the committee renewed its efforts and 
at the Commencement exercises two weeks later it was announced 
that "the financial stress of the college can be weathered if the au- 
dience present will give $1,000 to the fund. In a very short time the 
sum of $1,675 was pledged and the worry of months to the friends 
of Wesleyan was at an end." 13 Later one of the board of trustees 
was quoted as saying that all except $2,000 of the $36,000 indebted- 
ness had been raised and that the citizens' committee had good reason 
to believe that the additional amount would be obtained soon. 

In an effort to guard against future deficits, the trustees at their 
annual meeting that year took drastic action. They announced that 
expense for instruction was to be limited to $10,000 during the com- 
ing year, a reduction of $2,800 from the previous budget. As a result 
three faculty members — Lackland, Waters and Green — resigned but 
when the academic year of 1899-90 opened Green was back as pro- 
fessor of mathematics, DeMotte was in charge of the preparatory 
school and J. Culver Hartzell, son of Bishop Hartzell, was now occu- 

*Wf, -Ti-flfi— - 

#^# f? 


Back row (left to right): Hiles, Ludwig, McMurry, Barclay, Flint, Burwell, 
Twomey, Yakel. Front row (left to right): Stautz, Ogle, Redmon, HefTernan, 
Muhl (coach), Fieker (captain), Steinkraus, Rhodes. 


Back row (left to right): Dunham, Ehresman, Muhl (coach), Barnhart, Smith. 
Front row (left to right): King, Rust, Elliott (captain), Hart, Young. 



pying the chair of biology and physics. Enrollment in all departments 
of the university showed encouraging increases over the previous 
year and Wesleyan, having passed its latest financial crisis, was end- 
ing its first half century with brighter prospects for success than 
ever before. 

Encouraging, too, was the renewed interest of the alumni in their 
alma mater due, in part, to the development of the athletic program. 
"It was during this decade that most of the college athletic confer- 
ences were organized and it is sometimes referred to as the period of 
strife between the students and alumni on one side and the faculty 
on the other to determine who should control the athletic activities 
of the college." 14 During Commencement Week of 1900 the ques- 
tion came up "whether or not to have business men on the athletic 
committee of the school, which, previous to this time, has been solely 
in the hands of the faculty and students. Much has been done in the 
past few years in the way of cleaner athletics and barring of profes- 
sionalism but it is thought that with alumni actively interested not 
only this feature but also the financial condition can be bettered." 15 
At this time also began the first agitation to have alumni elected to 
the board of trustees. 

As the academic year of 1900-1901 opened the alumni were also 
invited to participate in the preparations for the celebration of Wes- 
leyan's semi-centennial. In a letter to the Pantagraph 16 President 
Smith reviewed the progress of the school and declared that: 

During the half-century the Wesleyan has given degrees to 1,121 
graduates, and has had an aggregate of not less than 25,000 or 30,000 stu- 
dents. It has been the chief factor in the higher education of the young 
people of the city and county and adjoining counties. ... It has added 
much to the material prosperity of Bloomington and contributed largely 
toward the production of that intellectual, social and moral atmosphere, 
for which the city is justly distinguished. In this respect, the more thor- 
oughly the influence of the University is studied the more highly it will 
be estimated. 

The size of the graduating classes in the college of letters and the 
total number in attendance in that college have, from the first, fluctuated 
greatly from year to year. A comparison can be best made by decades. 
Compared in that way, the number of resident graduates has steadily in- 
creased and also the whole number in attendance, culminating in 1900 
with the largest class, numbering 26, and the best decade in the history 
of the college. The number in the preparatory school show a marked de- 


crease at the time the Bloomington High School was raised to its present 
admirable grade; but it is probable that there are nearly as many prepara- 
tory students coming from beyond the limits of the city as there ever 

In education work, the Wesleyan has kept well abreast with the age. 
It now offers in its college of letters 118 courses of which more than 
one-half are elective. ... Its degrees are recognized and its work taken 
for full value by the best colleges and universities of the country. 16 

The Wesleyan president then pointed out that "its financial con- 
dition is full of promise. It already has income from nearly $200,000 
of endowment and more than another $100,000 to be directed toward 
it in legacies. With a good record and good management the Wes- 
leyan a few years hence ought easily to have an endowment of half a 
million." The administration, he said, had three immediate goals: 
first, to collect $20,000 of church notes which were given eight years 
previously to meet in part the condition of a legacy of $27,500 given 
by Dr. Hiram Buck; second, to make provision to meet a probable 
deficit in the current account of the next Rvt years and thus to insure 
the university against the accumulation of another debt; third, to 
obtain from $25,000 to $30,000 for a home for women students which 
would "render the Wesleyan far more attractive to young women 
and would doubtless be a source of some revenue." 

Commencement Week this year was devoted to an observance 
of the university's 50th anniversary although the celebration was 
somewhat darkened by the financial clouds that still hung over the 
school. At the annual meeting of the trustees the new finance com- 
mittee reported that "expenditures were practically within the re- 
sources during the past year." Actually, the excess of receipts over 
disbursements had been only $38.77. One hopeful development, 
however, was the organization of the Twentieth Century Guild by 
a group of alumni, headed by Rolland A. Russell. Its purpose was to 
interest more parents in Wesleyan affairs, and to enlist the aid of 
alumni and friends of the university in devising some systematic 
means of raising money to provide for current expenses until the 
trustees could realize enough from endowment assets to cover any de- 
ficit that might accrue in the future. 17 

In the autumn the financial picture brightened somewhat when, 
as the result of the death of Mrs. Henrietta Cramp, the university 
would, as the Pantagraph announced, "come into an increase of en- 


dowment consisting of $18,000 which is loaned at interest, the Cramp 
homestead on North Main Street, and the Major's College property, 
with the exception of two lots which have been sold, the lot value 
being $25,000. The sum of $1,200 to $1,400 which was paid as an 
annuity to the deceased can now be used for other purposes." 18 But 
even with this addition to the resources of the university, President 
Smith's ever-present problem of providing adequate funds for the 
school continued through the school year of 1901-02 during which 
there was a drop in enrollment and a consequent decrease in revenue 
from tuition. 

The opening of the school year of 1902-03, however, brought 
Wesley an an all-time high of 1,516 students. Although registrations 
in the preparatory school and the law school had dropped, the num- 
ber of students in the college of liberal arts showed a slight increase 
and there had been a substantial gain in the college of music and in 
the graduate and non-resident department. This did not necessarily 
mean that there was a corresponding increase in income for the total 
amount of tuition received this year was approximately $1,000 less 
than the previous year. One factor in this situation was that the music 
school was "so loosely affiliated with the university as to be a part of 
Wesleyan in little more than name." 19 Although its enrollment had 
increased from 638 to 790, an entry in the treasurer's report for the 
year ending June, 1902, showed that the university had received from 
this department a total for the year of only $96.62. 

In December the board of trustees held a special meeting and re- 
leased President Smith from all classroom duties for the rest of the 
school year so that he could devote all his time to directing a cam- 
paign in the Illinois Conference for funds for the university. Pre- 
sumably the president was successful in that work for the trustees 
at their meeting in June, 1903, voted to increase the faculty salaries 
for the coming year. That such action was long overdue is indicated 
by the reports of the trustees during the early years of Smith's ad- 
ministration. In a 1900 report faculty salaries are given as ranging 
from $500 to $1,500 with the words "no salary" after the name of 
one professor. Two years later salaries were even lower — from $325 
to $1,300 — with one teacher still serving "without salary". . . . "In 
those lean years faculty members were often paid in 'salary orders' 
which were promises to pay but many of which were not redeemed 
until years later." 20 


At this meeting of the trustees DeMotte (who, incidentally, had 
been given a raise in salary of $50 a year) was named vice-president 
of the university in order to free Smith for the financial campaign. 
The board also took action in regard to non-resident courses. For 
some time these courses had been the object of "antagonistic criti- 
cism both within the board itself and among educators throughout 
the nation who came to feel that non-resident scholastic training was 
not maintaining a sufficiently high standard of excellence to Justify its 
continuance." 21 As a first step toward meeting that criticism the 
board voted that "after July 1, none will be allowed to enroll for the 
degree of Ph.B." 22 This action foreshadowed the elimination in the 
near future of Fallows' educational innovation which in many re- 
spects had been highly successful. 23 

In January, 1904, the announcement was made that President 
Smith had secured from Sanford Hoots, the father of a Wesleyan 
graduate in the class of 1897, the gift of a farm in Coles county, 
valued at $15,000. But evidently this, as well as other efforts by the 
president to increase the school's endowment during 1903 had not 
been sufficient to satisfy the trustees. Soon afterwards a special com- 
mittee on reorganization was appointed. In its report, made in June, 
1904, it said in part, "Your committee agrees with the view that the 
pressing needs of the college demand that the head of the University 
should be a man specially adapted to field work. Your committee 
recognizes that the two supreme needs of the college are money and 
students, and they believe that the man who can best secure these 
needs should be the head of the University. Therefore, in view of 
the fact that President Smith has expressed that this kind of work is 
not such that he feels himself adapted to and does not desire to under- 
take, we recommend that a committee be raised, charged with the 
duty of seeking out a man for the head of the University who is es- 
pecially adapted to go about through the territory of the patronizing 
conferences and secure both funds and students, and that he should 
be engaged especially in this work." 24 

The committee further recommended that, until there could be 
found a new president who had the desired qualifications, a member 
of the faculty should be given supervision of the internal affairs of the 
university. Although Smith was to be the nominal president for the 
year 1904-05 DeMotte was made acting president and served until 
his death early in the school year. 25 In December Smith submitted 


a report to the trustees which contained this paragraph: "In accord- 
ance with the purpose indicated in my last annual report and to re- 
move in season all formal embarrassment to your action, I hereby 
tender my resignation as President of Illinois Wesleyan to take effect 
July 1, 1905 or at such time thereafter as the Board may designate." 

Smith's valedictory to Wesleyan was uttered in his address at the 
1905 Commencement in which he said in part: "when I took charge 
of affairs at Wesleyan seven years ago, the college had a chancellor 
who did all the outside work. I liked the inside duties which de- 
volved upon a president in caring for classes, teaching and the internal 
management of the institution. The outside labor in connection with 
the success of the college was most needful and when, a short time 
after I came, the position of chancellor was left vacant, this devolved 
upon me the attention to the financial work as well as my duties 
here. The former was distasteful to me and always was and a year 
ago I told the trustees that they had better look about to secure some 
one to take my place to whom the financial work would be more 
congenial." 27 

This statement indicates one of the reasons why Smith had not 
been able to fulfill the expectations of the trustees. Another factor 
was his personality. One of his students, who knew him intimately 
and later became a Wesleyan president, has written: "Being a typical 
son of New England and possessed of such dignity, scholastic bearing, 
reserve, he was unemotional — some thought austere — in his reactions. 
All this made up an attitude that many termed 'conservative' but 
some considered 'cold.' He was never understood and apparently 
from the first not properly received, nor fully appreciated, by the 
native sons and daughters of Central Illinois who made up Wesley- 
an's constituency. 

"To one who knew Dr. Smith's extraordinary talent as a teacher, 
it seems ludicrous, to say the least, to note how the Board of Trustees 
at that time attempted a 'presto change' designed to convert a teacher 
and educator of the first rank into an expert money-raiser. I recall 
his statement that college presidents in his day were expected to be 
'money-getters' and were all too frequently rated as successes or fail- 
ures upon that score alone. He indicated both by word and tone of 
voice that he did not consider himself fitted for the new role. . . . The 
most valuable resources of any educational institution are not its 
physical equipment, its endowment or even its multitude of mine-run 


friends, but the lengthened shadows of a few great personalities. 
Illinois Wesleyan is rich beyond many institutions in a long line of 
such persons, not the least of whom, but one of the very greatest, 
was Edgar Moncena Smith." 28 

Chapter 16 

When the Wesley an trustees on New Year's Day, 1905, elected a 
successor to President Smith, it marked the beginning of a new era in 
the history of the university. This was partly due to the trend of the 
times in higher education and partly to the personality of the new 

He was Francis George Barnes, whose English parents had 
brought him to Canada when he was four years old. Left fatherless 
at the age of 10, he had helped support his mother by working in 
factories in Hamilton, Ont. During this time he became active in 
church affairs and as a young man was sent as a missionary among the 
Indians in the frontier districts of Assiniboia, Saskatchewan and Al- 
berta. In 1885 the Canadian "sky pilot" came to the United States and 
for four years was a cowboy and rancher in North Dakota. Deter- 
mined to get an education, he entered the preparatory department of 
Hamline University at St. Paul, Minn, in 1891 and during his college 
career he became a leader in athletics, debating and other student 

After graduation from Hamline in 1897 Barnes became principal 
of the Epworth (Iowa) Seminary and while serving there won his 
D.D. degree from Upper Iowa University in 1900. Elected president 
of the Grand Prairie Seminary at Onarga, 111., he was on leave of 
absence doing graduate work at Harvard University when he was 
called to the presidency of Wesleyan. 1 

In sharp contrast to the austerity of his scholarly New England 
predecessor was the exuberant geniality of this former Westerner, a 
fact which became apparent soon after his arrival in Bloomington. 
Interviewed by the Fantagraph, the new president declared: 

"This is an age of publicity. I am going to adopt some of the 
methods of the commercial traveler in presenting the claims of Wes- 
leyan to the young people of this and other states who ought to be 
students here. The one important need of the university at present is 
students and larger attendance. I believe that the chief way and the 



best way to get students is to let the young people who are preparing 
to enter college know what the Wesleyan has to offer, and they will 
do the rest. ... I will go up and down this state telling the communi- 
ties that the Illinois Wesleyan University is in running order at 
Bloomington and that we await students and will give them the best 
there is in educational training." 2 

Five months later the Pantagraph reported that the energetic presi- 
dent had kept his word. He had visited more than 160 towns and 
communities in the interest of the college, had delivered on an aver- 
age five addresses a week and had "found that people everywhere are 
enthusiastic concerning the future of Wesleyan." 3 Two other agents 
for Wesleyan also had been in the field — Prof. J. C. Zeller, newly- 
appointed professor of philosophy, and F. M. Austin, professor of 
Latin — and the results of their efforts were apparent in the enroll- 
ment which increased from the 1904-05 total of 1,068 (the lowest 
in nine years) to 1,350 in 1905-06. The registration in the academy 
had more than doubled, it had nearly doubled in the college of lib- 
eral arts and the school of oratory and only the law school and the 
music school showed slight decreases. 

Besides building up the size of the student body, Barnes also 
announced his intention of making the Wesleyan curriculum more 
attractive to prospective students. "While I would not have any 
less Latin and Greek and those studies which represent the time- 
honored classical education, nor would I have these taught with any 
less ability and enthusiasm, yet I am convinced that the college of the 
future must respect the demand of the age for a practical education," 
he stated. "I have the most profound respect for the scholarship of 
the past and I am anxious that the Illinois Wesleyan should stand 
firmly for the best things of that scholarship. Yet I believe that the 
university must also offer these branches which are so eagerly being 
sought by the young people of the present day." 4 

Barnes also had determined to make a special effort to interest 
and unite the community in support of the university and, as a part of 
this program, had sponsored the organization of the Woman's Uni- 
versity Guild. Its membership included the leading women of Bloom- 
ington and Normal, as well as wives of the faculty and trustees. 5 
With their help Barnes "planned the most elaborate community fair 
Bloomington ever saw. It was given much in the spirit of the his- 
toric Sanitary Commission Fairs of Civil War days. Young and old, 

< g 


o ^ 

W | 




rich and poor, Bloomington's population worked together for the 
success of the Wesley an Carnival, held from April 19 through April 
26, 1906 at the Coliseum. No previous event ever brought city and 
college into such close and pleasant relationship." 6 Besides serving 
its main purpose of promoting town-and-gown unity, the carnival 
also provided the sum of $4,000 for use in beautifying the Wesleyan 
buildings and campus in preparation for Barnes' inauguration as presi- 
dent during Commencement Week. 

The 1906 Commencement, at which Bishop Fallows again was 
the principal speaker, was marked by the award of a large number 
of honorary degrees to prominent citizens of Central Illinois. Hereto- 
fore, Wesleyan had been very conservative in conferring these hon- 
ors but this year a total of 10 such degrees were awarded. 7 They 
included LL.D.'s for former President Wilder; Adlai E. Stevenson, 
former vice-president of the United States; Joseph W. Fifer, ex- 
governor of Illinois; Leonidas H. Kerrick, former member of the 
state legislature and a trustee for many years; Emory C. Graves of 
Geneseo, 111., Col. D. C. Smith of Normal, and Prof. O. L. Manchester 
of Normal University. D.D. degrees were given to Rev. George 
Heber Jones of Korea and Rev. W. D. Agnew of Cameron, Mo., and 
the degree of A.M. pro merko was conferred upon Judge Colostin D. 
Myers, John T. Lillard and Miss Lyde R. Porter, who had been assist- 
ant to the principal of the Academy since 1889. 8 

Soon after the organization of the Woman's University Guild, 
one of the additions to the curriculum which Barnes had mentioned 
in his plans for offering students a "more practical education" became 
a reality. Under the patronage of the Guild, a home economics de- 
partment was installed when two rooms in the basement of the main 
building were equipped for instruction in domestic science. Its pur- 
pose was to prepare teachers in that field and it included a two-year 
course with the Guild paying expenses of the department for the 
first year when 38 young women enrolled. Thereafter the department 
was able to maintain itself financially. In the summer of 1906 a de- 
partment of commerce was organized also and that fall it had an 
enrollment of 57 students. Still another addition was a department 
of fine arts, suggested by members of the Guild interested in painting, 
and the annual catalogue for 1907-08 listed instruction in that field by 
Miss Abigail B. Rees. 

Indicative of the new spirit which Barnes infused into the uni- 


versity was the increase in student activities during this period. De- 
cember, 1905, saw the organization of the Oxford Club, composed of 
students who planned to make the ministry their career. In 1906 
there was a new national sorority on the campus when Sigma Kappa 
installed a chapter, to be followed two years later by Kappa Delta. 
The growing prestige of the law school was reflected in the installa- 
tion of chapters of two national legal fraternities, Phi Delta Phi in 
1907 and Phi Alpha Delta in 1908. 

With a former football player in the president's chair there were 
indications also of a revival of interest in athletics which had de- 
clined during the Smith regime. Wesleyan had been one of 1 3 insti- 
tutions whose representatives had organized an Illinois College Ath- 
letic Conference and adopted regulations to control intercollegiate 
contests, but this conference had only a brief existence. 10 Through- 
out this period there had been baseball and track teams at Wesleyan 
which enjoyed varying degrees of success, but according to the 
1903-04 catalogue, "for two years in succession no football team 
has been organized, the students having preferred to use their energies 
in other directions. The change has been attended by better morals 
and better scholarship." 

However, the game was revived in 1904 with an alumnus of the 
law school, James C. Riley, (later a county judge) serving as coach 
and the next year the team had another alumnus coach, J. Dwight 
Funk, who had begun playing on the Wesleyan eleven while still 
in the academy. The real upturn in Wesleyan athletic history began 
during the next two years. In 1906 the athletic board of control 
hired Fred L. Muhl, a University of Illinois star who was then 
coaching the Bloomington High School football team, to train the 
college eleven and the next year Tom W. Scott, a Northwestern 
University athlete, became the school's first director of athletics and 
also coached football and track. 

While all these undergraduate activities were foreshadowing 
a new era in student life at Wesleyan, more momentous developments 
in the history of the university were on the way. At the time Barnes 
assumed office, the Pantagraph had announced that he was "not to 
handle the financial affairs for at least two years in order to let him 
have a free hand for the work of increasing the student clientage. The 
trustees have shown their fine spirit of cooperation by already pro- 
viding for the payment of all teachers' back salaries and taking the 


financial burden entirely from Doctor Barnes' shoulders." n This 
did not mean, however, that the new president could or would be 
indifferent to the necessity of building up the endowment fund and 
especially of getting money for three new buildings — a science hall, 
a dormitory and a gym — which he declared "are more essential at 
present than increased endowment." 

In January, 1907, he was able to announce that a bequest in the 
will of Harvey J. Rust would add property valued at $32,000 to Wes- 
leyan's resources after the death of Rust's widow. 12 But of more 
immediate importance was the news of an offer of $30,000 by the 
Carnegie Foundation to apply on the cost of erecting a science hall, 
conditioned upon Wesleyan's raising an additional $60,000. In May 
a strenuous campaign was begun to raise $40,000 in Bloomington and 
$30,000 in the two patronizing conferences. This total of $70,000, 
with the Carnegie pledge of $30,000, would provide $100,000 not 
only to erect but also to equip the building. 

To aid in this campaign Barnes enlisted the cooperation of 30 
leading citizens of Bloomington to serve as a general committee and 
when the campaign was ended they had pledges amounting to $42,500 
from local citizens, alumni and students, with $5,000 from outside 
sources bringing the total to $47,500. In September Barnes stated 
that the drive to raise $30,000 in the two patronizing conferences 
would begin immediately and that he hoped to "have the canvass 
completed by December 3 1 so that we can lay claim to the Carnegie 
donation and begin the erection of our new hall of science early in 
the coming year." 14 

Due, however, to his declining health and the financial stringency 
which gripped the country in 1907, it was considered advisable to 
postpone further action until the next year. 15 By that time Barnes' 
illness had become so alarming that he was forced to retire from the 
presidency in June, 1908. In a little more than two years after his 
resignation, another Wesleyan president who had driven himself 
mercilessly in the service of the institution was dead. 16 His successor, 
in reviewing the accomplishments of Barnes' brief administration, told 
how he had restored public confidence in the university, tripled stu- 
dent attendance, added $40,000 to the endowment fund besides hav- 
ing made it virtually certain that the Carnegie donation would be 
secured. He ended by declaring truly that under Barnes had been 
inaugurated "a new era of progress for Illinois Wesleyan." 17 

Chapter 17 

To Rev. Theodore Kemp, then serving as pastor of the Grace 
M.E. church in Bloomington, was entrusted the task of carrying 
Wesleyan forward through the era of progress which Barnes had 
inaugurated. A man of robust physique and commanding presence, 
dignified but genial, the new president had much of his predecessor's 
gift for making loyal friends for the university. 1 

Ten years after he had retired, when it was possible to gain some 
perspective on his contribution to the progress of the university, the 
Pantagraph in its role as spokesman for the community declared 
that, in terms of building program, financial stability and increased 
academic prestige, Kemp was the "greatest president Illinois Wes- 
leyan had yet had." 2 Corroborating that estimate is this summary of 
Kemp's achievements by one of his colleagues, Dean William Wallis: 

"When he assumed the leadership of the university the school was 
$57,000 in debt. The faculty numbered 14 and their salaries ranged 
from $550 to $1,000 with the exception of two who received the 
munificent amount of $1,300. Old North Hall was heated by stoves, 
as were also the basement rooms of the main hall. These two were 
the only structures on the campus for no building had been done in 
40 years. 

"During his administration he brought faculty salaries up from 
$1,000 to $2,500. The faculty increased from 14 to 30, the student 
body more than doubled and Wesleyan was accredited by the North 
Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. The debt of 
$57,000 which he had inherited, plus $63,900 more contracted later, 
making a total of $120,000, was all paid off. The total assets (build- 
ings, equipment, endowment) were raised from $327,000 to more than 
$2,000,000. Five times as much money was secured for the university 
during this period as was obtained in all the 58 years of previous his- 
tory of Illinois Wesleyan. Such were the achievements of Theodore 
Kemp." 3 

When Kemp assumed the presidency on July 1, 1908 the cam- 



paign to secure $60,000 to bind the $30,000 offer from the Carnegie 
Foundation to help build a Science Hall was still $18,000 short of the 
mark. So his first effort was to finish that campaign. Within a year 
he had not only secured that amount but had increased the total to 
$100,000 to provide both the building and its equipment. In Feb- 
ruary, 1910, the Fantagraph reported that the "long delayed science 
building is to be started in earnest today" and on March 10 Kemp 
broke sod for the new structure. The cornerstone was laid the fol- 
lowing May with Bishop Wilbur S. Lewis as the principal speaker, 
and by the beginning of the academic year of 1911-12 Science Hall 
was ready for occupancy. 

"During this time the institution had been accumulating a deficit 
at the rate of $4,000 to $5,000 a year," writes Prof. Cliff Guild, who 
became bursar of the university in 1911 and who was closely asso- 
ciated with the subsequent financial campaigns. "The total deficit 
now amounted to more than $60,000 in notes for borrowed money 
and in unpaid orders on the treasurer, of which the latter were held 
by faculty members and by merchants for fuel and other necessary 
supplies." 4 He continues: 

The completion of the Science Hall, with its equipment costing 
$45,000 instead of the $30,000 donated by the Carnegie Foundation, and 
a proposed central heating plant made necessary by the new building and 
the inefficiency of the old heating units in the other buildings, created 
an additional liability which the institution must immediately face. So 
another campaign was launched among the members of the board and ex- 
tended to the alumni and friends of the institution seeking subscriptions 
of $100, more or less, annually for five years. President Kemp was urged 
to push this campaign and encourage others to assist. 

This plan was superseded, however, by the organization in the Illinois 
and Central Illinois Conferences of the movement known as the "Educa- 
tional Forward Movement," and Rev. Joseph C. Nate was appointed to 
devote his entire time as its executive head for a term of five years. The 
several educational institutions and the Wesley Foundation within the 
bounds of these two conferences were to share in the expense and income 
on a fixed pro rata basis. 

Resolutions were passed by the trustees on November 28, 1911, author- 
izing Wesleyan's participation in this movement and sharing the expense 
and income on the following basis: two tenths in the Central Illinois 
Conference and three tenths in the Illinois Conference, the goal being to 
secure gifts from each local church in an amount averaging $1.00 a mem- 


ber annually. Also at this same meeting the board directed the executive 
committee to employ a special financial field agent to cooperate in the 
conference movement and especially to secure funds for Wesleyan. 
Accordingly, in February, 1912, G. H. Myers was elected endowment 
secretary and soon afterwards began his work. 

The annual financial report records increases in endowment to the 
amount of $64,000 and deficit for the year as $8,900. The year ending 
June, 1913, showed a decrease in deficit of almost $3,000, in spite of 
Wesleyan's share of the expenses of the Educational Forward Movement 
and the addition of a full-time financial secretary. The results of the 
various financial efforts for the year are indicated partly in the total 
endowment of $357,579. 

This considerable increase is due in large measure to the successful 
completion of the special campaign in Bloomington and Normal under 
the leadership of President Kemp, Endowment Secretary Myers, and a 
host of loyal supporters, including Bishop W. S. Lewis, the Bloomington 
Commercial club and citizens, headed by 100 captains and solicitors. 
Encouraged by these successes the board resolved to strengthen the finan- 
cial organization for a larger and most intense campaign by appointing 
the president of the university, the president of the board and three others 
to a special endowment campaign committee to have general oversight of 
the campaign until its completion. Also the board resolved to continue 
Myers as endowment secretary and to employ at once four additional 
men as full-time field workers. They were J. W. McVety, W. A. Smith, 
Parker Shields, and John W. Henninger. 

The campaign was vigorously pursued until, at the annual meeting of 
the board in June, 1915, President Kemp announced that $363,000 had 
been raised in the campaign by midnight on June 1 (the closing date) and 
that since that hour several land gifts were turned in which would 
bring the amount to $379,800. The actual income produced subscriptions 
amounting to $374,050. Thus ended the first major financial campaign for 
Wesleyan. It had paid for itself, added nearly $200,000 to permanent 
funds, paid off all indebtedness and annual deficits, and had a small bal- 
ance to spare. Then followed dreams of expansion in buildings, equipment, 
and increases in salary budget. This called for more income and the effort 
was placed with a sustentation committee, with H. B. Prentice as chair- 
man, backed to some extent by the Association of Commerce. 

In a statement issued in November, 1910, Kemp had listed among 
the building needs of the university a women's dormitory and a gym- 
nasium. "With the growing attendance and the widespread interest 
in athletics it seems that the time has come when young men and 


women who attend the university should no longer be deprived of 
the advantages of a modern gymnasium," he declared. 5 The oppor- 
tunity to acquire a woman's residence hall came when the De Mange 
residence, erected on North Main street near the university at a cost 
of $65,000, was placed on the market. "The money to buy it was 
not in sight but Dr. Kemp, who was a man of some private means, 
assumed full responsibility and gave his personal note to secure the 
property which was appropriately named Kemp Hall." 6 The real- 
ization of Kemp's desire to provide a gymnasium for his students was 
longer in coming but toward the end of his administration sufficient 
money was raised and the building was completed within a year at 
a cost of $200,000. The result was "an increased interest in inter- 
collegiate athletics and an increased solidarity of the student body. 
Regular classes in swimming, gymnasium work and organized games 
under trained instructors for both men and women with a system of 
intramural competition" marked the new era in physical education 
on the campus. 7 

In fact the Kemp regime was something of a "golden age of 
Wesleyan athletics." It began in 1909 when Tom Scott became a 
field agent for the University and Fred L. Muhl took his place as 
football coach. That year a scoreless tie with Northwestern Univer- 
sity forecast; next year's triumph, heralded in big headlines in the 
Argus: "Coach Muhl's Eleven Pulls Down Purple Flag — The House 
Divided Against Itself — Methodist Against Methodist Results in Great 
Victory for Wesleyan — Beat 'Big Eight' Team 3 to 0." 8 Quarterback 
Lee ("Ginger") Hiles' dropkick from the 35-yard line had won the 
game and the next week he repeated with a 3-0 victory over Lake 
Forest. The team, under Capt. Theodore Fieker, then went on to 
win the state championship and the next spring the track team, led 
by Capt. Sage Kinnie, topped its victories in three dual meets by 
winning the intercollegiate meet in Peoria. 

In 1911 another athletic title came to Wesleyan when the basket- 
ball team under Capt. Fred H ("Brick") Young won the state 
championship at the tournament in Bloomington. In 1915-16 a suc- 
cessful season in other sports was climaxed by Capt. Earl Bentley's 
baseball team winning the championship of the "Little 19," the Illinois 
Intercollegiate Athletic conference which had started in 1910 with a 
membership of nine colleges. During this decade (1910-1920) there 
had been added to the roll of Wesleyan's athletic stars such names 


as J. Norman Elliott, twice captain of the basketball team and a future 
football coach for the Green and White, W. C. Dunham, football 
and baseball captain, and Scott W. Lucas, left end on the 1912 foot- 
ball team and a future United States senator. 

Besides marking a high point in athletic history, the year 1910 
had also been significant in other respects. Reflected in the columns 
of the Argus, which was now a livelier and more readable college 
journal than it had ever been, was the quickened tempo in almost 
every phase of student life. That the community was aware of this 
change is indicated by the statement of a local citizen, quoted in the 
Argus, that "Bloomington is for the first time a real college town." 

For many years oratory and debating had been an important cam- 
pus activity and in 1903 intercollegiate debating had been inaugu- 
rated with Wesleyan teams competing against those from Ohio Wes- 
leyan, Albion College in Michigan, Iowa Wesleyan University, 
James Millikin University, Monmouth College and Northwestern 
College at Naperville. In 1908 Illinois Wesleyan had been instru- 
mental in forming the Illinois Intercollegiate Debating League com- 
posed of Wesleyan, Millikin and Northwestern College and in 1910 
the Green and White debaters won all three of their contests with 
these rivals. 9 Coincidental with this increased emphasis on student 
debating, was a change in the curriculum of the school of oratory. 
In 1910 Darrah resigned as director and the school was then divided 
into a department of elocution and dramatic art, with Miss Winifred 
Kates taking over Darrah's work, and P. C. Somerville, professor of 
English literature and public speaking, heading the department of 

Other evidences of expanding undergraduate interests during this 
period were the organization of a men's glee club in the fall of 1912, 
the installation of chapters of two more national Greek letter societies 
— Pi Kappa Delta, oratory, debate and public speaking fraternity, and 
the Alpha Gamma Delta sorority — in 1914. The first Student Council 
was formed in 1915. Its purposes were, according to the university 
catalogue, "to promote university spirit, to provide a clearing house 
for student plans, ideas and sentiment; to give students a larger repre- 
sentative voice in the affairs of the school; and to provide a responsible 
organization through which students and faculty could be brought 
together in mutual helpful cooperation." 

Harry W. McPherson 

Wiley G. Brooks 

William E. Shaw 

Merrill J. Holmes 



While the students were busy with these undergraduate affairs, 
momentous events, which would soon affect their lives, were taking 
place in the outside world. For, as it had in 1861, war came again to 
the campus in the spring of 1917 but, if the immediate impact of the 
war with Germany was less than that of the Civil War, it was not 
due to lack of patriotism on the part of Wesleyan's young men and 
women. The admonition of their elders to "Stay in school!" was 
echoed in an editorial in the Argus at the beginning of the school 
year of 1917-18 which declared: "Our nation at present has as many 
men in its service or under call as it can equip and train. But back 
of the soldiers in the camps and in the trenches there must be kept 
a far greater number of men who are studying in the colleges and uni- 
versities. And back of the Red Cross nurses in the hospitals there 
must be a great reserve of girls who keep on with their studies in the 
schools. This generation of American boys and girls must still have its 
college chance." 10 

The paper also declared that "while it is a little early yet to get 
accurate statements, it is safe to conclude that the enrollment will 
not be more than 15 per cent less than that of last year. As many 
seem to feel it would be a disgrace for us to have as many as last 
year, certainly there can be no fault found with this enrollment." n 
Three weeks later, when final registration figures were available they 
showed that "the total attendance in the College of Liberal Arts is 
now 262, the boys numbering 121 and the girls 141. There are 44 men 
and three young ladies in the Law School, making a total of 165 
men taking work on the campus." 12 But it was significant that there 
were twice as many young women as men in the senior class and 
three times as many in the junior class. In the sophomore class num- 
bers were about even and only in the freshman class were there more 
young men than young women. 

On November 10 Wesleyan held its first Homecoming Day with 
decorated fraternity houses and residence halls and a parade down 
Main street to the courthouse square. Then the marchers returned to 
Wilder Field where Capt. Vernon Whitesell's football team rejoiced 
the returning alumni by defeating Bradley 14-0. That night there 
were stunt shows and a program in Amie Chapel where the military 
theme predominated in the acts put on by the fraternities and sorori- 
ties. Although this celebration had been organized by a few students 


in less than a week, the Argus pronounced it a "success in all ways. 
This first home-coming gives promise of even greater things next year 
if the affair is made an annual one." 13 

During the next two months the exodus of students to training 
camps continued and in January, 1918, there was a special service in 
Amie Chapel to dedicate Wesley an's first service flag with under- 
graduates, graduates, former faculty members and former students, 
both college and academy, represented on it. In accepting the banner 
President Kemp stated that "since the hanging of the flag with its 
152 stars, 11 more names have been added to the list which is made 
up of one chaplain, three men in Y.M.C.A. war work, one Red Cross 
nurse, one lieutenant-colonel, six captains, eight first lieutenants, 18 
second lieutenants, two sergeant-majors, 12 sergeants, seven corporals 
and 105 privates." 14 

In April the Daily Fantagraph printed a headline "War Hits Wes- 
leyan Graduating Class" over the news that only six men were left 
in the senior class and "prospects are that only one man will return 
next year to finish the senior year." 15 The same month the Argus 
reported that "Wesleyan's roll of service is now honored with more 
than 200 names and it is being increased almost daily." 16 April also 
saw the addition of the first gold star to the service flag. It was for 
Adolph Quandstrom, a sophomore, who had died of pneumonia at 
Camp Dodge, Iowa. In July, Howard Bolin, another sophomore, was 
dead of wounds received in action in France and on September 12, 
Lieut. Elmer T. Doocey, a former football star and law school 
graduate who had previously been awarded the distinguished service 
cross by General Pershing for "repeated acts of extraordinary hero- 
ism," was killed in action. Before the war ended there were 11 other 
gold stars on the service flag — for Lyle Best, Henry Peckham, Ed- 
mund Sutherland, Maurice Roberts, Vergne Greiner, Lemuel Jones, 
William Ralston, George Anna, Allington Jolly and Frank Jordan, 
all of them victims of illness in the service. 17 

While Wesleyan men were serving in training camps and on the 
Western Front, faculty and students on the campus had been doing 
their share in the war effort of Bloomington and McLean county. 
They had contributed more than $3,000 to the United War Work 
Fund and $1,200 to the Y.M.C.A. fund. They had bought Liberty 
Bonds, taken part in the food conservation campaign and collected 
books for soldiers. Faculty wives had been working for the Red 


Cross, as had the co-eds who also volunteered for summer farm work. 
Among the co-eds at Wesley an this year were Annette and Idelette 
Baron, from Lyons, France, and Jeanne Seigneur from Belf ort, Alsace. 
These three young women were among the 120 whom the French 
government had sent to study in American universities. 

Illinois Wesley an was one of the 300 colleges at which a unit of 
the Students Army Training Corps was established and at the opening 
of the school year of 1918-19 approximately 260 men had been in- 
ducted or were ready for it. However, "on account of the rush at 
Washington, Wesleyan was unable to secure an officer until about 
October 10 so that none of the men were inducted before the 12th 
and some of the men who have been suffering from the prevailing 
influenza have not yet been able to report for induction. This caused 
the schoolwork to be somewhat difficult. Classes had to be arranged 
to take care of the large number of men who were required to take 
certain courses under government regulation, then the epidemic of 
influenza came on and school work was suspended for two weeks." 18 

By the end of October Capt. Harry Wheaton, former football 
coach at Annapolis, had arrived in Bloomington to take command of 
the S.A.T.C. unit and on November 1 "Bloomington for the first 
time had a chance to see at its own door a military review when the 
public induction exercises and review of the student soldiers were 
held." 19 After taking the oath they passed in review before their 
new commander, President Kemp and Mayor E. E. Jones of Bloom- 
ington, after which they listened to a "stirring address" by the Civil 
War veteran, "Private Joe" Fifer. 

But the S.A.T.C. was short-lived, for early on the morning of 
November 11 came the news of the Armistice. "Shortly after two 
o'clock at the first sound of cannon and bells, Wesleyan students were 
awake and were ready to give full rein to their joy and enthusiasm. 
Many of the girls rushed up town in the small hours of the morning 
to lend their voices and strength in arousing the sleeping town. Never 
before has Kemp Hall witnessed such a scene of activity in the 
morning. . . . The Wesleyan parade was formed at the Barracks. 
Mayor Jones, President Kemp and the Wesleyan faculty headed the 
line, followed by the Bloomington band and the S.A.T.C. As the 
parade passed the university and Kemp Hall, the girls, throwing books 
and lessons to the wind, joined in the ranks to make them 100 per 
cent strong. American and Allied flags and banners were carried, and 


national and popular airs were sung as the parade marched to the 
square. Other organizations rapidly swelled the line as it passed 
through the main business district. Shortly before 9 o'clock, all made 
their way to the Big Four station to cheer the boys of McLean county 
who were leaving for training camps. Wesleyanites again formed 
ranks and marched out to the university, there to complete the cele- 
brations of the morning. . . . Classes met as usual in the afternoon, 
not, however, without protest on the part of the student body. In 
the evening the students joined in the celebration of the city and 
after a long and strenuous day sank into sleep to dream of war no 
more." 20 

On December 4, demobilization of the S.A.T.C. began and was 
completed by December 2 1 . With the coming of the new year Wes- 
leyan rapidly returned to its peacetime program. The law school 
had been closed because practically all of its men had entered the 
service and its work could not be carried on under the S.A.T.C. 
program. It was now re-opened under Dean Charles L. Capen and 
a faculty which included, in addition to the veteran Ex-Governor 
Fifer, William G. Veatch, Hal M. Stone, Jesse Hoffman, Ned E. 
Dolan, Sain Welty and Horace L. Pratt. 21 The college of music, 
which for so long had been located in downtown Bloomington, was 
brought nearer the campus when a residence on North East street 
was purchased and the school, which now included a department of 
dramatic art, was installed in it until more substantial quarters could 
be obtained. 

For some time Wesleyan students and alumni had been hearing 
disturbing rumors that the Joint Board of Trustees and Visitors con- 
templated moving the university to Springfield. On April 21a large 
group of alumni gathered for a meeting at which they adopted reso- 
lutions which said in part: 

Whereas, Not one dollar of the Wesleyan's endowment was for a 
university located any other place than at or near the city of Bloom- 
ington. Not one dollar of endowment or other donations for the use of 
the Wesleyan were given with the understanding, or even a remote sus- 
picion on the part of the donor, that the Wesleyan could sometime be put 
on wheels and trundled about the state, or did they ever imagine that this 
institution could, or would, some time be placed upon the auction block 
and be knocked off to the most promising bidder. 

Whereas, The attempted removal of the Wesleyan would be followed 


by a large number of law suits, and much of the present endowment of 
the university would be lost. 

Whereas, So much hatred and ill-will would be caused by the at- 
tempted removal that the old Wesleyan would be practically destroyed, 
and there is no class that is so interested nor would be so vitally affected 
as its alumni by its removal: such action would mean to the alumni the 
loss of their alma mater, and would arouse undying resentment in their 

Therefore, be it resolved, First, that we, the alumni of the Illinois 
Wesleyan University, most earnestly ask that the trustees of the Illinois 
Wesleyan University will vote against the removal of the Wesleyan to 

Second, That the said trustees should take such steps as it can to stop 
the agitation for the removal of the Wesleyan for this time, and for all 
time in the future. 22 

The alumni also organized the "Wesleyan Forward Movement 
Association'' with Judge Sain Welty as president and Ralph Freese 
as secretary-treasurer. Its purpose was not only to prevent the re- 
moval of the university from Bloomington but also "to do anything 
that may be necessary to make the Wesleyan a more efficient insti- 
tution" and to "ask the Wesleyan trustees to take the necessary legal 
steps to permit its alumni to nominate and elect a part of its trustees." 
In support of this movement, the citizens of Bloomington once more 
came to the rescue of Wesleyan. The next day after the alumni meet- 
ing representatives of the Bloomington Association of Commerce 
attended a special session of the trustees with a proposition in which 
they agreed to raise more than $600,000 for sustentation, site and 
buildings if the board would consent to leave Wesleyan in or near the 
McLean county seat. 

This formed the basis of a contract entered into later by Wesleyan 
and Association of Commerce after the board had decided that the insti- 
tution should remain on the present site. The result was the "New 
Illinois Wesleyan Campaign" or the "Bloomington-McLean County 
Campaign" to raise $660,000, the final contract being signed by the 
Association of Commerce and the Officers of Illinois Wesleyan on March 
12, 1920, and approved by the joint board at its annual meeting on June 
7, 1920. This contract involved promises to pay to Illinois Wesleyan 
$10,000 sustentation in June, 1920, purchase $100,000 worth of property 
adjoining the campus, and the erection of a gymnasium in the near 
future. The expense of these three items was to be paid out of the first 


available funds secured in the campaign. The securing of funds, however, 
was slow. Finally in June, 1921, the Association of Commerce committee 
signed a contract with Dr. John W. Hancher and his organization to 
raise the $660,000 promised Illinois Wesleyan University and the active 
campaign was launched early in June. This resulted in the securing of 
$692,000 on June 30, 1921, which was for some time administered by 
trustees of this fund for the benefit of Illinois Wesleyan. 

This Bloomington-McLean County campaign was carried on to com- 
pletion with the expectation that the territory outside of McLean county 
should put on a $1,000,000 campaign for the University, but before that 
could be started other institutions put in claims for recognition by the 
Illinois and Central Illinois Conferences. After many committee meet- 
ings of institutions and the two conferences, the first meeting of the 
Joint Organization Committee of the two conferences was held on Octo- 
ber 18, 1921, in Chicago with all interests well represented. Bishop Nich- 
olson presided. Out of this a general committee of seventy-six people 
was formed, afterwards known as the Bi-Conference Commission, which, 
with Dr. John W. Hancher and his organization, conducted the Bi- 
Conference Campaign for $1,250,000. This was closed on June 17, 1923, 
and of this Wesleyan's share was over $333,000. 23 

The cornerstone of the new gymnasium, a memorial to the men 
and women who had served in the war, was laid on November 5, 
1921 with Bishop Thomas Nicholson and Francis G. Blair, state su- 
perintendent of public instruction, as the principal speakers. 24 It was 
to be finished and ready for use by June 1, 1922 and it would be the 
climax of the building program which had been inaugurated during 
the Kemp regime. Before that date he had announced his intention 
of laying down the burden he had carried so faithfully for 14 years. 25 

There was, however, one more contribution he made to the ex- 
pansion of Wesleyan before retiring. Early in his administration he 
had secured from Mrs. Martha Buck, the widow of Rev. Hiram 
Buck, the promise of a $50,000 donation for a new building for the 
library. 26 It was badly needed for the library had been moved back 
and forth several times between the two old buildings on the campus 
and now occupied cramped quarters in the Physics building, ("Old 
North"). 27 When Mrs. Buck died it became known that in her will 
she had provided for $100,000 for a new library building with an- 
other $100,000 for its endowment. The Buck Memorial Library was 
not erected during Kemp's presidency but to him belongs the credit 
for securing the gift which made it possible. 28 

Chapter 18 

On June 13, 1922, hundreds of townspeople, faculty, students 
and alumni gathered at the Bloomington Consistory for a testimonial 
luncheon to honor the retiring Wesleyan president. The next day, 
which witnessed the graduation of 56 seniors, the largest post-war 
graduating class, Kemp climaxed the building program which had 
been inaugurated during his regime by laying the cornerstone of the 
Buck Memorial Library. Among those who attended these events 
were two whose presence linked the forward-looking, Twentieth 
Century university with its historic past. One was James Wilson 
Davison of Peoria, the "oldest living ex-student" who had left the 
campus in 1864 to join the Union army and had not returned to com- 
plete his course. The other was Joseph Culver Hartzell, student under 
Munsell, a member of the first Powell exploring expedition into the 
West and now a retired bishop, who was there to deliver the invoca- 
tion at the cornerstone ceremony. 1 

Professor Ferguson, who was then dean of the college of liberal 
arts, had been elevated to the vice-presidency to serve as executive 
head of the university until a successor to Kemp could be chosen 
from the 30 candidates who were then under consideration by the 
trustees. 2 A short time later it was announced that the new president 
would be another Wesleyan alumnus, Rev. William J. Davidson of 
Evanston, who had served two years as president of the board of 
trustees and was then executive secretary of the Commission on Life 
Service of the Methodist Episcopal church. 

Born on a farm near Carthage, 111. Davidson had attended country 
school and, like Barnes, had been an athlete, his favorite sports being 
baseball and boxing. He had received his B.S. degree from Chad- 
dock College in 1893, his B.A. from Wesleyan in 1894 and his S.T.B. 
from Garrett Biblical Institute in 1897. After holding several pastor- 
ates downstate he had returned to Garrett as an instructor in 1900. 
Then followed five years as pastor of the First Methodist church in 
Decatur, two years as chancellor of Nebraska Wesleyan University 



after which he had returned to Garrett to serve for 10 years as pro- 
fessor of religious education. 3 

Davidson assumed office in September, 1922, with a faculty of 
51 and a student body of 961, of whom 476 were in the college of 
liberal arts, 436 in the college of music and 110 in the college of law. 
This enrollment represented an increase of 370 over the previous 
year but a large part of the increase had been due to the recent 
merger of the Wesleyan college of music and the Bloomington School 
of Music which Lynn E. Hersey had been operating for the last seven 
years in downtown Bloomington. This brought to the campus 300 
more music students and added seven teachers to the faculty. It also 
brought to Wesleyan a new dean, Arthur Westbrook, who had been 
head of the music school at Kansas State Agricultural College for 
eight years before becoming director of the Dunlap Operatic School. 4 

During the next two years the Wesleyan enrollment passed the 
1,000-mark with a total of 1,162 in 1923-24 and 1,202 in 1924-25. 
Highlights of the 1923 Commencement were the dedication of the 
new library building with Bishop William F. Anderson of Cincin- 
nati as the principal speaker and the addition of a new landmark to 
the campus. This was a monument of granite stones, erected as a 
memorial to Wesleyan's famous geology professor, Maj. John Wesley 
Powell, by the 1923 graduating class. 5 The next year geology was 
added to the curriculum of the college of liberal arts and the head 
of the new department, Prof M. J. Ingerson, like his distinguished 
predecessor, made "field trips in the vicinity of Bloomington an es- 
sential part of the course." 6 The following summer Prof. Frank E. 
Wood, teacher of biology, also emulating Powell, took a party of 
students on a distant field trip. This time, however, the expedition 
headed East instead of West, their destination being the biology and 
marine laboratory at Woods Hole, Mass. 7 

Two additions to the curriculum during the academic year of 
1924-25 were a school of speech and a school of nursing. The former 
"organized to meet the ever increasing demand of students for an 
opportunity to specialize in the field of public speaking from a pro- 
fessional standpoint" 8 was placed in charge of James J. Fiderlick, 
professor of public speaking, as director and its course of study led 
to the special degree of bachelor of oratory. The nursing school, 
authorized by the trustees at their meeting the previous December, 
was organized under the joint auspices of Wesleyan and Brokaw hos- 

The Argus extra! 

Illinois Westeyan Uuivemity 

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Help Save 

Historic Bedding Hall was con- 
sumed by flames Satarday night 
*t a eost estimated to be S30U,- 
#«) to Illinois wesleyaji t'ntvcr- 

iuc ntitliimtr. Oar shift police- 

men, a.itxitiarv policemen, and 

soldiers from Hie Midwest M»- 

tive Trades Institute helped to 

keep the 4.M1A sjrcet.'itort. back 

from the Maze. 

Much credit eoes to Henry 

Petmlka. cant.ifri-etect of 

the 1943 football tram, who 

attemnled to Mot out the 

flames on the second floor 

with a «rc extinjrnirsbor. 

The blaze was already out 

n< control when he tried to 

c\tinauisb the flames from 

the hla/ins! si tse 'it the Utile 

Theatre on the second floor. 

In Appreciation 

Wesleyan has runny friends! 

When down and out. friends 

mean much — this old thought 

past weekend at wesleyan. 

Illinois State Normal, Wesiey- 
an's sister university, has ex- 
j tended the use of extra ctiairs 
:und desks. Though rivals on the 
, football fiteJd and in general 
i fetes, Illinois State Normal 
proves its quality of friendship. 
Gr.ire ?,0 riorm* < hurrh has 

'.limn i-Mie tii Dr. Shaw Sunday 
| Fraternities, sororities, many 
I townspeople, and faculty mem- 
bers have spoken their wilhnt;- 

H. at For Chapd 
And Library 

j Every -student of Hue 

I leyan owes a debt c 
Gordon Rubenking, Henry Petr- 

;zilka. Art Roeder. and John 
KJomstciber for their work hi re- 
pairine Hi" hcutlnr! system Sun- 

l.i v aticr 

violins- 3 ereat deal of Home Ec 
equipment.!, and checked all the 
elbows and joints in 150 feet of 
j pipe Then they turner! on the 
| steam and carefully checked it. 
j The heating systems of Pres- 
Uer and the Library were depen- 

ds ' 

lis stretch of pipe 
ugh Heddlng Hall. 

: Girls Salvage Hontf 
flEe Equipment 


ine: some French, German. ltal- : 
ten. Greek, Spanish, Gothic, and j 

Hebrew literature. Many were: 

books that Professor Fei'tuson'; ■ ■ 

had used in the SO years he ;cort!s am , btKll:s as „,<} D r . 
taught at Illinois Wesleyan, } & shaw Dr _ M j Ho1mf!S , r* 
Prof WHHam T, Beadles iost; William B Wallis, Dr X-oweil 
many pamphlets whirl, he knows: Hazzard 


placed. Dean; Ad te.tclicrs lost personal equip- 
Leona Wise felsted lost many — 


The book store suffered a loss Holmes. Insurance policies were 

estimated at over $1200. in a safe in the business office 

Dr. Mildred Hunt Approximately half of the loss on the first floor, but duplicates 

by insurance on the are retained In the Insurance ot- 

itic alumni 

building, according to President flees carrying the polkier 

th' i 

Home Ec kitchen 

not totally destroyed In the en- 
tire building. 

A refrigerator, a eas water 
heater, four ovens, silverware, 
and drawers containing pie pans, 

moved to Unley Lodge, v 
the Home Ec department 
be located. 



pital. It offered a five-year course which gave the student a B.S. 
degree from the university and a diploma in nursing from the hospital. 

Wesley an opened its 75 th year with a record enrollment of 1,345 
students. 9 This was due to a registration of 170 in the new school of 
speech and a substantial increase in the college of liberal arts, even 
though there was a decline in the music school and the number of 
law students was cut in half. The reason for the latter was that no 
freshmen were accepted for the law school this year. At that time 
the college of liberal arts was ranked as a Class A college by the 
Association of American Universities, the North Central Association 
of Colleges and Secondary Schools and other accrediting agencies 
which enabled its graduates to be admitted to the graduate schools 
of all the leading universities of the country. However, the North 
Central Association had "ruled that a law school to meet its require- 
ments must have at least three full-time law professors and that any 
university including a law department which did not meet its require- 
ments lost its standing with the association. After careful considera- 
tion, the law school faculty decided that it was not practical for it 
to attempt to carry on independent of the university proper. No 
resources were in sight from which to finance the hiring of three 
full-time law professors and provide an independent law library 
which would meet the requirements of the North Central Association. 
There was apparently nothing to do but to graduate the students 
who had enrolled and, having done this, to let the school pass out of 
existence." 10 So the gradual elimination of this department of the 
university began that year by dropping the first-year law class. 

In December came news that was a fitting climax to Wesleyan's 
75 th year. It was the announcement that the university had received 
a "Christmas gift" of $75,000 from the Presser Foundation, estab- 
lished by the late Theodore Presser, well-known Philadelphia music 
publisher, toward the erection of a $150,000 building for the school 
of music. 11 Commencement Week of 1926 saw the graduation of the 
largest class in all of Wesleyan's history with degrees awarded to 
109 seniors. 12 Of this number 27 received LL.B. degrees but the open- 
ing of the academic year of 1926-27 marked the beginning of the 
end for the law school. Registration in it was open only to seniors and 
the following April the Fantagraph reported that arrangements were 
being made for "a final banquet to be given on the evening of May 
21 under the auspices of the McLean County Bar association observ- 


ing the closing of the law school." The event was to be considered 
in the nature of a "wake" since those who were planning the affair 
"want it understood that it is not a movement to revive the school." 13 
With the graduation of 25 seniors on June 7, 1927 Wesleyan's law 
school passed out of existence. But "it had continued as a vital func- 
tioning institution up to the day of its closing. When it did close 
it was because of rules imposed upon it from the outside and wholly 
beyond its control. The day of an accredited law school consisting 
of a faculty of active practicing lawyers was past . . . Wesleyan's 
law school is now history but it is an honorable history. More pro- 
phetic than he knew was the author who in its first year wrote of it: 
'There is perhaps no department, either already established or to be 
established, of greater immediate importance to the University and the 
people generally than the Law Department.' " 14 

About this time Davidson, taking note of rumors that Wesleyan 
had lost its Class A rating, issued a statement denying the truth of 
such reports. Although a number of small colleges had been dropped 
by the North Central Association, he pointed out, Wesleyan still 
retained its status in that accrediting agency, also in the Association of 
American Universities. Reviewing the accomplishments of the first 
half of his administration he said: "Within five years our productive 
endowment has increased $400,000 and it is now $1,540,000. Our 
gross endowment has increased from $872,700 to $1,922,700. We are 
embarrassed by our success. We need more funds for operating costs 
since those costs have also increased, reaching their highest point in 
1926-27 when $254,584 was spent. We ought to meet the conditions 
of the Presser gift of $75,000 and soon build that new $150,000 music 
hall." 15 Accordingly a campaign was launched early in March, 1928, 
and by the end of the month, through the combined efforts of the 
Bloomington Association of Commerce and Wesleyan faculty, alumni 
and students, a total of $92,864 had been secured. That fall ground 
was broken for the new music hall, with President Davidson wield- 
ing the spade, and appropriate to the occasion, "the Wesleyan band, 
in full uniform, played." 16 

Dedication of the new building took place in February, 1930, 
and with it disappeared a Wesleyan landmark. Its passing was chroni- 
cled by the Argus and the Daily Fantagraph which recorded that 
"Amie Chapel, where generations of Wesleyan students attended 
chapel, is now deserted." 17 Henceforth the auditorium of Presser 


Hall would be used for that purpose and the first gathering in the 
new music school building was held on February 5, the final day of 
the dedicatory ceremonies, with Vice-President Ferguson presiding. 
Coincidental with the move into the modern quarters and the increas- 
ing importance of this school was its admission to the National Asso- 
ciation of Schools of Music that year. 

Another highlight of the forward progress of Wesley an in 1930 
was its absorption of Hedding College, another Methodist institution 
whose career had closely paralleled that of Wesleyan. Unable to 
withstand the economic pressure of World War I and the aftermath 
of that conflict, Hedding had ceased to be a degree-granting college 
in 1922, but continued to operate as a junior college until 1926. In 
June, 1928, the alumni of Hedding were formally adopted by the 
Wesleyan trustees and in December, 1930 they entered into a contract 
with the Hedding trustees by which the endowment and annuities of 
that college were transferred to Wesleyan. 19 The following March 
the trustees authorized changing the name of "Old Main" to "Hed- 
ding Hall" and during the Homecoming celebration that fall copper 
plates on either side of the front entrance to the building, bearing the 
inscription "Hedding Hall" and "In Honor of Hedding College, 
1850-1928," were unveiled. The principal speaker at this ceremony 
was John T. Dickinson, son of Hedding's second president and a 
former trustee of that college. The next year the bell which had 
called so many generations of Hedding students to class was transfer- 
red to the Wesleyan campus where it was placed on a monument 
provided by the student body and erected between the library and 
Presser Hall. 

If Bloomington had become a "college town" during the Kemp 
regime, that characteristic was more marked during the Davidson 
decade because of increased activity in all phases of student life at 
Wesleyan. In 1922 a chapter of Phi Kappa Phi, a national honor so- 
ciety for students of high scholastic achievement, had been established 
on the campus, to be followed soon by chapters of Theta Alpha Phi, 
honorary dramatic fraternity; Phi Mu Alpha, men's music fraternity; 
Sigma Alpha Iota and Delta Omicron, women's musical sororities; 
Phi Sigma Iota, romance language fraternity; and Beta Kappa, men's 
social fraternity. A Woman's Athletic Association was organized in 
1923 and thereafter other associations, clubs and societies multiplied 
until the Argus, before this trend had ended, would be declaring edi- 


torially that "the Wesleyan campus is rapidly becoming over-organ- 
ized." 21 

Besides the long-established Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A. and Life Ser- 
vice Legion which helped give Wesleyan its traditional character as a 
"Christian institution under denominational patronage but free from 
all sectarian bias," there were other organizations which reflected a 
variety of cultural interests. In addition to opportunities offered 
through Wesleyan's membership in the Illinois Inter-Collegiate Ora- 
torical Association, the Illinois Inter-Collegiate Debate League and 
the Mid-West Debate League, there was a Forensic Club for stu- 
dents "especially interested in debate and oral discussion of questions 
of public interest." 22 Those interested in dramatics could join the 
Masquers, fostered by the department of speech, which put on three 
or more plays annually. Music students found an outlet for their 
vocal and instrumental training in the men's and women's glee clubs, 
a university chorus, an orchestra and a band. In 1930 the Argus 
pointed with pride to the fact that the Apollo Club, composed of 
22 men singers, was the first college organization of its kind to 
broadcast over the radio. 23 

Other groups included the English Coffee Club, whose members 
majored in English, and clubs for students to increase their pro- 
ficiency in Latin, French and German. The Black Bookmen was a 
group actively interested in creative literary work. There was a 
Mathematics Round Table and clubs for those whose major interest 
lay in science (chemistry, biology, geology and physics) and in 
domestic science. 

The "W" Club was made up of men who had won an official 
letter in one of the major sports, for the decade of 1920-30 was the 
"boom period" of college athletics throughout the country. At 
Wesleyan, as elsewhere, there was increased emphasis on all kinds 
of sports. "The second year of this decade saw a change in the policy 
and leadership of Wesleyan athletic programs. The new gymnasium 
was ready and new coaches took over." 24 In 1922 Adlai Byron 
("By") Wimberly of Washington and Jefferson College became 
director of athletics and physical education and the next spring the 
baseball team, coached by Robert H. Peters, assistant director of 
physical education, and led by Capt. Leland Dunham, won 10 straight 
games and the championship of the "Little Nineteen." 

Wimberly was succeeded as athletic director by Clarence E. 


Cartwright of Indiana University and among the 1924-25 leaders 
was the captain of the baseball team, Reuben A. Borsch, who also 
became Wesleyan's first Rhodes Scholar. 25 This year brought to the 
campus Walter Roettger, a University of Illinois star and future major 
league baseball player, who became coach of the basketball team 
which won four "Little Nineteen" conference titles in the next seven 
years. The year 1927-28 saw the return to their alma mater of Ned 
E. Whitesell, '22, as athletic director and J. Norman Elliott, '16 as 
football coach. Their regime was climaxed in 1932 when the Wes- 
ley an team (known as the Titans since 1928) went through the 
season with its goal line uncrossed. It also brought to the Green 
and White its first ''Little Nineteen' , football championship since 
1910, a fact which caused the Argus to issue the first "extra" in its 38 
years of journalistic history. 26 

While the columns of the Argus had been reflecting the multi- 
farious student activities on the campus during this period marked by 
an accelerated tempo of American life as a whole, more momentous 
affairs affecting the future of the university were being chronicled 
in the Pantagraph, spokesman for the community, and in the records 
of the board of trustees. The effect of the 1929 crash was not imme- 
diately apparent in university financial matters but it did result in 
launching a "Safety Fund Campaign" the following year. This was 
opened February 20 and closed on December 20, 1930. The goal was 
$750,000. President Davidson acted as head of the campaign and 
H. A. Church of the Hancher Organization was manager. The cam- 
paign was validated on the closing night at $806,927, but subse- 
quently other gifts were received bringing the total to $843,3 3 3. 27 By 
this time a deficit of more than $200,000 in operating expenses had 
accumulated and to cover this and meet the financial stringency, 
which became more pronounced as the nation passed through the 
second year of the depression, the trustees issued refunding bonds 
totalling $250,000. 28 

The heavy demands upon the head of a modern American uni- 
versity in such times as these had been taking their toll of the 
energies of Wesleyan's president. Early in 1931, because of declining 
health, Davidson had attempted to resign but had been persuaded to 
continue. Again in March, 1932, he presented his resignation to the 
board and this time it was accepted. His decade of service to the 
university, made notable by an increase in student enrollment and by 


substantial additions to the endowment, the curriculum, and the build- 
ing program, ended on July 1 8 29 when he turned over to another 
Wesleyan alumnus the formidable task of leading the university 
through a period which would prove to be one of near-disaster for it 
as well as for the nation. 

Chapter 19 

When the academic year of 1932-33 opened Wesleyan again had 
an alumnus-president, Harry Wright McPherson, '06. Like his 
predecessor, he had grown up on an Illinois farm, attended school 
and later taught in his native Cumberland county. He had entered the 
academy at Wesleyan in 1901 and during his four years in the college 
of liberal arts he took part in a wide variety of student activities — as 
a member of the track team, the male quartet, the glee club, and Ora- 
torical Society, the Oxford Club and the Y.M.C.A. cabinet. He also 
had been on the Student Council and served as editor-in-chief of the 
Argus and the Wesley ana. 

A student pastor during his last three years in school, after grad- 
uation McPherson won his S.T.B. in the school of theology at Boston 
University, then joined the Illinois Conference in which he held pas- 
torates in several towns and was superintendent of the Springfield dis- 
trict for three years. He had been a member of the joint board of 
trustees and visitors for 16 years and during this period Wesleyan 
conferred upon him the D.D. degree. 1 

Probably no other Wesleyan president, except Munsell and 
Adams, ever faced a more difficult situation than did McPherson 
when he took charge. America was still in the depths of the depres- 
sion and over the whole country hung a cloud of doubt and fear about 
the future. Wesleyan's financial position was especially precarious 
with an accumulated indebtedness of $266,000, the result of nearly 
10 years of "deficit spending." 2 It had approximately 450 overdue 
accounts, ranging from 50 cents to more than $17,000 with many 
creditors threatening suits or foreclosures. 

Faculty salaries had been cut 30 per cent with payment of the 
twelfth monthly installment of their annual stipend optional with the 
administration. Income from endowment was meager, for a large part 
of these funds had been invested in farm lands in the Corn Belt. At 
that time corn was selling as low as 13 cents a bushel which was 
typical of prices for other farm products. In order to pay current 



expenses, Wesleyan had borrowed every dollar the Bloomington 
banks could legally lend and only the timely assistance of loans by 
loyal friends of the university enabled it to meet monthly payrolls. 
But even this avenue of providing for current expenses was closed one 
day in March, 1933, when the national "bank holiday" was pro- 
claimed (at 5 o'clock on the previous afternoon the new president 
had signed pay checks for approximately $7,000) and for a time no 
one had any money to lend anyone else. 

During the previous summer there had been rumors that Wes- 
leyan could not open that year. To offset these rumors McPherson, 
immediately after assuming the presidency, had issued a confident 
statement that "on September 9 Illinois Wesleyan will go into an- 
other year with the best and most modern college curriculum it has 
ever had to offer students. . . . and with only one change in its 
faculty." 3 When final registration figures were compiled it was found 
that there was an eight per cent increase over the enrollment of the 
previous year, and this at a time when other colleges and universities 
were reporting decreases in their student bodies averaging 1 3 per cent. 

One reason for this favorable showing was the announcement by 
McPherson and Nate Crabtree, business manager of the university, 
that Wesleyan, recognizing the difficulty which farmers would have 
in giving their sons and daughters a college education under present 
conditions, would accept farm produce to the full amount of the 
cost of a year's tuition and would pay a premium above the market 
price for it. This plan was reminiscent of Colonial days when Har- 
vard College had permitted the young men of New England to 
finance their schooling in this manner. It was also reminiscent of how 
one of Wesleyan's founders, Rev. Reuben Andrus, had paid for his 
first year of college with a load of corn which he and his father had 

One of the first students to respond to the Wesleyan offer was 
John T. Dickinson III, grandson of an early Hedding College presi- 
dent, who arrived in Bloomington in September, 1932, with a truck- 
load of potatoes which was duly credited to his "tuition account." 5 
Other prospective students, bringing a variety of farm produce, fol- 
lowed his lead and this unique procedure, although not purposely 
planned as a publicity stunt, carried the name of Illinois Wesleyan 
through the medium of newspapers, magazines and motion picture 
newsreels all over the United States and abroad as well. Later in the 








^ — s 










year the offer was extended to include script or tax anticipation war- 
rants, then being paid to teachers and public officials in Chicago and 
other cities, who wished to send their young men and women to 

Besides offering these inducements to get students to come to 
Wesleyan the administration also gave many of them work on the 
campus or provided some sort of credit for those who had little or 
no money. All of these measures proved to be potent factors in 
increasing morale on the campus as well as building good will for 
the school elsewhere. Another effort in this direction had been made 
when the new administration, already committed to a policy of "No 
more debts; no more deficits," sent out a friendly letter to all those 
who had claims against the university with a promise to make an 
honest effort to meet its obligations as rapidly as possible. "This was 
well received by a very large part of the creditors, many of whom 
sent favorable replies with only a few sending threatening letters in 
line with their established habit of some years." 6 

Still another factor in increasing morale was a series of individual 
conferences that McPherson had with the 56 members of the faculty. 
He told them frankly that the university had no immediate prospect 
of improvement in its financial situation and that, although Wesleyan 
would regret losing any of them, they were free to leave if they could 
better themselves. With the exception of two who said they might 
accept other appointments, every faculty member voluntarily offered 
to "stay by the ship." In his annual report for 1934, the president 
declared "when all is said and done, to these loyal men and women 
is due almost the whole credit for whatever success Wesleyan may 
attain from year to year." 

During this period, for the first time in many years, the uni- 
versity began to live within its income and "gradually, but not pain- 
lessly, reduced its indebtedness" until by the end of McPherson's 
administration there had been a total reduction in its debts of more 
than f 100,000. 7 In the meantime another campaign had been launched 
to help Wesleyan out of its financial morass. It had its origin on 
September 9, 1935, when the executive committee adopted a resolu- 
tion recommending to the Illinois Confernce that it devise means of 
securing $60,000 to supplement the decline of income in both operat- 
ing department and endowment fund. 

"The Conference responded favorably in sanctioning such a move 


and directed that the attempt be made to raise $30,000 in the vicinity 
of Bloomington and Normal and the other half in the remaining 
portion of the conference. An organization was effected and the 
campaign started on January 1, 1936. The active solicitors were 
President McPherson and Field Secretary A. G. Carnine. The results 
of the effort were about $45,000 in ready cash or convertible paper 
and the balance in long-time paper. This fund was known as the 
'Credit Preserving Fund' and was well-named, for with it and the 
maturing of some long-time paper from other campaigns, also by the 
strictest economy and the heroic sacrifice of the faculty, eventually 
the closing of Wesleyan's fiscal year showed a balanced budget with 
no old bills from previous operating expenses and the business office 
paying all bills promptly each month." 8 

During an era of financial depression, when the main effort was 
to conserve and "stretch" Wesleyan's resources, obviously no exten- 
sive building program, beyond making long-overdue improvements 
and replacements, was possible. To meet the problem of providing 
living quarters for students whose means were limited, a system of 
co-operative housing for both men and women had been instituted 
during the school year of 1933-34. These cooperative houses, which 
were directly under the supervision of the university and were man- 
aged by married couples, enabled students to secure room and board 
at actual cost. Also during this period the policy of placing house- 
mothers in the houses of various Greek letter societies was inaugu- 
rated, as was a health program, including medical examinations and 
hospital benefits, for students. An annuity plan of insurance for 
members of the faculty was also started in which the university co- 
operated with them in providing endowment insurance. 

In January, 1935, the announcement was made that Mrs. Mary 
Hardtner Blackstock of Springfield had given $10,000 toward the 
cost of providing an additional dormitory for women students, but it 
was not until June, 1937, that the Benson residence on North East 
street was purchased, named Blackstock Hall and made ready for 
occupancy at the beginning of the next school year. 10 The need for 
this was clearly apparent for, although the men still outnumbered the 
women, the proportionate increase of the latter was greater than the 
former each year during this period. 11 

Among the improvements to Wesleyan's physical plant in this era 


was the remodelling of historic Amie Chapel which was converted 
into a smaller auditorium with a seating capacity of 300 and the 
remainder made into classrooms. Its accessions included the unique 
"Bible Monument" erected east of the library, the purchase of a 
house on Park street for the official "President's Home," and the 
acquisition of a radio station when WJBC was moved from LaSalle 
to Bloomington, installed in "Old North" and went on the air as 
"WJBC at Wesleyan." 12 

But the most ambitious step forward in the building program was 
the inauguration in March, 1937, of a proposal to build a community 
stadium on Wilder Field under the sponsorship of Wesleyan, the 
Bloomington Association of Commerce and several athletic associa- 
tions in the city. 13 Funds for this project were obtained through the 
W.P.A. (Works Progress Administration) and in September the 
Argus reported that Business Manager Carnine had broken ground for 
the structure where, in the future, 3,500 spectators would see contests 
in football, baseball and track. 14 Although four years would elapse 
before the stadium was completed, this $200,000 project "born in the 
depths of an unprecedented building depression was as welcome then 
as a million dollar improvement of the same nature would have been 
a few years later." 15 

While these improvements and additions had been taking place, 
significant changes in the curriculum of the university, especially in 
the college of liberal arts, were under way. During the last year of 
Davidson's administration a commission on surveys of Methodist col- 
leges and churches, appointed by the Methodist Board of Education, 
had recommended certain changes in the curricula of these institu- 
tions. Accordingly the Wesleyan faculty "took steps to bring this in- 
stitution into the forefront of colleges which have definitely turned 
their faces toward a new day in education." Group requirements were 
eliminated and replaced by a series of survey courses, designed to give 
a wider orientation to the world in which a modern man must live. 
The divisional plan of organization was introduced and majors and 
minors replaced by the field of concentration, which allowed more 
flexibility in fitting the curriculum to the needs of the individual 
student. This element of flexibility was further promoted by the 
introduction of seminars and individual conference courses at the 
junior-senior level. At the same time these types of instruction, it 


was hoped, would develop more individual initiative on the part of 
each student. 16 Out of this plan grew a gradual revamping of the 
liberal arts curriculum which reached its completion in 1941. 

As had been the case with Davidson, McPherson was called upon 
to deal with rumors that Wesleyan had lost its standing with the 
accrediting agencies and in April, 1937, he issued a statement call- 
ing attention to the fact that the university had been a member of 
the North Central Association since 1916 but that "because of cer- 
tain requirements now being worked out, Illinois Wesleyan Univer- 
versity is not included on the latest approved list of the Association of 
American Universities. As soon as we can measure up to those re- 
quirements we shall again be so listed." 17 However, regaining A.A.U. 
recognition would be the task of a future Wesleyan president, for in 
July came the announcement that McPherson had been appointed 
executive secretary of the Methodist Episcopal Board of Education 
and would have to resign almost immediately to accept that position. 18 
Until his successor was chosen, an administrative committee, headed 
by Dean Ferguson and acting with Cliff Guild, secretary of the board 
of trustees, would perform all presidential duties. 

Three months later Dr. Wiley G. Brooks of Burlington, Iowa, was 
named as McPherson's successor. He was the first person not an 
ordained minister of the Methodist church to head Wesleyan in its 
87 years, although he was the son of a Methodist preacher. Brooks 
had received his A.B. from York (Neb.) College, his M.A. from 
Columbia University and his Ph.D. from the State University of 
Iowa. He had been superintendent of the Burlington public schools 
for 13 years, was then head of the Burlington Junior College, presi- 
dent of the Iowa Teachers association and was, according to the an- 
nouncement by Lester H. Martin, president of the Wesleyan trustees, 
highly recommended by educators for his new position. 19 

Brooks assumed the presidency in December, 1937, but was not 
officially installed until Homecoming Week the following year. At 
that time more than 60 educators from other colleges were on hand 
to march in the colorful academic procession to Presser Hall and 
take part in what the Fantagraph described as "the most impressive 
ceremonies in the history of Illinois Wesleyan." 20 A short time 
previously the faculty and administrative staff had been strengthened 
by the addition of Malcolm Love, then professor of education at the 
University of Toledo, who came to Wesleyan as dean of the college 


of liberal arts. He was also named business manager and given the 
task of straightening out the somewhat tangled financial situation that 
was an aftermath of the depression years. 

Indicative of his success in this respect was a story in the Argus 
early in 1939 that "through the efforts of Dean Love, deficits are 
being replaced by profits all over the campus. The inefficient 'general 
fund' has been ousted and each department of the school as well 
as each organization on the campus has been put on independent 
record in an effort to put all on a paying basis." 21 The same issue of 
the student paper chronicled the fact that Dean Arthur E. Westbrook 
was ending 15 years as head of the music school to become director 
of the school of fine arts at the University of Nebraska. A short time 
later it announced that the veteran coach, Fred L. Muhl, who had 
been professor of mathematics for many years, had been called back 
into service as director of athletics to succeed Harry M. Bell. Two 
Northwestern University athletic stars, Robert Voights and Don 
Heap, would serve as coaches of the athletic teams while sharing the 
work of teaching physical education. 22 

In June, 1939, another forthcoming change was announced. 
Brooks had resigned, effective September 1, and an administrative 
committee, headed by Dean Ferguson, assisted by Dean Love and 
Frank Jordan, (Westbrook's successor as dean of the music school) 
would have charge of the university until a new president was 
chosen. 23 Indicating the improved financial condition of the univer- 
sity, Love reported that, although the expenditures for the year 
1938-39 had exceeded the income by some $7,000, the deficit arose not 
from working expenses but because approximately $25,000 in debts 
had been paid off during the year. "This means that there has been 
an actual surplus this year so far as working budget is concerned," he 
said, and announced that the budget for the coming year would be 
$211,430 to be taken from expected income of $222,500. 24 

By this time another world war was imminent and it would vitally 
affect education as well as other elements of American life. But Wes- 
leyan, on a firmer financial foundation than it had ever been, was in 
a strong position to cope with the many new problems which the war 
itself and the post-war era would bring to its doors. 

Chapter 20 

On the last day of August 1939 — the last day of peace in a world 
that still remembered the tragedy of World War I — the trustees of 
Illinois Wesleyan met in Bloomington and elected a man who was 
destined to become another "war president." He was Dr. William 
E. Shaw, corresponding secretary of the Methodist Board of Foreign 
Amissions in New York. 1 But he was no stranger to Wesleyan for he 
"had long been familiar with the institution and its work. . . . He had 
been a trustee for nearly three decades. He had given active service 
in the committee work of its board of trustees and had often inter- 
preted the program of needs of Illinois Wesleyan to others. . . . He 
well understood the relation of such a college as Wesleyan to the 
maintenance and development of the American way of life and to 
the progress of civilization around the world. He was an idealist, 
and he felt that if there is to be a college at all, it must be a very good 
college. More specifically, he was a practical idealist. It was his 
philosophy that if a thing ought to be done, it could be done." 2 

To this "practical idealist" the trustees at their annual meeting 
the following June entrusted a tremendous task. To mark the begin- 
ning of the university's 90th year they announced plans for an am- 
bitious 10-year program to culminate in 1950, Wesleyan's centennial 
year. It included a campaign to raise the endowment from $1,000,- 
000 to $2,000,000 and to secure another $2,000,000 to complete the 
unfinished stadium, beautify the campus, modernize the old build- 
ings and erect such essential structures as a men's dormitory, a stu- 
dent center and a chapel building. Among the academic objectives 
were securing recognition of all accrediting agencies, a more selec- 
tive group of students, a stronger teaching staff and an improved 
curriculum. 3 

An important step toward achieving these goals was taken when 
Dr. Merrill J. Holmes was appointed vice-president of the univer- 
sity and director of the centennial development program. 4 Holmes 
came to the campus in January, 1941, and immediately began work 



raising money for the endowment fund and the building program. 
Later in the year President Shaw announced that Wesleyan was again 
accredited by the Association of American Universities and not long 
afterwards it was again placed upon the approved list of the Ameri- 
can Association of University Women. 5 

Meanwhile the university under Shaw's leadership had been mak- 
ing "progress that can only be called phenomenal," according to a 
statement in the summer of 1941 by Dr. Malcolm Love, dean of 
administration and business manager. After listing the many im- 
provements that had been made to the physical plant, he continued: 

The operating budget of the university has balanced for each year 
of the last three years. Along with this all outstanding indebtedness of 
the university has been paid. At the same time the budget for the edu- 
cational program has increased 20 per cent. We are now in a position 
where we can spend more money for the educational program of our 
students. We are now operating on a sound financial basis. 

As a part of the progress of the last three years the changes in ad- 
ministrative organization and faculty should be mentioned. Next Septem- 
ber there will be 24 new administrative officers and faculty members who 
were not on the campus three years before. Some of these changes have 
been brought about by the reorganization of the administrative staff. 
In accordance with the best educational standards the administrative work 
of the university has been centered in fewer offices which relieves regular 
teaching members of the faculty of administrative duties. 

In the college of liberal arts as a result of an experimental study 
carried out over the last five years, a divisional system of departmental 
organization has been set up in accordance with the best educational 
practices of the day. Dr. William E. Schultz is the permanent chairman 
of the Humanities Division; Prof. William T. Beadles is permanent chair- 
man of the Social Studies Division, and Dr. F. S. Mortimer is permanent 
chairman of the Science Division. Under this organization a student 
chooses a divisional field of concentration rather than the older major and 
minor and his field of concentration consists of work in two closely re- 
lated departments. This makes for a more unified program of study for 
each individual student. 

As a part of the new faculty organization and as a reflection of the 
improved financial situation a system of leaves of absence for faculty 
members has been instituted. This system enables our faculty members 
to keep up with the latest trends of thought and practices in their par- 
ticular field. ... A complete unified personnel program was instituted 
three years ago and during the past year this program has been further 


expanded by our participation in the various testing programs of the 
American Council on Education. These tests enable us to compare the 
level of achievement of our students in different fields and at the same 
time it enables us to compare the standing of our students with those in 
other universities. 6 

One effect of the improved academic standing of Wesleyan and 
the curriculum changes was an increase in enrollment which had 
dropped in 1939 to 764. During the academic year of 1940-41 regis- 
tration again passed the 800-mark and showed a slight increase the 
following autumn even though selective service had been operating 
since January, 1941, and it seemed likely that the United States 
soon would be involved in the war. 

At Homecoming in 1941 the state director of the W.P.A. pre- 
sented keys to the new stadium to Ned E. Dolan, president of both 
the Wesleyan board of trustees and the Bloomington Association of 
Commerce. The principal address was given by Alumnus Scott W. 
Lucas, now United States senator from Illinois, who dedicated this 
community structure "in the name of freedom and liberty to free 
men and women." 7 

Six weeks later came the attack on Pearl Harbor. Wesleyan stu- 
dents were excused from classes Monday, December 8, to hear Presi- 
dent Roosevelt tell the nation over the radio that the United States 
was at war with Japan and Germany. 8 Again, as in 1917, the Argus 
advised its student readers to "remain calm," 9 repeated that they 
could best serve their country by remaining in school until they 
were called for service, and emphasized the need for physical fitness 
when they joined the armed forces. In January, 1942, Wesleyan began 
adjusting its curriculum to the needs indicated by the war emer- 
gency. It adopted an accelerated program which included the ad- 
dition of a second term in the summer school and offered 48 weeks 
of school each calendar year, thus making it possible for students to 
complete the work for their degrees in two and a half years. 10 

Only one course — in first aid — was added to the curriculum 
but several changes were made in the requirements for a degree 
in order to permit students to qualify for the V-l, V-5 and V-7 
navy training programs. With the co-operation of the local American 
Legion post and the National Guard pre-induction military train- 
ing was started on the campus and students were given some prepara- 
tion for the time when they would be drafted. 11 

Owen T. Reeves 

Teacher, Trustee, Co-founder 

and Dean of the Law School 

Reuben M. Benjamin 

Co-founder and First Dean 

of the Law School 

Wilbert M. Ferguson 
Professor, Dean, Vice-President 

Robert O. Graham 
Professor, Dean, Acting President 



By the spring of 1942 five members of the Wesley an faculty had 
resigned their posts to enter the armed forces. 12 That summer a 
new service flag bearing 219 stars, three of which were gold, was 
unfurled on the campus. 13 In September the Argus reported that 
"more sons of Wesleyan are going into the service daily," that Dean 
Love had been granted a leave of absence to serve in the naval reserve 
and that his duties as business manager had been assumed by Lyle 
Straight '08 and as dean by Prof. William T. Beadles. 14 

The new service flag was formally dedicated at the 1942 Home- 
coming which was held "against the somber background of world 
tragedy." President Shaw, in welcoming alumni, pointed out that 
"the shadow of this conflict falls heavily across the campus. The 
sons of Illinois Wesleyan are in every corner of the globe serving 
their country and each month adds to the number of those who are 
wearing their country's uniform." 15 

Wesleyan had opened its 94th academic year with a total en- 
rollment of 621 students — 106 fewer than the previous year. "In 
many ways things seem about the same. There was rushing, there 
was the 'Grind' as before. Green caps appeared on the campus. But 
actually there are many changes. Many young men are gone who in 
the normal course of events would have finished school. Many of 
the younger faculty people are gone. Men do not outnumber the 
girls so much as in previous years. 

"And there is a different atmosphere. It is not just that the girls 
wear 'painted stockings' or that scrap paper is collected or signs are 
up asking you to join the naval or army or air-force reserves, or be 
a nurse or buy war stamps. Nor is it the fact that the fraternities 
and sororities have given up Open House which was always a part 
of the fall social life; nor is it that army and navy men are seen 
on the campus every day. It is a new note — not of apprehension 
but certainly it is a note of recognition of the seriousness of the times 
in which we live." 16 

Soon after the New Year opened, a major disaster occurred on 
the campus. On Saturday, January 9, fire caused by defective wiring 
swept Hedding Hall. When the flames were finally brought under 
control there was only a blackened shell where for 72 years "Old 
Main" had stood. Gone was Amie Chapel with its portraits of Wes- 
leyan presidents and other notables in the history of the school; 
gone were cases of trophies which told of the prowess of Wesleyan- 


ites on the athletic field and on the debate platform and lost, too, 
were many priceless records of the past as well as modern office 
equipment and files. 17 

"It was a sorrowful but beautiful sight to witness the burning 
of Hedding Hall," said the Pantagraph editorially, "but out of the 
ashes of the past come new and better things where there is vision." 
Immediately the friends of Wesleyan rallied to her aid. Illinois State 
Normal offered her sister university the use of desks and chairs and 
the Grace Methodist Church offered its building for classrooms, as 
did the fraternities, sororities and residents of the twin cities. 18 

On Sunday, President Shaw called his faculty together to make 
plans for meeting the emergency and when students appeared on 
the campus at 8 o'clock Monday morning they were greeted with 
an Argus "extra" (the second in its history) in which appeared a 
full listing of new assignments for all classes that had been held in 
Hedding. 18 "He (Dr. Shaw) took particular satisfaction in the fact 
that Illinois Wesleyan could take a fire like that in its stride and 
never miss a class, and he thought of this adjustment as symbolic of 
the vitality of the college." 19 Symbolic, too, was the flood of tele- 
grams and letters from citizens of Central Illinois and alumni all over 
the country pledging their aid to the university. 

Three weeks later the trustees at their semi-annual meeting voted 
to launch a campaign to raise $1,000,000 for endowment and new 
buildings, principally for the latter. One-fourth of that amount was 
to be raised in Bloomington, one-fourth from the churches of the 
Illinois Conference and the remainder from alumni and friends of 
Christian education throughout the United States. Although the 
actual construction of the new buildings would have to be deferred 
until after the war it was determined to secure pledges to the fund 
as rapidly as possible. 20 This was to be a part of the centennial cam- 
paign which had been steadily progressing under the direction of 
Vice-President Holmes, who had recently been relieved of certain 
administrative duties in the college of liberal arts, which had devolved 
upon him after the departure of Dean Love, so that he could devote 
all of his time to the financial campaign. 21 

In January, 1943, Wesleyan had its first mid-year commence- 
ment in 93 years, the reason for this innovation being the possibility 
that the men who were seniors might be called into military service 
before June. The exercises were merged with the annual Founders' 


Day program and, with Former President McPherson as the speaker, 
14 seniors received their bachelor's degrees. 

In March orders came from the War Department for all men 
in the Enlisted Reserve Corps at Wesley an to report for active duty. 
A special chapel program was held in their honor and students were 
excused from classes to see them entrain for Scott Field. 22 A week 
later war was brought even closer to the campus in the person of 
Col. Gerald C. Thomas, a former Wesleyan football and basketball 
star who had left school to join the Marines during World War 
I, and who told the story of the bitter fighting on Guadalcanal where 
he had been chief of operations for Major General Alex A. Vander- 
grift of the Marine Corps. 23 

In May the campus took on a more military atmosphere with the 
arrival of 40 aviation cadets (30 in the elementary course of eight 
weeks and 10 in the intermediate course of four weeks) for the 
Navy V-5 training program that had been established at Wesleyan. 
Subsequent additions, including 38 intermediate cadets from Normal 
University, (where the program had been closed) brought the total 
number to nearly 400. 24 Kemp Hall was transformed into "the good 
ship, the Wasp," where these future aviators studied "civil air regu- 
lations, navigation, communications, astronomy, aircraft familiariza- 
tion and engines, recognition, etc." They eventually occupied another 
student dormitory and two fraternity houses, one of which became 
a dining hall for the trainees. 25 

At the 1943 Commencement, at which the "young men and 
women in uniform gave a new color to the exercises" a class of 120 
was graduated, including 11 nurses from Brokaw hospital. Among 
the six honorary degrees granted was one to Frank B. Jordan, '29, 
former dean of the music school who had left Wesleyan in 1939 to 
become dean of the college of fine arts at Drake University. 26 With 
the opening of the school year of 1943-44 the traditional semester 
system had been replaced by the new quarter plan as a part of the 
accelerated wartime program. Enrolled for the two quarters were 
36 student nurses from the Brokaw and Mennonite hospitals. 

As a part of the Founders' Day program in December, 1943, a 
new service flag was dedicated to replace the one lost in the Hedding 
Hall fire. On it were more than 600 stars for the Wesleyan faculty, 
alumni and students now in service. Fourteen stars were gold, and 
one of these was for a Wesleyan alumnus who had figured in one 


of the most heroic deeds of World War II. He was George J. Fox, 
'32, a veteran of the World War I and an army chaplain. Together 
with a Catholic, a Jewish and another Protestant chaplain, Fox was 
on the transport, Dorchester, that was torpedoed in the North At- 
lantic in February, 1943. All four of the chaplains had life belts but 
voluntarily handed them to sailors who had none. Kneeling on the 
deck, these men of three different faiths were praying to the same 
Creator as the waves closed over them. 27 

May 9, 1944 was another sad day for faculty and students for it 
marked the passing of Wesleyan's "Grand Old Man," Dr. Wilbert 
Ferguson, who would soon have completed 50 years of service to the 
university. During that time he had been a beloved teacher, dean, 
vice-president and head of an administrative committee when, for a 
short time, the university was without a president. Already honored 
many times and in many ways by his faculty colleagues and students, 
an enduring memorial to him had been established two years earlier 
when the alumni organized the Wilbert T. Ferguson Foundation to 
raise a revolving fund to provide loans to students in need of financial 
assistance. 28 

Commencement that year had an international tone with Bishop 
W. Y. Chen of China giving the principal address. Degrees were 
granted to 81 seniors, some of whom would soon be serving on 
battlefields on the other side of the world. A unique feature of the 
Commencement Week program was a candlelighting ceremony in 
which three generations of a Wesleyan family participated. William 
R. Bach, '94, lit a yellow candle for the past; William J. Bach, '29, 
a green candle for the present; and young William Bach "of the class 
of 1958," a white candle for the future of Illinois Wesleyan. 29 

In October, the Argus sent a special Homecoming issue to more 
than 900 Wesleyan men and women in military service. It carried 
the news that the trustees, as the first step in the plans for a post- 
war building program, had authorized the erection of a student center 
as "a memorial in honor of all students and alumni who served in 
World War II and especially in commemoration of those who gave 
their lives." 30 

Wesleyan's enrollment, which had dropped from 832 in 1941 
to 436 in 1943, rose above the 500 mark in the fall of 1944. Among 
these were 20 veterans who were returning to finish their interrupted 
college courses. Although the V-5 navy unit had departed, the 


atmosphere of war was still very much in evidence on the campus. 
The sorority girls were making hundreds of scrapbooks for the 
USO, the total subscription of faculty and students to the Community 
War Chest was f 1,500, and through the efforts of the Student Union, 
a total of more than $150,000 in war bonds had been sold. The senior 
class of the college of liberal arts had only six men and there were 
only two in the junior class, with 15 sophomores and 59 freshmen. 
In the total enrollment of 503 for all departments of the university 
the women students outnumbered the men three to one. The effect 
of the war on athletics at Wesleyan, as had been the case in all col- 
leges, was reflected in a statement in the Argus that "prospects for 
football are only fair" because the departure of the V-5 unit and "the 
pull of Uncle Sam had left Wesleyan almost playerless, with only 
one letter-man, a sophomore on last year's squad" reporting to Melvin 
Brewer, the new coach. 31 

There were many other changes, too, in the familiar scenes that 
greeted the returning students that fall. Hedding Hall was gone and 
its roofed-over basement, bearing the appropriate name of Duration 
Hall, was now serving as administrative headquarters for the uni- 
versity. Old North had been redecorated and was now "more attrac- 
tive than it had been in all its 60 years. On the third floor is a little 
theatre with a large stage and room for 50 spectators. The broadcast- 
ing studio and control room have fluorescent lighting. . . . The Stu- 
dent Lounge (the Hut to many), that was used almost exclusively by 
the navy last year ... is again becoming a general student center." 32 
The old coach house back of Blackstock Hall had been remodelled 
and converted into the new Art Center and a residence two blocks 
east of the campus on Fell Avenue was now a women's dormitory 
named Gulick Hall. 33 

Along with these changes in the physical appearance of the uni- 
versity had come changes in the curriculum in anticipation of the 
post-war program. Although the concentrated courses had been 
abolished, the quarter system was retained. In the college of liberal 
arts the majority of courses had been reorganized and plans were 
under way to offer 17 additional courses, either for the first time 
or to re-introduce those that had been dropped during the war. 

At a special chapel service on May 2, 1945, President Shaw stated 
that "Illinois Wesleyan has furnished 1,110 men and women to the 
armed forces and of these 41 have given their lives for their country." 


Only ten more gold stars were destined to be added to Wesleyan's 
service flag for within a week came the news of victory in Europe 
and three months later Japanese envoys signed the articles of un- 
conditional surrender on the deck of the battleship Missouri. 

Homecoming that fall at Wesleyan was the happiest event her 
alumni, faculty and students had known for five years. It was a 
solemn occasion, too. At the memorial convocation, held in the 
gymnasium that had been dedicated to those who had served in World 
War I, Dr. Hugh S. Magill, '94 was the speaker. "We meet to 
memoralize the twelve hundred and ten students who served in this 
World War," he began. "We have come to commemorate the su- 
preme sacrifice of the forty-eight Wesleyan students who gave their 
lives for humanity, for our beloved country, for us, the living, and 
for those who shall live after us. We have come with searching hearts 
and inquiring minds to find an answer to the question — Why did 
they die?" 

Throughout the address he repeated that question and ended with 
the declaration that: "Unless we of the educational institutions of 
our country can answer these questions and pass on the correct inter- 
pretation to those who look to us for educational leadership, we shall 
be unworthy of the great sacrifices made by those whose lives and 
service we commemorate. Let us again highly resolve that these dead 
shall not have died in vain; that through their sacrifice, freedom shall 
have a new world-wide birth; that, by their death security and peace 
shall be established throughout all lands; and that the liberty and 
the living example of our beloved America shall truly 'enlighten the 
world.'" 34 

Chapter 21 

"Illinois Wesleyan University is making careful plans for the 
enrollment of veterans of World War II," the university's annual 
catalogue, issued in March, 1945, had stated. That there was need for 
such planning was indicated by the number of GIs who helped in- 
crease the registration from 523 in the fall of 1945 to a total of 876 
by the end of the academic year of 1945-46. "Winter Quarter Brings 
New High in Enrollment of Vets" announced the first January issue 
of the Argus which, during the next three months recorded the influx 
of former service men in such headlines as "More Enrollees Swell 
Ranks of Student Body," "100 Applicants from U. of I. to Enroll 
at IWU," and "48 More Ex-Servicemen Register for Spring Quar- 
ter." x But this was only the beginning of a veritable flood of students 
which the GI Bill of Rights would begin to pour upon the campus of 
Wesleyan as well as other colleges and universities throughout the 
United States. 

With them came a housing problem, which, by the spring of 
1946, was already acute. 

At the present time there are no men's dormitories and all the facilities 
for women are filled. To help solve the housing problem Wesleyan is 
acquiring temporary housing units from the government to be used by 
veterans only. These units are former army barracks from a prisoner-of- 
war camp in Weingarten, Mo. They will be taken down in sections, 
moved and reerected here on the campus. Wesleyan will offer the land 
and provide the furnishings for the units, while the government will pro- 
vide the units and the expense of moving them. 

Units consist of four buildings, 20 feet wide and 100 feet long, and 
an additional building 20 feet wide and 20 feet long. Two of these will 
be divided into three apartments of three rooms each. These will be 
alloted to veterans with families. The remaining two and a half build- 
ings will be arranged in dormitories holding 16 men each. Buildings will 



be arranged in units of eight with two units to each 100-foot building. 
The veterans will live two to a room and each four veterans will share 
a study room. 

The present estimate is that the units will be completed in three 
months, so they will be available for the fall term. The university antici- 
pates a freshman class of approximately 300 next fall, a good part of which 
will be men. (This will be the first time since the war began that there 
will be more men than women on the campus.) 2 

Another aftermath of the war was the appearance on American 
campuses of more foreign students. "It is the belief of the Wesley an 
administration that it is the obligation of all American universities and 
particularly the duty of the Christian college to share freely with 
other lands," said President Shaw in his semi-annual report to the 
trustees. At Wesleyan at that time, besides three Nisei-Japanese and 
five from the American territories of Hawaii and Puerto Rico, there 
were Hvt South American students (from Argentina, Chile, Peru and 
British Guiana), one from Panama, one from Mexico, one from the 
British West Indies and one from Czechoslovakia. Of these foreign- 
ers six had been provided with scholarships, although at that time 
"no funds exist in the university budget to cover the costs of granting 
these scholarships and to avoid a deficit we are making a quiet appeal 
to our friends for aid." Indicative, too of the fact that at Illinois 
Wesleyan, now as from the beginning, "men and women of all races 
and religions may enter without restriction or prejudice" were the 
statistics on the religious affiliations of her undergraduates. The 258 
Methodists were outnumbered by the 325 students, repesenting 18 
other denominations, which included 72 Presbyterians, 54 Roman 
Catholics, 52 Christians, 37 Baptists, 37 Lutherans and so on down 
the list to one Hindu, one Moslem and one agnostic. 3 

On January 8, 1946 occurred the death of Mrs. Annie Merner 
Pfeiffer, "one of the best and truest friends Illinois Wesleyan has had 
in all its years," and soon afterwards Vice-President Holmes, director 
of the centennial endowment and building campaign, made known 
the list of her many benefactions. They included: "$5,000 to en- 
dow the Henry Pfeiffer fund for natural sciences, $20,000 to the Ida 
Haslup Goode professorship of English literature, $115,000 toward 
the Annie Merner Pfeiffer Hall as a dormitory for women, $12,500 
over a period of three years toward the Wesleyan sustentation fund 
for its current budget; and in addition to these gifts already paid ? 

v - ; ' ' 


Ned E. Dolan 

/. Stuart Wyatt 

Maury D. Powell 

Mary Hardtner Blackstock 
Only Woman Trustee 

Louis L. Williams 
Assistant Secretary 


^m ^ 

J. K. P. Hawks 

Aaron Brooks 
Endowment Treasurer 



Mrs. Pfeiffer under a declaration of trust, provided $150,000 as her 
share of the last half million being sought for the building and endow- 
ment fund campaign to be claimed by Wesleyan providing it col- 
lects $350,000 in new gifts before October 1, 1947." 4 

Besides these PfeifTer benefactions the university had received 
from Dr. Hugh S. Magill '94, one of its trustees, $55,000 to establish 
a professorship of the history and science of government and later 
he and his brother, S. Lincoln Magill, had made other donations which 
totalled $130,000. There had also been substantial gifts from Mrs. 
Mary Hardtner Blackstock and others, and all these not only 
had swelled the total for the endowment fund to more than a 
million but had assured enough money so that the building program 
could go forward immediately. First on the list of new structures to 
keep pace with the needs of the increasing enrollment was a student 
center which was to be a memorial to the Wesleyan men and women 
who had served in the war. On June 5, 1946, ground was broken for 
this building with Ned E. Dolan using the same spade as had been 
used for the Presser Hall ceremony. 5 Three weeks later Wesleyan 
held its first post-war Commencement and graduated 65 seniors, 
among them a number of veterans. Interpreting the significance of 
this event was an address on "Epilogue and Prologue" by Adlai E. 
Stevenson, soon to become governor of Illinois, who was honored 
with an LL.D. degree, as had been his grandfather 40 years earlier. 

In August the announcement was made that registration had been 
closed with 950 students already enrolled — the highest number to 
attend Wesleyan since 1937 with its total of 835. Anticipating this 
enrollment, the teaching staff had been increased to 66 full-time 
faculty members, the largest number in Wesleyan's history. 6 

Even with the temporary housing units which had been erected, 
the shortage of living quarters was still acute, as witness the fact 
that some of the veterans were now living in trailers parked on or 
near the campus. 7 More space for women students was provided when 
the university acquired two residences on North Main street, re- 
modelled them for dormitories and named them Munsell Hall and 
DeMotte Lodge, thus perpetuating the names of three notables in 
early Wesleyan history — President Oliver S. Munsell, Charles W. C. 
Munsell and Prof. Harvey C. DeMotte. 8 Soon afterwards the Evans 
property, a 12 -room residence at 1 101 North Main street was acquired 
as a new home for the rapidly-expanding art department. 9 


The 1946 Homecoming was one of the most spectacular in Wes- 
leyan's history, reflecting as it did the accelerated tempo of student 
life. There was a Homecoming play and a "Midnight Revue" in 
Presser Hall which was "too small to take care of the events sched- 
uled. Even Dr. Shaw was unable to find a seat." There was a "Home- 
coming Queen" with her court of honor, composed of representa- 
tives from the independents and organized groups, and she was 
crowned by Dr. Shaw during the intermission at the dance. There 
were prizes for decorated fraternity and sorority houses and for 
floats in the Homecoming parade. At the football game Saturday 
afternoon the revived Wesleyan band, led by a drum major and three 
"drum majorettes" furnished the music to help celebrate the Titans' 
25-13 triumph over the Augustana College team. 10 

The climax of the week-end came on Sunday when the Home- 
coming crowd gathered at the site of the new Memorial Center. 
There Vice-President Holmes reviewed the history of the 96-year 
old university, Former-president McPherson gave the principal ad- 
dress, Prof. William Wallis read Alumnus Hoose's "Wesleyan Will 
Remember," and after the cornerstone was laid by President Ned E. 
Dolan of the board of trustees, assisted by President Shaw and Dr. 
J. K. P. Hawks, chairman of the building committee, a bugler blew 
"Taps" and the audience, accompanied by the band, joined in singing 
"Alma Wesleyan." » 

This ceremony, inaugurating the beginning of a greater Wesleyan, 
also was the climax of Shaw's career as president. At the meeting of 
the trustees the previous June he had presented his resignation to be- 
come effective at the close of the next school year. On February 
21, 1947 he attended a meeting of the Chicago alumni and told them 
how their alma mater was meeting the challenge of the post-war 
world. He closed his talk by reading the familiar inscription on the 
west gates: "We stand in a position of incalculable responsibility." 
The next day, en route to a Chicago railroad station to board a train 
for Bloomington, he had a fatal heart attack and became the first 
Wesleyan president to die while holding that office. 

On March 1, Holmes who had already been chosen as Shaw's 
successor, assumed the presidency and in June, in addition to handing 
diplomas to 113 graduates from the college of liberal arts and the 
school of music, he also conferred honorary degrees upon five per- 


sons: Alumnus Scott W. Lucas, Trustees Garfield D. Merner and 
Mary Hardtner Blackstock, Rev. Clarence C. Nordling and Rev. 
Claude M. Temple. At the opening of the academic year of 1947-48 
enrollment at Wesley an reached an all-time high of 1,407 students of 
whom more than 500 were veterans. There were 17 new faculty 
members and 37 new courses had been added to the curriculum. 12 

Another addition to the Wesleyan staff at this time was Dr. Ira 
G. McCormack, pastor of the Trinity Methodist church in Chi- 
cago, who became executive director of the "Ten Year Development 
Plan" for Wesleyan, a continuation of the building and endowment 
campaign which had been inaugurated by Holmes during Shaw's 
presidency. Its goal was $3,000,000, half of which would be used for 
endowment and the other half for more buildings, the first of which 
was to be a new classroom building to be known as Shaw Academic 
Hall. 13 

Highlight of the 1947 Homecoming was the dedication of the 
new Memorial Center, a handsome building of modified Georgian 
design that had cost $375,000. Such facilities as a large cafeteria to 
serve as a central dining hall for the entire university, a grill, a main 
lounge (an "all-purpose room" for banquets and informal meetings) 
a student lounge and a faculty club room made it truly the center of 
campus life for all Wesleyanites. 

In November Holmes was inaugurated as Wesleyan's 13th presi- 
dent at a ceremony attended by representatives of more than 100 
educational institutions from all over the United States. Like his 
predecessors, he was a Methodist minister and, like Fallows, he had 
been an army chaplain. Assigned to the 165th Infantry, a National 
Guard regiment which became the famous 69th Infantry in World 
War I, he was at San Mihiel, in the Argonne and with the American 
Army of Occupation on the Rhine. 

He had taught for three years at Garrett Biblical Institute and 
later had become professor of religion and philosophy and dean of 
the college at Dakota Wesleyan University. For two years he was 
secretary of institutes in the Epworth League department of the 
Methodist Board of Education and before coming to Wesleyan he 
had been secretary of the department of educational institutions for 
Negroes under that board for 14 years. 

In his inaugural address, the new president reaffirmed the princi- 


pies upon which Wesleyan had been founded and upon which its 
future service would be based. "Each new generation must learn 
afresh the truth which makes men free, and must continue to wor- 
ship the God of their fathers" he declared. "Our American civiliza- 
tion is essentially a civilization of the spirit — a civilization of men 
spiritually free and spiritually responsible. The great opportunity of 
Illinois Wesleyan, therefore, is to send forth from its halls men and 
women prepared to render responsible Christian citizenship to the 
American community." 14 

One of the first efforts of the new president had been directed 
toward completion of the campaign for the centennial building and 
endowment fund, especially to meet the deadline of October 1, 1947 
for raising $350,000 to secure the $150,000 of Mrs. Annie Merner 
Pfeiffer. As the result of an intensive campaign in Bloomington, 
$3,240 more than the required amount was secured and by January, 
1948, President Holmes was able to report that the centennial cam- 
paign had closed with total receipts of $1,351,204 in gifts and 
pledges. 15 By now, Illinois Wesleyan, the university which through- 
out its career had struggled through one financial crisis after another, 
had total assets of $3,092,894, consisting of grounds, buildings and 
equipment valued at $1,373,098, an invested endowment of $1,381,459 
and gifts bearing annuity contracts totalling $338,337. 

It also had, at the beginning of the 1948-49 school year, a student 
body of 1,283 men and women who had come from 31 states of the 
Union and 13 foreign countries to attend "that typical American 
educational institution known as the 'small liberal arts college.' " It 
had an administrative staff and faculty of more than 80 devoted to 
"the teaching of the arts and sciences, the study of old books, the 
exploration of new fields of knowledge, the seeking of religious 
values." To meet the needs of this "community of scholars, who are 
also teachers, and the students whom they teach," the building pro- 
gram had been pushed forward rapidly. Adjoining Memorial Center 
now stood Annie Merner Pfeiffer Hall, which was opened to fresh- 
men women in September, 1948, and across the campus, beyond Old 
North was a new men's dormitory, named Magill Hall in honor of 
the Magill family, one of whom, Dr. Hugh S. Magill, was the prin- 
cipal speaker when it was dedicated at the 1948 Homecoming. 

That fall a new organizational plan was put into effect with the 


university divided into two colleges — the college of liberal arts as 
before and the new college of fine arts, the latter consisting of three 
divisions: the school of music, the school of fine arts and the school 
of drama. Dean of the music school was Dr. Kenneth N. Cuthbert; 
G. Rupert Kilgore was director of the art school and Lawrence 
Tucker, director of the drama school. 

One of the chief events of this school year was the announcement 
by Dr. Wayne Wantland, chairman of the division of natural science, 
that Wesleyan's work in that field had been honored by being 
awarded a grant of $10,000 for cancer research by the National In- 
stitute of Health, a subsidiary of two federal agencies, the United 
States Department of Public Health and the Federal Security Agency. 
The other was the Titans' winning two athletic titles — the football 
and basketball championship of the College Conference of Illinois 
(CCI). The Green and White's first basketball title since joining the 
new conference and its first since 1936, it reflected the increasing 
interest in this sport at Wesleyan as well as throughout the country. 17 

A record class of 227 seniors received their degrees at the Com- 
mencement in June, 1949, and in that month a new dean of adminis- 
tration — Dr. Kenneth A. Browne, formerly of Doane College, at 
Crete, Neb. — came to the campus as the successor to Dr. Malcolm 
A. Love, who had resigned to become dean of the college of liberal 
arts at the University of Denver. 18 Enrollment for the academic year 
of 1949-50 showed a slight decrease from the previous year. This 
was especially noticeable in the number of veterans (356 this year 
as compared to 514 the previous year) which reflected the "levelling 
off" that was taking place throughout the country as more and more 
ex-service men completed their courses under the GI Bill of Rights. 19 

Homecoming witnessed the dedication of Pfeiffer Hall and a 
spectacular celebration in the stadium on Friday night that was typ- 
ical of the post-war era. "The brightly lighted field was dominated 
by a huge Titan built at the east end of the field. The candidates for 
the Homecoming Queen arrived in a motor cavalcade. The lights on 
the field went out, and a bearer with a lighted torch came running 
in. A large 'W' was formed on the field by students with torches, 
which were then lighted by the runner. During the lighting of the 
'W', a history of Wesleyan's achievements through the years was read 
over the public address system. The runner then proceeded beyond 


the north bleachers where he lighted the bonfire." The next night the 
Wesleyan team played its first Homecoming football game at night. 20 

After Homecoming Wesleyan began looking forward to the 
celebration of its 100th birthday. Two years previously Dr. Hugh 
S. Magill had been appointed chairman of a centennial committee to 
have general charge of the program. Serving with him were Bishop 
Ralph Magee of Chicago, honorary chairman, President Holmes 
and Ned E. Dolan, vice-presidents, and Prof. Ralph E. Browns, 

The first of a series of observances of the centennial year occurred 
on February 8, 1950. It was a special Founders' Day convocation 
in Memorial Gymnasium, attended by the entire faculty and student 
body. There was an impressive academic procession and after an 
address by Dr. Donald J. Cowling, president-emeritus of Carleton 
College, President Holmes conferred honorary degrees on Dr. John 
Dysant '07 of Highland Park, Mich.; Noble Purler, '23, director of 
the department of registration and education for the State of Illinois; 
Rev. Charles Kinrade of Farmington, 111., a former Wesleyan teacher; 
and McKendree M. Blair of MacMurray College. 24 

On March 3, students hurrying to class paused for a moment to 
listen to a new sound that filled the air over the campus. The melodi- 
ous tones of Westminster chimes were coming from Presser Hall 
where a carillon, the gift of Mrs. Anna Gulick, had been installed. 
They were proof that the time had come to "ring out the old, ring 
in the new." Three weeks later air waves were carrying all over the 
United States the name of Illinois Wesleyan and the news that it was 
celebrating its 100th anniversary. Sponsored by the university, the 
Daily Fantagraph and Station WJBC, "America's Town Meeting of 
the Air" was broadcast from the Bloomington Consistory and radio 
listeners from coast to coast, who tuned in to the 267 stations of the 
American Broadcasting Company, heard Senator Scott Lucas and 
Dr. Laurence Gould, president of Carleton College, discuss "Federal 
Aid to Education." 22 

Other celebrations of the centennial year include a "golden 
jubilee" reunion of the class of 1900 and the graduation of the class 
of 1950, the largest in Wesley an's history, during Commencement 
Week with Bishop James Chamberlain Baker (a graduate from Chad- 
dock College in 1898 and therefore a Wesleyan alumnus by "adop- 
tion") as the principal speaker; a special pageant and a reunion of the 


members of the championship 1910 football team during Home- 
coming; and a series of alumni meetings from coast to coast to mark 
the end of Wesley an's first 100 years. 

In 1940 when the trustees announced the centennial program, 
they closed their report with these words: "We recognize that it is 
impossible for any group to anticipate all the needs of an institution 
like the Illinois Wesleyan ten years in advance. But this minimum 
ten-year program is presented with the thought that if it is accom- 
plished, the Illinois Wesleyan will be enabled to begin its second 
century fitted to make large contribution to the many youth that 
will continue to seek the opportunities it has to offer.'" 



1. Illinois State Guide, 32. 

2. Editorial note in the Western Whig, November 27, 1849. 

3. An analysis of the birthplaces of the 260-odd pioneers whose biog- 
raphies are given in Duis Good Old Times in McLean County 
shows that nearly half of them were born in these two states — 61 in 
Ohio and 60 in Kentucky. Next largest number — 35 — were natives 
of Virginia. Other states are represented as follows: Alabama 2; 
Connecticut, 2; Delaware, 2; Georgia, 2; Illinois, 7; Indiana, 9; Maine, 
1; Maryland, 9; Massachusetts, 5; New Hampshire, 3; New Jersey, 7; 
New York, 13; North Carolina, 10; Pennsylvania, 14; Rhode Island, 1; 
South Carolina, 1; Tennessee, 13; Vermont, 1; of the foreign-born 
England contributed 5; Scotland, 1; Holland, 2; Canada, 1; and 
Germany, 1. As between Northerners and Southerners they are 
almost equally divided — 135 Northerners and 123 Southerners. 

4. Pageant of America, Yale University Press; XI; 98. 

5. Ibid.,X; 50. 

6. J. R. Harker's manuscript history of the Illinois Woman's College in 
the MacMurray College archives. 

7. This was the English and German academy at Quincy which was 
"one expression of Illinois Methodist interest in the recent German 
immigrants to the state." Watters History of MacMurray College, 
115. It was later reorganized as Chaddock College, a co-educational 
institution, and is now the Chaddock School for Boys. 

Chapter 1 

1. The Western Whig was the lineal descendant of Bloomington's first 
newspaper, the Bloomington Observer and McLean County Advo- 
cate, a small five-column weekly established by William Hill of 
Philadelphia who had the backing of James Allin, Jesse W. Fell and 
Gen. Asahel Gridley. The printing office was in the northeast room 
of the old brick courthouse and the first number of the paper was 
issued there on January 14, 1837. After publishing the paper for 
about a year Hill turned it over to Fell who continued it for about 
18 months, then suspended publication and sold the printing equip- 
ment which was moved to Peoria. Bloomington was without a news- 
paper until November, 1846, when Charles P. Merriman revived the 
defunct Observer and Advocate under the name of the Western 
Whig. He continued as publisher until September, 1849, when 
R. H. Johnson and I. N. Underwood took over the paper with Mer- 
riman continuing as its editor for another six months. They pub- 


The Bible Monument The Powell Memorial The Hedding Bell 

The Founders' Gates 


NOTES 189 

lished it until November, 1851, and were succeeded by Fell and Mer- 
riman who changed the name of the paper to the Bloomington 
Intelligencer. In November, 1852, Fell retired from the business and 
Merriman again took over. About a year later he rechristened the 
paper again, this time giving it the unique name of Pantagraph, 
meaning, as he explained it "to write all things" and bearing that 
name it has survived, under various ownerships, to the present. 

2. Sarah Raymond Fitzwilliam in Transactions of the McLean County 
Historical Society, 11:53. 

3. Minier was born in Bradford county, Pa., October 8, 1813. After 
spending ftvz or six years teaching in that state he came to Illinois 
in 1837, spent some time helping survey the route of the Illinois 
Central railroad, and came to Bloomington in 1847. His Bloomington 
Female Academy on South Main street was "the first high school 
exclusively for girls ever in the city." He retired from school work 
in 1851 and moved to a farm near the present town of Minier which 
bears his name. Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 1:523. 

4. This announcement was dated August 17, 1848. Except for this 
and subsequent advertisements in the Western Whig and one brief 
reference to him in "School Record of McLean County" (Trans. 
McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 11:635) where he is inaccurately named "Rev. 
William E. Dodge," nothing is known of his previous or subsequent 
career. Evidently his stay in Bloomington was a short one and, after 
his male academy proved unsuccessful, presumably he departed for 
greener pastures elsewhere. 

5. After Merriman retired as editor of the Whig he became associated 
with Minier as a teacher in the female academy. A year later he was 
back at the helm of the newspaper and Minier sold the academy to 
Rev. James C. Finley of Jacksonville who was in charge of it for a 
year, then sold it to Rev. Daniel Wilkins. He changed its name to the 
Central Illinois Female Academy and interested a number of promi- 
nent citizens of Bloomington, including J. E. McClun, James Miller, 
Rev. F. N. Ewing, Dr. E. R. Roe, Jesse W. Fell, David Davis, Rev. 
R. O. Warriner and Jesse and Isaac Funk in becoming members of 
its board of trustees and providing financial backing. In 1855 Wil- 
kins' health began to fail and he gave up teaching. The school which 
had once had an enrollment of more than 200 continued until June 
20, 1856 when it closed its doors, having graduated only one student 
— Miss Sarah Funk, daughter of Jesse Funk. Trans. McLean Co. Hist. 
Soc, 11:403. 

6. Haskell was born on a farm near Weatherfield, Vt. December 12, 
1818, entered an academy at Unity, N. H. in 1842 and alternated 
study there with teaching in the winters until 1844 when he entered 
Norwich (Vt.) College from which he was graduated in 1846. He 
studied law for a year in Vermont, another year in Georgia and in 
1849 came to Bloomington where he entered the law office of Gen. 

190 NOTES 

Asahel Gridley but gave it up to begin teaching school again. He left 
Bloomington in 1851 for Metamora where he practised law until 
1861. After three months' service in the Eleventh Illinois infantry, 
he began farming in Woodford county and remained there until 
1865 when he moved to a farm in Dale township, McLean county, 
where the remainder of his life was spent. Trans. McLean Co. Hist. 
Soc, 11:635. 

7. Ibid. This version of the story of the "teachers institute" was evi- 
dently written by Ezra M. Prince, secretary of the McLean County 
Historical society, based on an interview with Haskell in his old age. 
It is repeated in substantially the same form in Prince's History of 
McLean County, 11:775. He also says "when the project was about 
to fail, James Allin, the pioneer, offered a site of 10 acres near where 
the Chicago and Alton railroad shops now are. When this site was 
needed for the railroad shops, the acres were exchanged for the 
present site of the University." It is probable that Prince is confusing 
this with a similar incident two years later. See Chapter III. 

8. These letters are in the April 16, April 23, May 14 and May 21 issues 
of the Whig. In the first one Barger says his intention is to give a 
"succinct account of our incipient proceedings toward the erection 
of the Illinois Wesley an University." His "succinct account" occu- 
pied a full column in the April 16 issue. A week later, when he had 
really warmed up to his subject, his letter filled more than two 
columns and there were two columns in the May 14 issue and two 
and a half in the May 21 issue. Barger was equally prolix as a 
preacher. James Leaton in his Methodism in Illinois, 1832-1840 
11:61-2, says his discourses of from one to three hours were "usually 
too long for the popular taste." But posterity should be grateful for 
his lengthy letters to the Whig and to Editor Merriman for publish- 
ing them. Without them, our knowledge of Wesleyan's origins would 
necessarily be as sketchy and as full of generalities as are the accounts 
by the early chroniclers of Wesleyan's history. 

9. Minutes of the Illinois Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, 1840-1851, hereafter to be designated as "Illinois Conference 

10. Barger's letter in the Whig, May 14, 1851. 

11. Ibid. 

12. Ibid. 

13. Ibid. 

14. Ibid. 

15. Barger's letter in the Whig, May 21, 1851. 

16. Illinois Conference Minutes, op. cit. 

17. Barger's letter in the Whig, May 21, 1851. 

18. Ibid. (Also Illinois Conference Minutes). 

19. Ibid. 

20. Ibid. 

NOTES 191 

Chapter 2 

1. Watters, History of Mac Murray College, 33. 

2. Pageant of America, X:150. 

3. Cartwright, Autobiography, 24; Dictionary of American Biography 
111:546-48. Cartwright was born in Amherst county, Va. September 
1, 1785. Remorseful over his dissipated youth, he was converted at 
the age of 17 and in 1803 became a traveling Methodist preacher. As 
a circuit rider in Kentucky, Tennessee, Indiana and Ohio he became 
widely known as the "Kentucky Boy" and in 1805 was ordained an 
elder. Because of his hatred of slavery he decided to leave the South 
and obtained a transfer to the Sangamon circuit in Illinois in 1824. 
For the next 45 years he was a presiding elder in that state, attended 
46 meetings of the Illinois Conference and was sent to the General 
Conference of the church 12 times. He died at Pleasant Plains, 111. on 
September 25, 1872. 

4. Watters, op. cit., 34. 

5. "Rev. Peter Cartwright, D.D." by President M. H. Chamberlain of 
McKendree College in Transactions of the Illinois State Historical 
Society, No. 7, p. 53. 

6. William Epler in "Some Personal Recollections of Peter Cartwright" 
in the Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, XII: 378, quotes 
Cartwright as saying he never saw Fink, so the story is purely 
legendary. One story of Cartwright's encounter with frontier 
rowdies, based upon oral tradition among pioneers of the Henline 
settlement in Lawndale township, McLean county, is cited in 
"Churches of the Henline Settlement" by Elmo Scott Watson in the 
Bloomington Daily Bulletin, June 14, 1911, and in the same author's 
"Peter Cartwright, Circuit Rider," an article syndicated to news- 
papers by Western Newspaper Union in 1935 on the 150th anni- 
versary of his birth. 

7. Illinois Conference Minutes. This incident occurred at the sessions of 
the 23d. Illinois Conference at Paris in 1846. 

8. Cartwright, op. cit., 80. 

9. Quoted in C. P. McClelland's "A Famous Pioneer Preacher" in Ques- 
tion Marks and Exclamation Points, 194. 

10. Chamberlain, op. cit., 52. Cartwright was a "Jackson Democrat" and, 
as such, was elected to the lower house from Sangamon county in 
1828. With three to elect, he received the second highest vote. In 
1830 he stood for re-election but was defeated, being fourth high 
in a field of eight candidates. In 1832 he was again a candidate. There 
were 11 candidates and, under a recent reapportionment, four were 
to be elected. Cartwright was fourth high with 815 votes and Abra- 
ham Lincoln, another candidate, was eighth with 654 votes. In 1846 
the two men were rival candidates for election to congress. Lincoln, 

192 NOTES 

the Whig, received 6,340 votes to 4,827 for Cartwright, the Demo- 
crat. Beveridge, Abraham Lincoln, 1:382, characterizes the contest 
as "one of personal popularity and party organization, in both of 
which Lincoln had an immense advantage over the truculent, old 
Methodist minister." Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln — The Prairie 
Years, 1:336-7, gives an interesting account of how Lincoln worsted 
Cartwright in repartee at a religious meeting during this campaign. 
He also comments (Prairie Years, 11:247) on the fact that no mention 
of Lincoln appears in Cartwright's autobiography, despite the fact 
that Lincoln won the acquittal of one of his grandsons on a murder 
charge. "The handling of the grandfather, as a witness, cleared 
Peachy Harrison and set him free." — Prairie Years, 11:310. 

11. Watters, op. cit., 35. 

12. Ibid., 36. 

13. Walton, History of McKendree College, 111. 

14. Central Christian Advocate, November 2, 1854. 

15. Dictionary of American Biography, IX:616-17. Jaquess was born 
near Evansville, Ind. November 18, 1819, "one of the numerous chil- 
dren of fervent and wealthy Methodist parents who named their 
offspring after Methodist bishops." After leaving the Illinois Con- 
ference Female College, Jaquess became president of Quincy College, 
another Methodist school. Soon after the outbreak of the Civil War 
he became chaplain of the Sixth Illinois cavalry but his experiences 
at the Battle of Shiloh so roused his military ardor that he became 
colonel of the 73d Illinois Volunteers which was known as the 
"Preachers Regiment" because so many ministers were officers in 
it. Depressed by the sight of fellow-Methodists slaying each other in 
this civil war, Jaquess resigned his commission and, accompanied by a 
newspaper correspondent, made his way through the lines to inter- 
view Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy, in an effort to 
bring about a negotiated peace. After many narrow escapes from 
death, they reached Davis but the mission was unsuccessful. After 
the war Jaquess served in the Freedman's Bureau in the South, be- 
came a cotton planter in Arkansas and Mississippi and entered a busi- 
ness which took him on many trips to London. He died in St. Paul, 
Minn. June 17, 1898. 

16. Watters, op. cit. 43. 

17. This and subsequent quotations are from Andrus's autobiography, 
written in 1873 for the alumni historical association of McKendree 
College. The original manuscript is in the possession of Ellsworth 
L. Olcott of Fort Wayne, Ind. Andrus was born in Rutland, N. Y. 
January 29, 1824. After leaving Wesleyan in 1852 he became pastor 
of a church in Springfield, organized and conducted the Central 
Academy there for a year and, after serving pastorates in Beards- 
town and Decatur, was elected president of the Illinois Conference 
Female Academy in 1855. He remained there only a year because 

NOTES 193 

of his desire to devote his life to "service in the itinerant ministry" 
which he did for the next 10 years. He returned to the field of edu- 
cation in 1866 as president of Quincy College but retired after a 
year and was transferred to the Indiana Conference. After preaching 
three years in Evansville and two in Indianapolis, he became president 
of Indiana Asbury University (now DePauw) in 1872. He resigned 
in 1875 and thereafter was a preacher in various cities in Indiana until 
his death in Indianapolis January 20, 1887. 

18. Leaton, Methodism in Illinois, 1832-1840, 11:59-62. Barger was born 
in Culpepper county, Va. December 5, 1802. He died in Blooming- 
ton January 4, 1877. The story of Cartwright's prayer at the Illinois 
Conference in Springfield in 1863 is told by Rev. W. N. McElroy in 
the Daily Pantograph, August 20, 1924. 

19. Illinois Conference Minutes. Rutledge was born in Augusta county, 
Va. June 24, 1820. During the Civil War he served as a chaplain in 
the army for three years and subsequently as chaplain at the Illinois 
State Prison for four years. 

20. Watters, op. cit., 79, 159. 

21. Ibid., 341. 

22. Wilder, Historical Sketch of Illinois Wesley an University, 1851-1895, 
59. Walton, op. cit., 141. Finley was born in Somerset county, N. J. 
October 10, 1802. After his four years as president of McKendree 
(1841-45), he was transferred to the Rock River Conference, served 
in pastorates there until 1851 when he returned to the Illinois Con- 
ference. He was professor of Greek at McKendree, 1864-5. He died 
in Jacksonville July 27, 1885. 

23. Leaton, op. cit., 11:286. 

24. Leaton, op. cit., 1:368. Van Cleve was born in Shrewsbury, N. J. 
May 24, 1804, moved with his family to New York in 1808 and to 
Ohio seven years later. He was a pastor in various Illinois towns be- 
fore and after his term as presiding elder of the Mt. Vernon District 
(1843-44) until 1851 when he was transferred to the Missouri Con- 
ference. After a year there he returned to Illinois where he re- 
mained until his death in 1875. 

25. Wilder, op. cit., 65. 

26. Illinois Conference Minutes. Daily Pantagraph, March 31, 1920. 
Magee was born in Limerick, Ireland, March 11, 1822 and died in 
Bloomington March 23, 1854. 

27. Illinois Conference Minutes. Biographical data on Lewis in the 
Minutes is scanty, except for reference to his holding a revival meet- 
ing at Augusta College on January 11, 1840 at which more than 100 
persons, including 22 college students, joined the church; to his hold- 
ing pastorates in Decatur, Springfield and Jersey ville; and to his being 
assigned in 1851 to the Jacksonville circuit "where he ceased to work 
and live." 

28. Illinois Conference Minutes. Holliday was born in Kentucky Febru- 

194 NOTES 

ary 2, 1807. After being stationed at Bloomington, he served at 
Jacksonville, Upper Alton and on the Alton circuit. In 1852 he was 
transferred to the Southern Illinois Conference where he remained 
until his death at O 'Fallon on January 30, 1881. 

29. Duis, Good Old Times in McLean County, 212-14. Allin was born 
in North Carolina January 13, 1788, moved to Boone county, Ky. at 
the age of ten and then to Dearborn county, Ind. where he grew to 
young manhood. He arrived in Illinois in 1819, settling first at Ed- 
wardsville, then Vandalia and finally in Bloomington. He died there 
May 5, 1869. 

30. Ibid. 

31. Wilder, op. cit., 42. 

32. Ibid. William H. Allin was born in Indiana in 1818. He served as 
a member of the board of trustees of the Town of Bloomington in 
1845 and was elected circuit clerk in 1850. In 1838 he married Judith 
Major, daughter of William T. Major. He died in 1876. Trans. 
McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 11:624-5. 

33. Virginia F. Graves in Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 1:590. 

34. Ibid. Mrs. Graves, who was a pupil of Dr. Hobbs, gives an interest- 
ing account of his unorthodox methods of teaching school. 

35. Ezra M. Prince in Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 11:224. 

36. Charles L. Capen in Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 1:415. 

37. James S. Ewing in Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 11:549. 

38. Capen, op. cit. 

39. Ewing, op. cit. 

40. Capen, op. cit. 

41. Ewing, op. cit. Hobbs died on February 10, 1861 in his rooms over 
what later became the Third National Bank in Bloomington. Ac- 
cording to Capen, "On the stormy day of his funeral all business 
places were closed and all the organizations of the city marched in 
line. All felt his loss irreparable." 

42. Duis, op. cit., 335. Duis, who evidently bases this statement upon 
information from Kersey Fell himself, writes: "He mentioned the 
matter first to his brother, Jesse, but the latter did not immediately 
think favorably of the matter. But after a little reflection he favored 
it." Both Morehouse, Life of Jesse Fell, 58, and Sandburg, op. cit., 
II: 176, state that Jesse Fell broached the matter to Lincoln in Kersey 
Fell's law office in Bloomington. 

43. Duis, op cit., 330-36. Fell was born in Chester county, Pa. May 1 
1815. He died in Bloomington May 1, 1893. 

44. Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, II: 635; Prince and Burnham, Ency- 
clopedia History of McLean County, 11:1062. Graves was born in 
Vermont April 2, 1815. After he and his brothers dissolved their 
partnership, he was associated with David Davis in the real estate 
business, then became head of Graves, Story and Company, a mer- 
cantile firm which was burned out in 1855. In 1857 he returned to the 

NOTES 195 

real estate business and in 1859 joined the gold rush to Colorado but 
after his claim was jumped returned to Bloomington where he pros- 
pered in the real estate business until his death January 18, 1897. For 
many years he was manager of the Bloomington cemetery. 

45. Daily Pantagraph, October 23, 1926. Holmes was born in Perrys- 
ville, N. Y. April 24, 1809, educated at the Cazenovia Seminary and 
admitted to the bar in 1831. The home which he bought when he 
moved to Bloomington was the log cabin, built by James Allin, in 
which the first court was held in Bloomington. It stood on the pres- 
ent site of the McBarnes Memorial building at Grove and East streets. 
Later Holmes built a three-story house just east of this cabin and 
made his home there until his death in Brooklyn, N. Y. September 
11, 1882, 

46. Capen, op. cit., Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 11:561, 565. Thomas 
died in Kenney, 111. February 24, 1888. 

47. Duis, op. cit., 846-52. Rogers was the scion of an Irish family that 
had emigrated to America in 1774, settled in Frederick county, Md. 
and moved. to Columbiana county, Ohio, where he was born Decem- 
ber 4, 1812. He was active in Democratic politics in McLean county 
until he retired from the practice of medicine in 1867. Later he be- 
came a member of the Liberal wing of the Republican party and was 
elected to the state legislature on that ticket in 1872. He died in 
Bloomington in August, 1899. 

48. Duis, op. cit., 580-88. Funk was born in Clark county, Ky. Novem- 
ber 17, 1797 of German ancestry. He died in Bloomington January 
29, 1865. 

49. Ibid. Wilder, op. cit., 48-9. 

50. Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 11:570. Merriman was born in Stan- 
stead, Hatley township, Quebec, June 18, 1810. He taught school and 
was preceptor of the academy there before going to Newbury. 

51. Edwards "Education in McLean County" in Trans. McLean Co. Hist. 
Soc, 11:37, 39. After Merriman's return from the army he became 
a partner with his father-in-law, T. T. Waggoner, in a grain busi- 
ness that was wiped out by fire. He died in Chicago May 24, 1888. 
(Daily Pantagraph, May 25, 1888) It is somewhat ironical that the 
newspaper which he founded devoted less than a third of a column 
on an inside page to the story of his passing. 

52. "William Wallace" by Maria Lewis, his granddaughter, in Trans. 
McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 11:571-73. Wallace was born in Philadelphia 
February 8, 1800 and died in Bloomington February 13, 1857. 

53. Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 11:573-74. Ewing was born in Iredell 
county, N. C. February 14, 1808 and died in Bloomington in Novem- 
ber, 1855. In 1848 Flagg and Ewing began manufacturing reapers 
which resulted in a suit for infringement of patent, filed by Cyrus 
McCormick of Chicago, who asked damages of $20,000. The Bloom- 
ington manufacturers retained as their attorney Abraham Lincoln, 

196 NOTES 

who won the case for them and, when asked what his fee would be, 
replied "I think ten dollars will pay me for my trouble." — Duis, 
op. cit., 337. 

54. Duis, op. cit., 252-53. Bunn was born in Ross county, Ohio, Septem- 
ber 16, 1806 and came to Bloomington in 1833. His first wife was 
Margery Haines of Xenia, Ohio, who bore him two daughters and 
three sons, one of whom, Thomas J. Bunn, was elected mayor of 
Bloomington in 1877. Abraham Brokaw, who was associated with 
Bunn in several business enterprises in the early days of Bloomington, 
married Eunice Ellsworth, a sister of Bunn's partner, Oliver Ells- 
worth. In 1900 Mr. and Mrs. Brokaw gave Wesleyan $1,000 in mem- 
ory of Bunn's first wife. Daily Fantagraph June 1, 1900. Bunn died 
in Bloomington in 1886. Daily fantagraph, March 31, 1920. 

55. Duis, op cit. 

56. Duis, op. cit., 302. Trimmer was born in Hunterdon county, N. J. 
and died in Kansas June 10, 1881. 

57. Duis, op. cit., 301-6. Magoun was born in Pembroke, Mass. June 14, 
1806 and died in 1874. 

58. Wilder, op. cit., 43. 

59. Duis, op. cit., 308-9. Miller was born in Rockingham county, Va. 
May 23, 1795. He was elected state treasurer in 1856 and re-elected in 
1858. He died in Bloomington September 23, 1872. 

60. Duis, op. cit., 338-48; Wilder, op. cit., 44-5. McClun was born in 
Frederick county, Va. February 19, 1812. He served as county 
judge from 1849 to 1852, in the state legislature and on the state 
board of agriculture from 1852 to 1857 and in 1858, when McLean 
county adopted township organization, he was chosen chairman of 
the first board of supervisors. He died in 1888. 

61. Wilder, op. cit., 44. Magoun, Miller and McClun later were partners 
in the People's Bank and when it failed Magoun lost his entire for- 
tune. Both Magoun and McClun served as trustees of the Town of 
Bloomington, Magoun in 1844 and McClun in 1846. Magoun served 
as trustee of Wesleyan from 1850 to his death in 1874, a total of 24 
years. Other trustees with long periods of service were Peter Cart- 
wright, 21 years (1850-71); J. E. McClun, 20 years (1850-64; 1868- 
74) and Isaac Funk, 16 years (1850-66). 

62. Duis, op. cit., 555-57. Watters was born in Stafford county, Va. 
November 19, 1803. In 1852-53 he was a merchant in Farmer City 
after which he returned to his farm near Le Roy where he died on 
October 6, 1882. 

63. For the complete text of Illinois Wesley an's "birth certificate" see 
Appendix A. 

64. Illinois Conference Minutes, 1854. 

NOTES 197 

Chapter 3 

1 . It is to be hoped that the Rev. Mr. Andrus wrote with more certainty 
the names of these first Wesleyan students than he did the date of the 
opening of the preparatory department in which they enrolled. In 
his Autobiography, op. cit. (written in 1873) he gives the date as 
October 20. Five years later (February 26, 1878) he wrote his "Remi- 
niscences of Illinois Wesleyan University," the original manuscript of 
which is now in the Wesleyan archives. In this he gives the date as 
November 20. The date, October 28, as given in the text of this chap- 
ter, appears in an announcement, signed by "Rev. Andrus, Principal," 
in the November 27, 1850 issue of the Western Whig, which states: 
"The Preparatory Department of Illinois University (sic) opened 
on Monday, the twenty-eighth of October in the M.E. Church." 
This contemporary account is probably more trustworthy than 
either of Andrus's, written more than 20 years after the event. 

Two of these seven youths achieved considerable distinction in 
later years. James Stevenson Ewing, son of Founder John W. Ewing, 
later attended Center College in Kentucky, studied law in Blooming- 
ton and was admitted to the bar in 1859. He and his cousin, Adlai 
Ewing Stevenson, were law partners in Bloomington. After Steven- 
son was elected vice-president of the United States in 1892, President 
Cleveland appointed Ewing Minister to Belgium, where he served 
for four years. Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 11:265-66. Archibald 
E. Stewart was the son of a Randolph Grove pioneer who built the 
first brick house in McLean county. Left fatherless at the age of six, 
his widowed mother took him to Bloomington when he was sixteen 
to enter him in the new preparatory department at Wesleyan. After 
spending three years there, he taught school in Randolph township 
before going to Boston to study medicine under Dr. Harrison Noble, 
a former neighbor in McLean county. Later he attended Rush Medi- 
cal College in Chicago and Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, 
then returned to Bloomington to practice and was elected county 
physician. In 1862 Stewart resigned that position to become assistant 
surgeon in the 94th Illinois Volunteers, "the McLean County Regi- 
ment," with which he served for three years. After returning from 
the army he gave up medicine for farming. In 1872 he was elected 
to the state legislature and was re-elected in 1874. After retiring from 
the legislature he served eight years in the office of the circuit court, 
at one time was acting county superintendent of schools and for a 
time was on the editorial staff of the Pantagraph. He died April 4, 
1899. Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 669-74. No authoritative data 
has been located on the other five students. George Stubblefield was 
probably a relative of the Stubblefields who were Funk's Grove 
pioneers. Edwin Fell was probably a nephew of Kersey and Jesse 

198 NOTES 

W. Fell, Edwin Miller may have been a son of Founder James M. 
Miller and John Perry may have been a son of David I. Perry, the 
first mayor of Bloomington (1850). 

2. Andrus' announcement in the Western Whig, op. cit. 

3. Andrus, "Reminiscences," op. cit. Again Andrus' memory was faulty. 
See Appendix E in which the text of a circular issued early in 1851 
lists the names of 53 students "enrolled during the last term." 

4. Record of the Proceedings of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois 
Wesleyan University, hereafter to be designated as Trustees' Pro- 

5. Ibid. Those in the first class were: Isaac Funk, Silas Watters, James 
C. Finley, C. P. Merriman, W. D. B. Trotter, C. M. Holliday, David 
Trimmer, John Magoun, William H. Holmes and James Miller. In 
the second class were: Lewis Bunn, John Van Cleve, John W. 
Ewing, John S. Barger, William Wallace, Peter Cartwright, Calvin 
W. Lewis, James Allin, Reuben Andrus and W. C. Hobbs. In the 
third class were: William J. Rutledge, Kersey H. Fell, James Leaton, 
James Jaquess, Thomas P. Rogers, Linus Graves, Thomas Magee, 
John E. McClun, Ezekiel Thomas and William H. Allin. 

6. For text of this Constitution see Appendix B. 

7. Trustees' Proceedings. Subsequent direct quotations and other ma- 
terial in this chapter, except as noted, are from these Proceedings. 

8. J. H. Burnham in "Street Names in Bloomington — Their Historical 
Significance" in Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 1:454-5 mentions this 
rivalry in telling the origin of the name of College street. However, 
since he wrote long after the event and probably from memory, some 
of his statements about the final selection of Wesleyan's site are ob- 
viously erroneous. See Chapter V, Note 12. 

9. Western Whig, July 3 0, 1 8 5 1 . 

10. No mention is made in this story of a president, and the Trustees' 
Proceedings for September 3, 1851, indicate why. It is the laconic 
but significant statement that "a letter from Mr. Erastus Wentworth 
was read and filed with the secretary." Evidently Wentworth had 
declined the honor of being Wesleyan's first president. 

11. Andrus, op. cit. Again his recollection is faulty for the Trustee's 
Proceedings show that at the annual meeting on July 8, 1851, "the 
committee on Mr. Andrus' salary reported $425, to which the board 
added $50, in all amounting to $475." 

Chapter 4 

1. Andrus "Reminiscences." op. cit. 

2 . Western Whig, July 30, 1851. 

3. Western Whig, June 2, 1852. The evidence as to the total enroll- 
ment this year is contradictory. Andrus says "the maximum number 
of students in the classes this second year was nearly one hundred 

NOTES 199 

(100)." The Whig story gives the number as 136 but the list in the 
first annual catalogue totals only 135. Of this number 101 were in 
the preparatory and 34 in the college departments. 

4. Trustees 1 Proceedings. Other direct quotations in this chapter, ex- 
cept as noted, are from this source. 

5. First Annual Catalogue, 1851-52. 

6. Ibid. 

7. Western Whig, March 3, 1852. 

8. Andrus, op. cit. 

9. Ibid. 

10. Western Whig, May 26 and June 2, 1852. 

11. Fell was born in Chester county, Pa., in 1808, migrated to Ohio 
where he began to study law and in 1832 arrived in Bloomington to 
become the first lawyer in the little frontier town. Thereafter for the 
next 50 years he was not only the "first politician of McLean county" 
but one of the leaders in every phase of civic activity in Bloomington. 
He died February 25, 1887. For details of his long and distinguished 
career see Morehouse op. cit., Dictionary of American Biography; 
also Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 1:338-51; 514-5. 

12. Bloomington Intelligencer, July 14, 1852. 

13. Andrus, op. cit. 

14. In the Daily Pantagraph for June 12, 1903 appeared an item, headed 
"An Aged Alumnus," which read: "Mr. P. W. Bishop, who has 
lived on the same farm near Towanda for the last 67 years, is at- 
tending the commencement exercises at Wesleyan. He graduated 
from Wesleyan 51 years ago, at which time he took part in the 
exercises, being the orator of his class. He says that that particular 
speech is the only one he ever wrote out, although he has delivered 
many since then. During the time he was attending the Wesleyan 
the school was held in the basement of the Methodist church, then 
the only one in town, and the graduating exercises in the auditorium 
above, the first building of the Wesleyan then being in the course of 
construction. At the time of the Civil War he went to the front with 
the 94th regiment of Illinois volunteers, serving under Col. McNulty 
for a year. He was then transferred to the 37th 111. serving as regi- 
ment chaplain during the remainder of the war under General John 
C. Black." Either Bishop was misquoted or the memory of the 
"aged alumnus" was faulty in several respects. The colonel of the 
94th was John McNulta (not McNulty). No diplomas were awarded 
at the 1852 commencement since, as stated in this chapter, there 
was no graduating class and what he called "graduating exercises" 
consisted only of declamations and orations by the students. 

200 NOTES 

Chapter 5 

1. The quotations and descriptions of the library and cabinet, apparatus 
and course of study, etc., are taken verbatim from this catalogue. 

2. In the Alumni Journal 1:17 (July, 1870) appears a faculty register 
for the period of 1850-70 which shows that Godman was elected 
professor of mathematics July 6, 1852 and did not resign until June 
10, 1855. Pope is listed as tutor for only the one year, 1852-3. The 
record as to the teachers of mathematics during this period is very 
confusing. The Alumni Journal faculty register does not list the 
name of J. P. Johnson, yet the Trustees' Proceedings for July 7, 
1853 contain this statement: "Prof J. P. Johnson presented his resig- 
nation as professor of mathematics which was presented to the com- 
mittee on the Board of Instruction," indicating that he had served 
during that year. Similarly, there is no mention in this register of 
W. T. Wright as a teacher of mathematics, yet, as will be seen later, 
both the Trustees' Proceedings and contemporary newspaper ac- 
counts prove conclusively that he was on the faculty in that capacity. 

3. Cf. Watters, op. cit., pp. 124-7. 

4. Davis was born in Cecil county, Md., in 1815, graduated from Ken- 
yon College at the age of 17, studied law in Massachusetts and Yale 
and came to Bloomington in 1836 where he succeeded to the law 
practice of Jesse W. Fell, who had entered the real estate business. 
Davis was elected to the state legislature in 1844, and judge of the 
Eighth Judicial Circuit in 1848, a position which he held until 1862 
when President Lincoln appointed him an associate justice of the 
Supreme Court of the United States. For details of his career see 
Dictionary of American Biography; also Duis, op. cit., 276-88, and 
Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 1:320-6. 

5. For the text of this charter, see Appendix C. 

6. Bloomington Intelligencer, July 13, 1852. A biographical sketch of 
Barger, written by his father, states that "in June, 1853, he received 
his diploma from the hands of Rev. John Dempster, D.D., President of 
Illinois Wesleyan University" (Alumni Journal V:42) which indi- 
cates that, although Dempster was a president in absentia, he occa- 
sionally visited Bloomington to perform certain presidential duties. 
Young Barger became a Methodist minister, was admitted to the 
Illinois Conference and eventually became presiding elder of the 
Quincy district where his "bright and useful career" ended tragically 
in a hunting accident. See Chapter 8, Note 4. 

7. Bloomington Intelligencer, September 28, 1853. 

8. "Bloomington 1853 to 1856" by Mary Piatt Hoover in Trans. McLean 
Co. Hist. Soc, 11:402-28. Subsequent material in this chapter on stu- 
dent activities, lectures, etc., is based upon this narrative hereafter to 
be noted as "Mary Piatt Hoover." 

NOTES 201 

9. Mary Piatt Hoover, op. cit. The story of this meeting is also re- 
lated in J. H. Burnham's "Educational Convention of 1853." Trans. 
McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 11:118-27. Burnham says the sessions were 
held in a local hotel, the McFarland House, but Mary Piatt Hoover's 
recollection is probably more accurate since she was a member of 
the local committee in charge of the affair. 

10. Burnham, op. cit. 

11. Wilder, op. cit., p. 9 writes: "After a number of proposals had been 
made, a ten-acre lot, lying north of the Chicago & Alton railroad, 
was chosen and a deed received for the same from James Allin. Later, 
but not until a contract had been let for a building and the material 
for the same had been collected on the ground, the location proved 
unsatisfactory, so that proposals were invited for another site and on 
the 24th day of June, 1854, the present site was selected; the building 
material collected on the Allin lot was removed to the present site 
and the present preparatory building was erected." This preparatory 
building is Old North Hall on the present Wesleyan campus. 

12. Burnham's "Street Names in Bloomington — Their Historical Signifi- 
cance" in Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 1:454-5. He states that a 
block of land known as College Square in the western part of the 
city intended as the site of Wesleyan "was selected before the Chi- 
cago and Alton Railroad (or, as it was then called, the Chicago and 
Mississippi railroad) came along here and when the railroad line was 
located in 1852, about the time the college building was to be 
started, it was seen that this site, which is just east of where the freight 
depot now stands, was too near the road for a college and agitation 
was begun for a new location. Mr. James Miller, then one of our 
wealthiest and most public-spirited citizens, who owned a large tract 
of land in the south part of town and who had already laid out sev- 
eral additions and named several streets, offered the college a larger 
and better tract in what is now Miller Park and adjacent ground. 
William T. Major, W. H. Allin and others, in their endeavor to 
keep the college in the north part of the city, donated the present 
Wesleyan College site with a large cash donation in addition. The 
Miller park location was defeated in the board of trustees in the final 
contest by a bare majority of one." In the latter statement Burnham 
is obviously confused in his chronology. He probably refers to the 
vote of the trustees on February 3, 1851, as recorded in Chapter III. 
There is no record of the trustees considering any proposition by 
Miller at the meeting on June 24, 1854, when the present site was 
selected, nor is there anything in the minutes of that meeting to 
support his statement that William T. Major and W. H. Allin donated 
the present site. After Phoenix had made his proposition "Judge 
Davis stated that if the college grounds were located on Mr. Phoenix's 
proposition, himself, William F. Flagg and William Allin would 
give $500 each to the college. Mr. James Allin said he would give 

202 NOTES 

$500 also. On motion of Dr. Roe, the different propositions were 
voted upon and Mr. Phoenix's accepted." For the text of the Articles 
of Agreement between Phoenix and the board, which were executed 
on August 7, 1854, see Appendix D. 

Phoenix was a native of New York who came to Bloomington in 
1851 and started the nursery business which became nationally fa- 
mous. Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 11:331; 659-60. His name is 
perpetuated in the Phoenix addition to Bloomington, also in Franklin 
avenue, "the street with a university at either end" — Illinois Wes- 
leyan and Illinois State Normal. 

13. Weekly Pantagraph, January 11, 1854. 

14. President Edgar M. Smith: "The Illinois Wesleyan University." 
Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 11:132. Short was a native of Ohio 
who attended public schools in Illinois before entering McKendree. 
After his graduation from Wesleyan he entered the ministry in 
1856, in 1871 succeeded George W. Rutledge as presiding elder of 
the Jacksonville district, and in 1875 became president of the Illinois 
Female College, a position which he held until 1893. Wilder, op. cit., 
Ill; Watters, op. cit., 251 et. seq. 

15. McClun and Miller resigned from the executive committee and their 
places were taken by W. H. Allin and Dr. Thomas, respectively. 
Another vacancy in this committee was filled by Dr. Roe. The office 
of treasurer was declared vacant and Jesse Birch was named to suc- 
ceed Graves who also resigned from the building committee. His 
place there was taken by Phoenix who was also elected to fill a va- 
cancy in the board of trustees. McClun resigned as president of the 
board and was succeeded by Dr. Rogers. James Allin resigned as 
vice-president of the board. All these were more changes than had 
taken place at any previous meeting of the board, hence the assump- 
tion of friction over matters of policy. 

16. The student's resolutions were printed at their request in the May 
10, 1854 issue of the Weekly Pantagraph. The assumption of possi- 
ble friction between faculty and trustees is based upon these two 
points: 1. No previous resignation of a faculty member had re- 
sulted in action by either students or trustees similar to that occa- 
sioned by Wright's departure; 2. The rather mystifying references 
to Goodfellow in the Trustees' Proceedings when he left the univer- 
sity a short time later. See Chapter 6, Note 3. 

17. Dempster left Wesleyan to become chairman of the faculty and pro- 
fessor of systematic theology in the Garrett Biblical Institute, 
named for its benefactor, Mrs. Eliza Garrett. He served as executive 
head of the institution from 1855 to 1861 when Matthew Simpson 
became the first president of Garrett. He continued as professor for 
another year, then retired because he was planning to go to the Pa- 
cific Coast to found another seminary there. Before he could do so, 
he was stricken by an illness which resulted in his death in Chicago 

NOTES 203 

November 28, 1863. Catalogues and Records of Garrett Biblical 
Institute. Many Wesleyan graduates obtained their S.T.D. or D.D. 
degrees from Garrett before entering the ministry, as did five Wes- 
leyan presidents — Adams, Kemp, Davidson, Shaw and Holmes. 

Chapter 6 

1. Trustees' Proceedings. Other citations in this chapter, except as 
noted are from this source. 

2. According to the "Faculty Register" in the Alumni Journal, op. cit. 
Sherfy's tenure was from 1851 to 1854. 

3. Goodfellow left Wesleyan to join his father-in-law, Dempster, on 
the faculty of Garrett Biblical Institute, where he served from 1854 
to 1856. Semi-Centennial Celebration of Garrett Biblical Institute, 
May 5-9, 1906. 

That his departure was not entirely amicable is indicated by these 
facts: as early as July 1 a committee appointed to "present to this 
body the sense of the resignation of Professor Goodfellow presented 
a report which was adopted." However, there is no formal record 
of his resignation in the Trustees'* Proceedings and in the light of 
Goodfellow's three years' loyal service to the university, during 
which he was acting head of it, it seems somewhat strange that the 
trustees expressed neither their "good feelings" toward him, as in the 
case of Wright, nor their "regret at his leaving," as in the case of 
Dempster. He was still serving as secretary of the board in August 
but in September the Proceedings contained this curious entry: "Here 
endeth the chapter of minutes so far as I can find notes of the 
same left by the secretary, Professor Goodfellow. (Signed) O. T. 
Reeves." Subsequent entries indicate that Goodfellow still had some 
of the minutes and that the trustees were having difficulty in getting 
them back. 

4. Reeves was born in Ohio in 1829 and was graduated from Ohio 
Wesleyan University in 1850. He was a tutor of languages there 
for a year and later principal of the Berea Seminary in Cleveland and 
of the Chillicothe high school, where he began the study of law. 
Admitted to the bar in 1854, he came to Bloomington in September 
of that year in time to take Goodfellow's place as teacher. Elected a 
trustee in 1855 he served as secretary of the board from 1857 to 
1876, began teaching law in 1873, helped organize the law school 
the next year and was its dean from 1891 and president of the Board 
of Trustees from 1893 until his death on March 2, 1912. Trans. 
McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 1:527-8; Wilder, op. cit., 56-8. 

5. Mary Piatt Hoover, op. cit. She gives a graphic description of 
Freeze and an amusing account of this incident. A similar dance at 
College Hall is reported in the July 1, 1857 issue of the Weekly Pan- 
tagraph and it is obvious that the editor who wrote the story did not 
view sympathetically such "goings-on." 

204 NOTES 

6. Mary Piatt Hoover, op. cit. Because of a hiatus in the Trustees' 
Proceedings between December 29, 1854 and February 8, 1855, there 
is no record of their formal action in suspending the school. 

7. Sears was born in New York in 1820, was graduated from Wesleyan 
University in Connecticut in 1841 and, after attending Lane Theo- 
logical Seminary in Cincinnati, entered the ministry and served sev- 
eral pastorates before joining the Illinois Wesleyan faculty in 1854. 
After his resignation from Wesleyan he became pastor of the Me- 
thodist church in Springfield where he remained until 1858 when he 
became pastor of the Morris chapel in Cincinnati. In 1860 he re- 
turned to Illinois as pastor of the First Methodist church in Urbana 
but left in 1862 to become chaplain of the 95th Ohio Volunteers. 
He died in Urbana August 29, 1863 of disease contracted in the army. 
Sears was married three times. His second wife (Helen C. Graff of 
Cincinnati), who died while he was pastor in Springfield, had borne 
him three sons, one of whom, John Magoun Sears, was named for 
the Wesleyan trustee. Wesleyan University Alumni Record. 

8. Trustees' Proceedings, November 5, 1856; Wilder, op. cit., 84. 

Chapter 7 

1. Trustees' Proceedings. Other citations in this chapter, except as 
noted, are from this source. 

2. Both were sons of Rev. Leander Munsell who was a Wesleyan 
trustee from 1856 to 1860. Charles W. C. Munsell was born in Ohio 
in 1822, came to Illinois in 1832 and was admitted to the ministry in 
1846. Before becoming a trustee and financial agent for Wesleyan, 
he had been instrumental in raising funds for founding seminaries at 
Danville and Shelbyville. His younger brother, Oliver S. Munsell, 
was born in Ohio in 1825, Wilder op. cit., 13-16; 46-7; Illinois 
Conference Minutes. 

3. Buck was born in New York in 1819, admitted to the ministry in 
1843 and became a leader in the Illinois Conference as presiding 
elder in the Danville, Bloomington, Champaign and Decatur districts. 
He served continuously as a trustee from 1856 until his death in 1892. 
During his tenure his contributions were an important factor in the 
financial stability of the university. His name is perpetuated in the 
Buck Memorial library on the Wesleyan campus of today. 

4. Daily Pantagraph, July 31, 1857. The Weekly Pantagraph had be- 
come the Daily Pantagraph on February 23, 1857. 

5. Wilder, op. cit., 14. 

6. Lincoln's famous speech, given at a meeting to organize a new poli- 
tical party (the Republican) in Major's Hall in Bloomington on May 
29, 1856, is called his "Lost Speech" because no complete text of it 
survives. The newspaper men who attended the meeting were so 
enthralled by his eloquence that they forgot to take notes so there 

NOTES 205 

was no adequate report of it in the newspapers of the day. Later 
when Lincoln was urged to write it out and permit it to be pub- 
lished, he declined because "the speech was too full of passion, could 
be twisted too many ways to please the opposition. He would let 
it be a memory," writes Carl Sandburg, who gives an admirable 
synthesis of the speech in Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years, 
11:35-40. Lincoln's lecture in Centre Hall on April 6, 1858 is a "Lost 
Speech" for a different reason. The only newspaper man who had 
occasion to cover this lecture was W. R. McCracken, local editor 
of the Daily Pantagraph, who in his "Local Matters" column in the 
April 6 issue had erroneously stated that the meeting would be held 
in Major's Hall. The next morning (April 7), without admitting his 
error and with a rather labored attempt at humor, he offered an alibi 
for there being no story on the lecture. He had been "detained at 
the office," was late in reaching the meeting and when he arrived 
he found the doors locked and the sergeant-at-arms of the association 
unwilling to let him in. It was not until April 9 that the Pantagraph 
carried this report, by an anonymous contributor of 

Mr. Lincoln's Lecture 

"Mr. Editor: The announcement that the Hon. Abram (sic) Lincoln 
would lecture before the Young Men's Association brought together 
a large and appreciative audience last Tuesday evening at Centre 
Hall. Indeed, at an early hour, every seat was filled and the aisles were 
crowded. The distinguished lecturer commenced by saying that 'the 
whole Creation was a mine and men were miners.' He thereupon 
proceeded to trace the progress of mankind as exhibited by their 
inventions. He dwelt more particularly upon the early and funda- 
mental discoveries such as clothing, the use of fire, transportation by 
land and water, written language, etc. showing by a searching ana- 
lytic process the successive steps taken by the old fogies of the human 
race in arriving at these primitive improvements upon the state of 

"The first half of the lecture displayed great research and a care- 
ful study of the Bible evidencing that the lawyer is not by any means 
unfamiliar with the Books of the Great Law Giver. The latter half 
was brim full of original thought. The whole forcibly reminded us 
of his legal arguments wherein he first states the facts in a clear and 
simple manner and then reasons from those facts backwards and for- 
ward to cause and effect. 

"Young America received a share of his attention. 'We have all 
heard of Young America.' Young America certainly deserves con- 
siderable commendation. The whole world is his servant. He has 
made every clime tributary to his necessities and luxuries. Still we 
must not be forgetful of the Old Fogies. Without them Young 
America would be comparatively helpless. To them we are indebted 
for all the primary principles — the alphabet of science — of which, 
every new invention, like a new word, is but a different combination. 

206 NOTES 

He regarded written languages the greatest of all inventions, and this 
must have been in use as early as the time of Moses. Bird-tracks 
might readily suggest the art of printing, so much lauded and so 
easily enabling us to converse with the dead and unborn; but the in- 
vention of letters, their combinations into syllables and words, the 
vast system of permutation which gives us so many thousand words 
from so few letters or elementary sounds, must have been a result 
often struggled for by the master minds of the early ages and was cer- 
tainly the grandest achievement of pure intellect. 

"The subject of Laughter was treated of and illustrated by the 
lecturer in his own inimitable way. Music, like flowers, was a gift of 
pure benevolence from our good Creator. It is the natural language 
of the heart, and adapts itself to all its emotions from triumphal exul- 
tation of a Musician to the plaint of the mourner. To plaintive songs 
especially he paid a feeling tribute. 

"We have endeavored to give a faint outline of the topics touched 
upon and masterly handled by the lecturer. In conclusion we would 
only say that Mr. Lincoln is an able and original thinker, and in the 
department of literature fully sustains the reputation he has so justly 
earned at the bar." 

There is current at Wesleyan today an unsubstantiated legend 
that its students once invited Lincoln to address them and that he 
replied he could not come out to the campus to speak but if they 
would hire a hall downtown he would address them there. This leg- 
end probably stems from the story of his lecture at Centre Hall, the 
above report of which is here reproduced for the first time. 

Lincoln's "Lost Speech" in Centre Hall had an interesting after- 
math. From it he later developed a "somewhat colorless disquisition 
on the growth of American civilization under the title of 'Discoveries 
and Inventions and Improvements'. . . . Although he delivered it a 
number of times he never thought much of it and, in truth, it did 
not measure up to his other non-political address delivered before the 
Wisconsin State Agricultural Fair on September 30, 1859." — Basler, 
Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings, pp. 30-1, 49 In. Before 
Lincoln left Springfield for Washington in 1861 he entrusted to a 
Mrs. Grimsley, Mrs. Lincoln's cousin, a satchel which he called his 
"literary cabinet." After his death in 1865 Mrs. Grimsley, in accord- 
ance with instructions given her by the President-elect, opened this 
satchel and distributed its contents among his friends. The manu- 
script of his "Discoveries and Inventions" lecture was given to Dr. 
Samuel Houston Melvin of Springfield who, upon closer examination, 
found that what had at first appeared to be two parts of the same 
lecture, joined together with a piece of red tape, in reality was two 
separate lectures dealing with the same subject. 

The complete text of one of these, accompanied by an affidavit 
setting forth the history of the manuscript and illustrated by a photo- 
static reproduction of it, was published by Dr. Melvin, who was 
then living in California, in the May, 1909, issue of Sunset Magazine, 

NOTES 207 

appropriate to the 100th anniversary celebration of Lincoln's birth. 
Later it was reprinted by his son, Henry A. Melvin, in a limited 
edition monograph, Discoveries and Inventions — A Lecture by Abra- 
ham Lincoln Delivered in 1860 (San Francisco, 1915) which is now 
a collector's item. In 1890 Dr. Melvin had sold the manuscript of the 
other lecture, titled "Discoveries, Inventions and Improvements," to 
Charles F. Gunther, Chicago collector of Lincolniana. The complete 
text of this lecture appears in Addresses and Letters of Abraham 
Lincoln, edited by Nicolay and Hay (New York, 1902) 1:522 et seq. 
who state that Lincoln delivered it in neighboring towns (Jack- 
sonville and Decatur) in 1859 and before the Springfield Library 
Association on February 22, 1860. 

The "Discoveries and Inventions" lecture, as reproduced in Sunset 
Magazine and the Melvin monograph, begins, as did Lincoln's Centre 
Hall speech, with the statement "All Creation is a mine and every 
man a miner." It is filled with Biblical allusions and is well sum- 
marized in the first paragraph of the report by the unknown contribu- 
tor to the Pantagraph. The second lecture, as reproduced in Nicolay 
and Hay, begins with the statement "We have all heard of Young 
America" and develops that theme as summarized in paragraph three 
of the Pantagraph report. However, in neither lecture is there a ref- 
erence to "Laughter" and "Music," as stated in paragraph four. 
Either these were extemporaneous remarks for his youthful audience 
in Centre Hall or else Lincoln decided to eliminate those topics when 
he expanded his Bloomington talk into two separate lectures. 

7. Wilder, op. cit., 14. 

8. Daily Pantagraph, April 16, 1858. 

9. Ibid., July 24, 1858. 

10. Ibid., September 15, 1858. 

1 1 . Alumni Journal, 1:23-4. 

12. Daily Pantagraph, December 23, 1858. 

13. Ibid., March 30, 1859. 

14. "The following note in reference to Illinois Wesleyan and the pros- 
pects of this institution was handed to us Tuesday and although 
brief is full of encouragement to its many friends and patrons. The 
'contingent proposition' referred to, we suppose, implies the one 
guaranteeing a subscription of $25,000 necessary to secure the amount 
of $31,750 previously subscribed. The Trustees of Illinois Wesleyan 
University succeeded on last Saturday in completing the contingent 
proposition upon which many of our citizens have lately subscribed, 
thus securing a subscription of $56,750 to meet the liabilities of the 
Institution, make improvements and endow the school. The number 
of young men in attendance upon school is increasing." Daily Panta- 
graph, October 26, 1859. 

15. Ibid., July 4, 1860. 

208 NOTES 

Chapter 8 

1. Trustees' Proceedings. Other citations in this chapter, except as noted, 
are from the same source. 

2. The Alumni Journal, 1:23, gives a history of the Belles Lettres So- 
ciety but fails to list the names of its founders. 

3. Daily Pantagraph, April 3, 1861. 

4. Wesleyan's first graduate was killed in a hunting accident October 
31, 1861, on Pecan Island below Quincy, 111. While he and a com- 
panion were creeping through a clump of bushes to get nearer a 
flock of wild geese, a vine caught on the hammer of his friend's gun, 
discharged it and a bullet pierced Barger's heart. Alumni Journal, 

5. Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 1:56-7, 515-16. 

6. Daily Pantagraph, April 2, 1862. 

7. Daily Pantagraph, September 10, 1870. President Munsell in his 
speech at the laying of the cornerstone of the new college building, 
recalling this Civil War incident, stated that "we then had 42 students 
and of these 33 enlisted and with them Professor DeMotte." Check- 
ing the rolls of the 68th, as given in Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, I: 
84-6, with the Wesley an Catalogue, 1861-62, shows the names of only 
12 Wesleyan students in this regiment. Therefore either Munsell's 
recollection was faulty or the muster rolls cited above are incomplete. 
Most of the students who enlisted at this time were assigned to 
Company G of which James P. Moore (who enrolled at Wesleyan 
as a freshman the next year) was captain. DeMotte was first lieuten- 
ant and John H. Stout, a preparatory student, was second lieutenant. 
Among the sergeants were John V. W. Baumann, a sophomore, and 
William Collins, a junior; among the corporals were Harry G. Reeves, 
a freshman, and Milton A. Lapham, a prep student. Privates included 
George W. Barton, David Ryburn, Jonathan Sackett and Paul Van- 
dervoort, freshmen; and Joseph Pancake and William Young, sopho- 
mores. Second lieutenant of Company F was Lewis E. Ijams, a sopho- 
more. Mrs. Clara DeMotte Munce is the authority for the statement 
that her father's company was sent to Camp Butler to guard Con- 
federate prisoners. In August another Wesleyan student enlisted — 
William A. Arrowsmith who had been in the prep school the pre- 
vious year. He became a sergeant in Company D of the 94th Illinois 
Volunteers and served until July 17, 1865. Trans. McLean Co. Hist. 
Soc, 1:188. Later in the war two others, George W. Barton and 
David Ryburn, enlisted in Company B of the same regiment. Ibid., 
1:97. Another Wesleyan student who served in the Union army was 
Charles Bradford Holmes, son of Founder W. H. Holmes. Young 
Holmes enlisted in the 145th Illinois Infantry, a "One-Hundred Day 
Regiment" which was mustered into service June 9, 1864 and must- 

NOTES 209 

ered out September 23, 1864. Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 1:132. 
In the Argus for November 14, 1934 appears an interview with 
Holmes which includes the following statement: 

"I started in at Wesleyan when I was ten years old and when 
Clinton W. Sears was president. However, in the years following I 
went first to one school and then another. As a result I at one time 
found myself enrolled in Normal for a short period because Wes- 
leyan was a pay school and Normal was free. But I was falsely pun- 
ished by a prof and I returned to Wesleyan where I went to school 
for two more years before joining the 145th Illinois Infantry during 
the Civil War. After the regiment was discharged in 1864 I returned 
to Wesleyan and finished the term there, afterwards enrolling in 
Drew's business college." 

8. Trans. McLean Co. Hist. Soc, 1:86. 

9. Ibid., 1:94; Duis, op. cit. 69. Boyd served until January 6, 1864, later 
became a professor of anatomy in the Rush Medical College in Chi- 
cago and died in 1893. Howell became a Methodist minister and 
served in the Illinois Conference until his death in 1871. Wilder, op. 
cit., 163. Adams later enlisted in Company B of the 107th Illinois In- 
fantry and died in 1866 as the result of hardships of army life. Alumni 
Journal, 11:31. 

10. Although Taylor is listed in the "Faculty Register" (Alumni Journal, 
op. cit.) as serving from January 1, 1861 to July 1, 1863, he seems 
to have been absent from his post much of that time. This absence 
is mentioned in President Munsell's report to the trustees at their 
annual meeting on June 11, 1862, and in his annual report on June 
30, 1863 he states that "owing to the resignation of Rev. T. R. Taylor 
at the opening of the fall term, the duties of the remaining professors 
have been unusually onerous." 

11. Alumni Journal, 1:18. The eight founders of the Munsellian Society 
were William N. Rutledge, William T. Collins, Absalom B. Funk, 
B. V. Sharp, J. W. Boggess, S. E. Pendleton, T. J. Barr and J. Thomas. 

12. Ibid., 1:10. 

13. Ayers, Baumann and Millikin later became ministers of the M.E. 
Church and Collins, a lawyer in Chicago and secretary of the Electric 
Light Company there. 

14. Daily Pantagraph, July 8, 1863. 

15. Although Powell had no direct connection with Wesleyan at this 
time, he was probably well known to its trustees and faculty as the 
son of Joseph Powell, a licensed exhorter and circuit rider who was 
one of the founders of a new Methodist school, the Illinois Institute 
(now Wheaton College) as a teacher at Decatur, Clinton and Henne- 
pin and as a member of the Illinois Natural History society for which 
he made one of the most complete collections of the mollusca of 
Illinois ever assembled by one man. Dellenbaugh, Romance of the 
Colorado River, pp. 371-86; Dictionary of American Biography, 

210 NOTES 

XV: 146-48; Trans. Utah Academy of Sciences, Vol. II, p. 19; 
"Reminiscences of John W. Powell" by Francis M. Bishop. 

16. "The Model School" by Mrs. Clara DeMotte Munce, in a chapter in 
a proposed 90th anniversary history of Wesleyan, manuscript in the 
IWU archives. Future citations from this source to be designated 
90th Ann. Hist. 

17. Daily Pantagraph, March 26, 1864. 

18. These 18 students were Clarence D. Perry of Bloomington and 
Emory C. Barthlow of Mt. Pleasant, juniors; William N. Rutledge of 
Bloomington, sophomore; William C. Fairchild of Bloomington, Ab- 
salom B. Funk of Funk's Grove, Joseph A. Hefner of Lexington, 
James P. Moore of Bloomington, George Rutledge of Bloomington, 
Jonathan H. Sackett of Randolph's Grove, A. S. Wilson of Mech- 
anicsburg and William Young of Old Town, freshmen; and Robert 
Brier of Bloomington, James Barthlow of Mt. Pleasant, J. H. Dixon 
of White Oak Grove, W. C. Hastings of Richwood, Ohio, Thomas 
Kerr of Lexington, C. H. McClung of Normal and J. H. Stout of 
Springfield, all of the preparatory department. Of these men only two 
subsequently finished their course at Wesleyan — William N. Rut- 
ledge, '66, and A. S. Wilson, '68. Illinois Wesleyan Catalogue, 1863- 
64; Alumni Roll, I.W.U. Bulletin, XXVII, No. 2. 

19. Daily Pantagraph, April 18, 1864. 

20. Ibid., April 18, 1864. Most of the members of these two companies 
were from Bloomington. They had just re-enlisted for three years' 
service and were home on veterans' furlough. Trans. McLean Co. 
Hist. Soc, 1:44-47; 157-60. Despite the patriotic nature of this Grand 
Ball it is doubtful if any Wesleyan students ventured to attend be- 
cause the strait-laced authorities of the university frowned upon such 
frivolities. At a faculty meeting held the following winter "it was 
determined that Dancing Parties, Balls and Circuses shall hereafter 
be included as specifications under the general term 'corrupting and 
immoral amusements' in the general rules." Minutes of the Faculty 
Meetings, Illinois Wesleyan University, 1864-1875 (hereafter to be 
designated Faculty Minutes) December 19, 1864. 

21. Daily Pantagraph, May 28, 1864. 

22. Ibid., June 4, 1864. 

23. Ibid., June 29, 1864. 

24. Ibid., June 20, 1864. 

25. They were G. W. Barton, who later attended the Chicago Medical 
College and practised in Saybrook; Martin A. Lapham who, after 
serving for two years as a tutor at Wesleyan, became a merchant in 
Danville; Joseph H. Pancake, who became head of the Model School, 
practised law in Bloomington until 1891 when he moved to Scott 
City, Kan. and became a member of the Kansas legislature; James T. 
Hoblit, who was also a lawyer and served as city attorney, county 
clerk, state's attorney and county judge at Lincoln, 111. and James W. 

NOTES 211 

Warfield, who became a clergyman in the Illinois and Nebraska 

26. Faculty Minutes, October 28, 1864. 

27. Daily Pantograph, April 18, 1865. Photographer Joseph Scibird, with 
his clumsy wet-plate camera, was on hand to preserve for posterity 
this scene in the courthouse square and it is believed that the Bloom- 
ington gathering is the only one of many such indignation meetings 
held throughout the country which was photographed. Reproduc- 
tion of this picture in the Daily Pantagraph for April 15, 1919 re- 
sulted in several participants contributing interesting reminiscences 
of the occasion to successive issues of the paper. These include the 
statement that the meeting was addressed by Judge David Davis, 
Judge Lawrence Weldon and Jesse W. Fell, but the contemporary 
account mentions only the two ministers. 

28. Faculty Minutes, April 28, 1865. Apparently seven of the "young 
gentlemen" used this respite from their studies unwisely, for the 
Faculty Minutes of May 8 record that "some students having failed 
to come to time on the Friday after Lincoln's funeral, on motion they 
were admitted to recitations with the demerits uncancelled and the 
punishment adjudged according to the degree of each offense." The 
penalty was that a certain number of points "be detracted from the 
average standing" of the culprits at the end of the term. 

29. Faculty Minutes, June 13, 1865. Thomas was chiefly responsible for 
establishing in San Francisco a branch of the Methodist Publishing 
House which made it easier for ministers on the Pacific Coast to get 
books for their own use and for their Sunday schools. "Biography of 
E. Thomas" by his daughter in Riddle, Indian History of the Modoc 
War, p. 232. Thomas and Gen. E. R. S. Canby were the two peace 
commissioners murdered by the Modocs while holding a conference 
under a flag of truce on April 11, 1873. 

30. Daily Pantagraph, June 23, 1865. The four graduates were Joseph A. 
Glenn, John H. Holbert, Joseph L. Kitchin and William D. H. 
Young, who later had a distinguished career as an educator in 
Missouri, Illinois and Tennessee. Alumni Roll, op. cit. 

31. Dellenbaugh, op. cit., p. 377. 

32. Bishop was born in Pleasant Valley, N. Y., August 2, 1843. By mis- 
representing his age he was able to enlist in a Michigan infantry regi- 
ment as a private. Made a second lieutenant for bravery at the first 
battle of Bull Run, he was promoted to first lieutenant at Antietam. 
After recovering from wounds received at Fredericksburg, he be- 
came assistant inspector-general in the defense of Washington in 
1864 and was later transferred to the staff of Gen. Giles A. Smith at 
the Rock Island military prison where he received the rank of cap- 
tain. After the Civil War was over he served with the Second U. S. 
Volunteers in patrolling the Overland Stage route and guarding it 
from attack by the Indians. Utah Historical Quarterly, XV: 155-59. 

212 NOTES 

33. At their meeting on February 8, 1886 "it having come to the knowl- 
edge of the Faculty that certain students were in the habit of fre- 
quenting Billiard Saloons" they voted to require the culprits to "con- 
fess the violation of their pledge of honor and sign a written pledge 
to regard it as sacred in the future and to stay away from Saloons on 
penalty of immediate dismission." On May 27 another offender was 
"accused of writing obscene words on the Chapel Wall, also disgrace- 
ful conduct last term" and by unanimous vote was "expelled from 
the Institution." 

34. Daily Pantagraph, March 23, 1866. 

35. Wesley an Catalogue, 1865-66. 

36. Faculty Minutes, June 5, 1866. "Profs. Powell and Jaques appointed 
committee on seal." 

37. Wilder, op. cit., 88. 

38. Trustees' Proceedings, June 27, 1866. 

39. Daily Pantagraph, July 4, 1866. 

Chapter 9 

1. Watters, op. cit., 14. 

2. Daily Pantagraph, June 23, 1866. 

3. Contributing to the financial stability of the university at this time 
was the action that had been taken by the trustees in 1860 when "at 
the suggestion of the Munsell brothers, they adopted a rule which 
was inflexibily maintained until 1866 and measurably enforced until 
1873, that the professors must accept pro rata the income for the 
year in full satisfaction of their claims. To this rule, Dr. Munsell says, 
the university owes it life." Wilder, op. cit., 14. 

4. Faculty Minutes, 1866-67. 

5. Ibid. 

6. Ibid. 

1. At a meeting on March 14, 1867 the faculty voted that "the Model 
School be merged with the Preparatory Department and the Course 
of Study be so modified as to throw out the first year and retain 
two years' Preparatory English." This was included in a set of reso- 
lutions voicing a complaint that will have a familiar sound to most 
present-day teachers of college composition — also to some employers 
of college graduates! The resolutions read: 

"Whereas, the great defect in the course of Collegiate Instruction 
results from the imperfect preparation of our students in the elemen- 
tary classes in the English Department; and, 

"Whereas, We believe that this defect can be remedied only 
by the thorough reorganization of this department, under the care 
of a competent Teacher who shall devote his entire attention to its 
proper development: therefore — 

NOTES 213 

"Resolved, first, that we recommend that the Professor to whom 
the care of the Preparatory Department is entrusted for the coming 
year be released from all responsibility in reference to the Regular 
College classes, 

"Resolved, secondly, that the Preparatory Department be held 
to five hours college duty (in addition to chapel service) and that 
one hour to be selected by the Faculty be devoted to Reading, 
Writing and Orthography, varied by such kindred exercises as the 
Prof, in charge may deem best, 

"Resolved, thirdly, that when any Prof, shall report the stand- 
ing of any College student, in Reading, Writing or Orthography, 
as averaging below 60, said Student be required to meet with the 
Preparatory Department during the hour mentioned above, until 
he can pass a satisfactory examination in the required studies." Fac- 
ulty Minutes, 1866-67. 

8.— 15. Ibid. 

16. Wesley ana, 1:158. 

17. Phi Gamma Delta Magazine, December, 1941, pp. 187-88. 

18. "A Committee of Students consisting of C. Atherton and M. L. Kep- 
linger appeared before the Faculty and presented a request for the 
formal recognition of a Secret Society called the Phi Gamma Delta 
Society. Dr. Munsell was appointed a committee to prepare a charter 
for the Society with certain provisos limiting its objects for future 
consideration." Faculty Minutes, February 4, 1869. 

19. Because Emerson charged a fee of $75, which some Bloomingtonians 
considered excessive, even for so distinguished a lecturer, a local 
newspaper story referred to him caustically as "Ralph Cold-Dough 
Simmerson." Townley, Historic McLean, p. 39. The references to 
other speakers in this series of lectures are taken from Kimball, 
"History of Withers Public Library" in Trans. McLean Co. Hist. 
Soc, 11:228-30. 

20. Daily Pantagraph, November 17, 1866. 

21. Ibid., November 25, 1865. 

22. Appendix to Proceedings, Illinois Board of Education, Special Meet- 
ing, March 26, 1867. 

23. Daily Pantagraph, March 23, 1867. 

24. Wesley an Magazine, V:65-9. 

25. Proceedings, 111. Board of Education, op. cit. 

26. "Prof. Jaques was authorized to assign lessons to class in geology 
privately, preparatory to examination." Faculty Minutes, April 2, 

27. The first Negro to be graduated from Wesley an was Gus A. Hill 
who received his law degree in 1880 and later became an attorney in 

28. These seven graduates were Andrew Jackson Banta, who later be- 

214 NOTES 

came a judge in Kansas; Abram Epler Beggs; David Madison Harris, 
who became a Presbyterian minister and had a distinguished career as 
a professor at Lincoln University, editor of the Cumberland Presby- 
terian and editor and owner of the St. Louis Observer; Edden Morris 
Johnson; William Merritt Sedore; Carey S. Temple and John F. 
Winter, who became a member of the Illinois legislature and later was 
consul at Rotterdam, Holland. 

29. Wesley an Catalogue, 1866-67. 

30. Trustees' Proceedings. 

31. The four Civil War veterans were Benton Valentine Denning, Jo- 
seph W. Fifer, Lewis W. Keplinger and Andrew S. Wilson. The 
latter two moved to Kansas where they were elected to the legisla- 
ture. Keplinger also served as county attorney of Wyandotte county 
and Wilson became a district judge. After graduating from Wes- 
leyan, Hartzell attended Garrett Biblical Institute, was ordained an 
elder in 1870, was consecrated a bishop in 1896 and for the next 20 
years was Missionary Bishop of Africa. His life ended tragically 
when he died as the result of wounds received in an attack by rob- 
bers at his home in Blue Ash, Ohio, in September, 1928. The other 
two members of this class were Stamper Q. Davidson, who became a 
teacher, and William J. Dyckes, who became a lawyer. Alumni Roll, 
op. cit. 

32. The twelve graduates this year were Orlando W. Aldrich who be- 
came a professor of law at Ohio State University; Charles B. Ather- 
ton and William Robert Blackwell, who entered the ministry; Rhy- 
naldo J. Brooks, later on the staff of the Chicago Evening Post; David 
Caldwell, who organized Wellington, Kan. as a city in 1872 and was 
its first mayor; Joseph Cole, who won distinction as the author of 
school texts, biographies and about 20 histories of states and counties; 
Martin L. Keplinger, a lawyer who was appointed public adminis- 
trator of Macoupin county by Governor Fifer and re-appointed by 
five successive Illinois governors; Robert Emmett Moore and Adol- 
phus Gustavus Scott, both of whom emigrated to Nebraska where 
Moore served as mayor of Lincoln, state senator and lieutenant- 
governor and Scott as superintendent of schools of Lancaster county 
and county judge; James Branch Taylor, professor of natural sci- 
ence at Wesley an from 1876 to 1879, professor of physiology and 
hygiene from 1883 to 1891 and a prominent physician of Blooming- 
ton from 1882 to 1911; Micajah Van Winkle, a farmer; and Lewis 
C. Wagoner, a doctor. 

33. Daily Pantagraph, June 30, 1869. 

34. Manuscript history of Illinois Wesleyan athletics by Prof. Fred Muhl. 

35. The box score of this historic game as printed in the Pantagraph 







Morris, c. 


Cochran, p. 


Graves, p. 


Bowles, c. 


Wills, 1st. b. 


Hazel, l.f. 


Denning, 2nd. b. 


Holcom, 1st. 



Byerly, 3rd. b. 


Cotton, 2nd. 



Munsell, l.f. 


Reed, 3rd. b. 


Birch, c.f. 


Rickey, r.f. 


Hazenwinkle, r.f. 


Park, c.f. 





2 3 







3 — 22 



2 4 



Chapter 10 

1. The description in this chapter of Powell's preparation for the trip, 
the journey across the Plains and the activities of the party in Colo- 
rado are, except as noted, based upon Powell's subsequent official 
report to the State Board of Education as given in the board's Pro- 
ceedings, Regular Meeting, December 17 and 18, 1867. 

2. This list of the personnel of the 1867 expedition is based upon infor- 
mation supplied by William Culp Darrah of Medford, Mass., an 
authority upon Powell's career, who states that "the stories — so often 
quoted — that there were about '25 students' are without foundation." 

3. "In 1867 Powell visited the mountains of Colorado with his class for 
the purpose of studying geology and so began a practice that has 
been continued by eminent teachers elsewhere." — Appleton's Cyclo- 
pedia of American Biography: V:95. "Major Powell was the first 
to introduce field work into the colleges of the United States." — 
From a report of a lecture by Prof. Alva W. Dragoo of Illinois State 
Normal University before the McLean County Academy of Science, 
Daily Pantagraph, November 11, 1937. 

4. Daily Pantagraph, August 19 and August 26, 1867. The first of these 
articles is signed "J," hence the assumption that they were written 
by J. C. Hartzell. Except for J. W. Powell he was the only member 
of the party whose first name begins with that letter and internal 
evidence in the articles seems to rule out the possibility that Powell 
wrote them. 

5. Daily Pantagraph, August 19, 1867. 

6. Ibid., August 26, 1867. 

7. Ibid. 

8. Powell, Canyons of the Colorado, p. 117. 

216 NOTES 

9. Board of Education Proceedings, op. cit. 

10. Ibid. The actual cash outlay for the expedition was $2,138 but Powell 
estimated that if there were added to that sum the aid given by the 
War Department, railroads and express companies, the total cost 
would have been nearly $5,000. 

11. Daily Pantagraph, December 20, 1867. 

12. Ibid., January 7, 1868. 

13. "Normal Notes" in the Daily Pantagraph, February 26, 1868. 

14. Ibid., January 25, 1868. 

15. Ibid., March 17, 1868. 

16. Ibid., March 24, 1868. The editor of the Pantagraph ended this story 
on a slight note of reproof: "We hope this time the members thereof 
will bear in mind there is such a paper as the Panegraph (sic) which 
is read by many friends of the members of the party. They slightly 
ignored that fact before." 

17. Ibid., May 27, 1868. 

18. Ibid., June 26, 1868. 

19. Edmund D. Poston of Bloomington first entered Wesley an as a first 
year preparatory student in 1866. Lyle H. Durley was born in Hen- 
nepin, 111., April 10, 1846 and probably became acquainted with 
Powell while the latter was teaching school in that town. After serv- 
ing in the Union army Durley entered Wesleyan as a second year 
preparatory student in 1866. Durley's diary of the 1868 expedition, 
now in the possession of his son, W. Mark Durley of Oxnard, Calif, 
covers the period from July 1 to September 2, 1868 when it becomes 
indecipherable because his supply of ink ran out and he made ink 
from pokeberry juice which soon became faded. (From information 
supplied by his daughter, Mrs. Walter A. Boyle of Henry, 111.) 
Rhodes C. Allen was a native of Scott county, Ky. where he was 
born January 19, 1847. His name first appears in the Wesleyan Cata- 
logue, 1864-65 as R. C. Allin (sic) of Harristown, 111., a student in the 
preparatory department. Thereafter he is listed as R. C. Allen and 
Rhodes C. Allen. His diary, covering the period from June 29, 1868 
to November 16, 1868, is much more complete than Durley's. The 
original is owned by William Gulp Darrah who kindly furnished the 
author a transcript, as well as one of Durley's diary. 

20. This list of the personnel of the 1868 party is also based upon infor- 
mation supplied by William Culp Darrah who states that "so far as I 
am aware this is a complete and 'official' list. The newspaper accounts 
are utterly confusing, particularly those published after 1871." This 
seems to be true also of some of the contemporary newspaper ac- 
counts. For instance, the Chicago Republican, in chronicling the fact 
that "21 gentlemen and 2 ladies" had left for the "wilds of Colorado 
where they expect to spend 2 years in an extended and careful sur- 
vey," lists the names of only 17 men. A Mrs. Woodward is listed as 
an ornithologist, a Mr. Dooley as one of the three botanists, Dr. A. M. 

NOTES 217 

Todd as surgeon. "Prof. Saunber (at Denver)" as artist, "W. C. 
Wood and son" as topographical engineers and L. E. Shinn "unas- 
signed." None of these names is mentioned in other accounts which 
give the personnel. A rather slighting reference to the Republican in 
an item about the expedition of 1867 which appeared in the Daily 
Pantagraph for January 25, 1868 suggests that the journalistic ac- 
curacy of the Chicago paper was considered somewhat dubious. 

21. State Board of Education Proceedings, June 24-25, 1868. 

22. Rocky Mountain News, July 14, 1868. 

23. Ibid., July 16, 1868. 

24. Ibid. "Ned (Farrell) is a universal genius, up to anything from 
breaking a mule to inventing a 'process,' fighting Indians or grizzlies, 
sketching or writing a book." Sumner, a brother-in-law of Byers, had 
a trading post in Middle Park near which Powell had camped the 
previous summer. In 1869 he accompanied the major on the Grand 
Canyon voyage. Besides Farrell and Sumner, guides employed by 
Powell were Gus Lanken, William Rhodes and William Dunn. Dunn 
started on the 1869 trip down the Colorado but, with two compan- 
ions, Oramel G. and Seneca Howland, left the party and were later 
murdered by Indians. The story of this tragedy is told in Dellen- 
baugh's Romance of the Colorado, op. cit. Much new material on 
this and other incidents of the 1869 expedition (including biographi- 
cal sketches of Sumner, Dunn and the Howlands) is given in the 
Utah Historical Quarterly, Vol. XV, Nos. 1-4, January-October, 

25. This letter written to the Chicago Journal was reprinted in the Daily 
Pantagraph August 27, 1868. Both the Durley and Allen diaries tell 
of attending religious services, conducted by Rev. W. H. Daniels in 
camp on three successive Sundays — July 5, 12, and 19. On July 24 
they went to the mining town of Empire nearby and attended 
church "in an old billiard saloon with our revolvers buckled on. 
Rev. Mr. Phips of Bilds City preached ... a very good sermon, 
better than I expected to hear in this wild country." On Sunday, 
August 2, the Rev. Mr. Daniels again preached but thereafter they 
seem to have been too busy with their various duties with the expe- 
dition to have time for religious services. 

26. This account of the ascent is based upon Byers' dispatches which 
appeared in the Rocky Mountain News August 20 and September 1, 
1868; articles by Byers and Keplinger in The Trail, October, 1914, 
January, 1915, and June, 1919; and a letter written by Garman to 
Miss Gertrude Lewis of Normal on August 28, 1868. Miss Lewis 
later became the wife of Joseph W. Fifer. This, and a subsequent 
letter from Garman to Miss Lewis, are now in the archives of Nor- 
mal University where they were deposited by Mrs. Florence Fifer 
Bohrer of Bloomington. 

27. An amusing sidelight upon this incident, which is also very reveal- 

218 NOTES 

ing as to Powell's qualities of leadership, is recorded by Keplinger 

"Although Major Powell, who had charge of the expedition, had 
but one arm, he insisted on taking a full hand in whatever was to be 
done, even to loading and cinching the packs on the pack mules. One 
morning, the last time we made bread before making the ascent, he 
said, 'This is my time to make biscuits' which he proceeded to do. 
Seeing the disadvantages under which he labored, paddling with one 
one hand in the sticky dough, I insisted upon taking his place; but 
no! The biscuits were of the variety which, when parted with a 
sharp knife, present a smooth surface, with a dark color and exceed- 
ingly fine grain. Candor compels me to state that the result would 
not have been materially different if he had acceded to my request. 
Before leaving the summit we had put one of those biscuits inside the 
baking powder can upon which we had written, 'An everlasting 
memento to Major Powell's skill in bread-making.' As we were 
about to leave the summit, the major said that he wasn't quite satis- 
fied with the biscuit feature; it was hardly up to the dignity of the 
occasion. We all insisted that his true motive was his unwillingness 
to have the coming generation know how poor a bread-maker so 
good a mountain climber was! But the biscuit was taken out." The 
Trail, op. cit., January, 1915. 

28. Durley Diary, op. cit. In the Alumni Journal, 1:42-44 and 11:145-47 
appear two interesting articles under the title of "Journal Leaves 
from Powell's Expedition of 1868" which give a graphic description 
of the scenery the explorers saw after leaving their Bear Creek 
Canyon camp. The second of these articles ends thus: "In a few 
days we descend the western slope of the range into Middle Park. 
The Major calls the range the 'backbone of the continent.' If that 
is so, how the country has her back up!" The author of these articles 
is unknown but since they are signed with the pseudonym "Twig" 
it seems likely that they were written by Henry Wood. 

29. Both the Allen and Durley diaries contain frequent references to such 
hardships and misadventures as mentioned in this paragraph. 

30. On August 21 Durley recorded in his diary that upon returning to 
camp from a fishing trip he found "that the boys have been having 
some difficulty with the Indians. All appear to be quiet now." The 
next day he wrote that "things look most plagued serious around 
here this morning. Indians most awful sassy and what was seen out 
back of the hills would not surprise us in the least if we should have 
an attack from our red Brethren. Only four of us here but let them 
come, we will give them a dose that they will not like very well. 
About noon, things all quieted down and the Indians all went back 
to camp." Taylor, writing years later about the 1868 expedition, 
says that Durley once knocked down an insolent Indian buck and 
that only the diplomacy of Powell saved the party from serious 
trouble. (Daily Pantagraph, September 24, 1902). However, Durley 

NOTES 219 

does not mention any such incident in his diary. Later in the month 
Allen chronicled in his diary the alarm felt by the party over the 
rumors that the Arapahoes and Cheyennes had burned the town of 
Montgomery, were raiding and killing white settlers in North Park 
and South Park, and "would probably come through Middle Park 
and try to take our rations." However, these rumors proved ground- 
less and on September 1 the Rocky Mountain News published the re- 
assuring news that "All reports that the Powell Expedition or any 
other party of visitors to the Middle Park have been molested by 
Indians may be set down as false." 

31. Dispatches from O. G. Howland (see Note 24) to the Rocky Moun- 
tain News October 14 and November 3, 1868, tell of the journey to 
western Colorado and establishment of the winter camp on White 

32. Garman in his letter to Miss Lewis, op. cit. states that although the 
Utes showed their friendship by furnishing their white neighbors 
with entertainment and food they became something of a nuisance 
by "being underfoot most of the time." 

33. According to the Allen diary, the four Wesley an students, accom- 
panied by J. J. Aiken, left Green River on November 15 and went, 
via the Union Pacific railroad, to Cheyenne where they stopped over 
for a day (during which time they had their group picture taken) 
before proceeding on their homeward journey. Poston and Taylor 
returned to their work at Wesleyan but the former seems to have 
dropped out at the end of the school year of 1868-69. Taylor, how- 
ever, continued and was graduated the following June. Neither 
Allen nor Durley returned to the university. Allen taught district 
schools in Illinois and later became a farmer. He died on April 4, 
1887 (information, William Culp Darrah). In the December 3, 1868 
issue of the Putnam County Record, published at Granville, 111. ap- 
peared a reprint of an article in the Springfield (Mass.) Republican 
titled "The Powell Exploring Expedition." The Record added the 
comment: "Lyle Durley arrived home a few days ago and has been 
one of the party." Like Allen, Durley became a farmer and contin- 
ued in that occupation until 1915 when he moved to Ventura, Calif. 
He died July 20, 1930 while visiting in Hennepin, 111. (Information, 
Mrs. Walter A. Boyle.) Garman remained at the camp on White 
river until March, 1869 when, as the result of a disagreement with 
the Powells, he left and returned to Normal. (Letter from Garman 
to Miss Lewis, April 2, 1869.) He was graduated from the univer- 
sity there in 1870 and later became a professor at Harvard University. 

34. Daily Pantagraph, July 19, 1869. 

35. During Powell's absence the museum was under the direction of Dr. 
Joseph Sewall and Almon H. Thompson whose salaries were paid by 
Powell. Cook and McHugh: History of Illinois State Normal Uni- 
versity, op. cit. 

220 NOTES 

36. Walter H. Powell had served under his brother during the Civil War 
and his mind was so affected by his experiences in a Confederate 
prison camp that he never completely recovered. He died in a mili- 
tary hospital in Washington on March 10, 1915. During the two 
years he was a student at Wesleyan he made his home with his 
brother-in-law and sister, Prof, and Mrs. A. H. Thompson. Utah 
Historical Quarterly, XV: 89. 

37. Powell gave his lectures on "Canyons of the Colorado" before the 
Library Association of Bloomington in October and again in Decem- 
ber, and repeated it in Normal in January. Daily Pantagraph, Octo- 
ber 21 and December 8, 1869; January 15 and January 19, 1870. He 
also lectured in the town of Hennepin, 111. February 28, 1870 and en- 
joyed a reunion with his former student, Lyle H. Durley. (Informa- 
tion, Mrs. Walter A. Boyle.) 

38. William Culp Darrah, "Major Powell Prepares for a Second Expedi- 
tion" in the Utah Historical Quarterly, XV: 149-53. 

39. Daily Pantagraph, July 7 and September 14, 1871; February 6 and 
March 27, 1872. These letters are reprinted in the Utah Historical 
Quarterly, XV: 239-54. 

40. Alumni Roll, op. cit. Bishop's journal from August 15, 1870 to June 
3, 1872 is reproduced in the Utah Historical Quarterly, XV: 158-238. 
In 1873 he became professor of natural science at the University of 
Deseret (later University of Utah); married Alzina Pratt, daughter 
of Apostle Orson Pratt of the Mormon church, and became promi- 
nent in religious and business affairs in Utah. At the time of his 
death on May 22, 1933 ("exactly 62 years from the day on which he 
set out from Green River on the second Powell expedition down the 
Colorado") he and Frederick S. Dellenbaugh were the only survivors 
of that expedition. Utah Historical Quarterly, XV: 155-58. 

41. DeMotte's experiences with the 1872 Powell expeditions are recorded 
in a series of articles which appeared in the Alumni Journal, Vols. II, 
III, and IV under the titles of "Six Days on the Kaibab," "From the 
Pahria to Kanab" and "Twelve Days with the Broncos." 

42. Powell resigned as curator of the museum on June 26, 1872. State 
Board of Education Proceedings, op. cit. He was succeeded by Pro- 
fessor Stephen A. Forbes, later widely known as director of the 
Illinois Natural History Survey at the University of Illinois. 

43. In 1875 Powell became director of the "Second Division of the 
United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territor- 
ies" and it was largely due to his influence that in 1879 the rival 
surveys, then operating in the West, were consolidated into one, the 
United States Geological Survey, of which he became the director in 
1881. During his western trips he had continued his anthropological 
and ethnological studies under the auspices of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution and when the Bureau of American Ethnology was organized in 
1880 he was made director, a position which he held until 1894. He 

NOTES 221 

died in Haven, Maine, September 23, 1902. Dictionary of American 
Biography, XV: 147. In 1877 the Illinois Wesleyan trustees conferred 
the degree of Ph.D. upon Powell and later the museum at Wesleyan 
was named in his honor. His memory is also preserved in the Powell 
Memorial monument, erected on the campus in 1923. In Normal the 
University high school has the Major Powell Science club whose 
publication is the Powellite and in Normal University's Milner 
library, in the museum which contains an extensive collection of 
specimens which he donated, is an inscription that reads: "J onn 
Wesley Powell, First Explorer through the Grand Canyon, First 
Curator of the Museum." 

Chapter 11 

1. See Chapter IV, Note 4. 

2. Watters, op. cit., 217. 

3. At a faculty meeting on March 16, 1870 Munsell and his colleagues 
adopted these resolutions: 

Whereas, the present prosperity and future usefulness of our 
Church depends largely upon its educational work; and 

Whereas, to secure the greatest efficiency in this field of labor, 
a thorough reorganization of the department is necessary; and 

Whereas, we regard it essential in this reorganization that the 
Collegiate powers of the various educational institutions of the 
Church within the bounds of the Illinois and Central Illinois Confer- 
ences be vested in a single University: 

Therefore, Resolved, that we ask the hearty co-operation of all 
the educational institutions sharing the joint or separate patronage 
of the two Conferences in adopting the following plan of consolida- 

The various Institutions shall jointly establish a Central Uni- 
versity which shall be controlled by a board of trustees nominated 
by the local boards, severally, and elected by the corresponding Con- 
ferences, said trustees to be chosen on the basis of one representative 
for every $20,000 — cash value — of property and endowment owned 
by each Institution. 


All Institutions entering the plan shall adopt a uniform course of 
study prescribed by the board of trustees of the University. So much 
of this course may be taught at any institution as the local authorities 
may deem expedient and when any one has completed a prescribed 
course of study, such party shall be entitled to the corresponding 

222 NOTES 


All certificates of scholarship shall be issued in the name of the 
University and diplomas and all degrees shall be conferred by the 


The privileges of the University shall be extended to all parties 
alike without regard to sex. 


The Presidents of the various Institutions entering the plan with 
the approval of the Board of Trustees shall be, ex officio, members of 
the Faculty of the University. 

This was a curious proposal to be made at that time and it poses 
a number of interesting questions. Did it originate in the Wesleyan 
faculty or was it inspired by some trustee or conference visitor who 
favored the admission of women? Was there a serious intention of 
pressing for the adoption of the plan and, presumably, making Wes- 
leyan the "Central University"? Or was this simply an adroit maneu- 
ver to be used for bargaining purposes with the opponents of co- 
education in saying to them: "Cease your opposition to admitting 
women to Wesleyan and we will drop this proposal for a Central 
University which, if adopted, will deprive your school (the Illinois 
Female College) of some of its autonomy"? No conclusive answer 
to those questions can be given since the plan seems never to have 
gone beyond its initial stage as a Wesleyan faculty resolution. In the 
light of later events it is not unlikely that it was some such maneuver. 
Somewhat mystifying, too, are these facts: At the June 13 faculty 
meeting, on the eve of the conference sessions, "a resolution recom- 
mending the Custodians — the Patronizing Conferences and the 
Trustees — to open the University for the admission of ladies was 
passed." However, when President Munsell, in giving the report of 
the faculty to the trustees, presented "a resolution adopted at their 
last regular meeting for the year" (i.e. June 13) it was phrased in 
the words of the March 16 resolution, not that of June 13 — which 
may or may not have some significance. 

4. Trustees' Proceedings. 

5. The 1870 graduates were two Civil War veterans, Melchior Auer and 
Francis Marion Bishop; Henry C. Birch, who later became professor 
of natural science at Hedding College; George H. McCracken and 
Parmenis Smith, who became ministers; and William W. Pusey, who 
became a lawyer and farmer. Alumni Roll, op. cit. 

6. Deposited in the cornerstone were the following: "a Bible; Metho- 
dist Almanac; University Catalogue for 1869 and 1870; Alumni 
Journal, June 1870; city daily papers; names of Board of Trustees; 

NOTES 223 

names of Conference Visitors; names of Faculty; names of Agents; 
names of architect and contractors; copies of church Periodicals; 
names of mayor and city council; historical sketch of the University; 
historical sketch of the Alumni Association; historical sketch of the 
Belles Lettres Society; historical sketch of the Munsellian Society; 
specimens of coins and currency of the United States; names of the 
Quarterly Conference of the University Charge; names of the build- 
ing committee." The cornerstone had these names inscribed on its 
face: "Board of Trustees: C. W. Holder, president; O. T. Reeves, 
secretary; O. S. Munsell, J. E. McClun, W. G. McDowell, J. G. 
Evans, H. C. DeMotte, building committee; Architect: R. Richter; 
Contractors: J. W. Hayes and J. W. Evans. Laid September 9, 
1870" Daily Pantagraph, September 10, 1870. 

7. The 19 co-eds in the preparatory department were — Second Year: 
Martha Benjamin of Hudson, Alice Brown of Champaign, Flora 
Burkholder of Pekin, Alice A. Graves of Normal, Virginia Miller of 
Bloomington, Belle Orendorff of Bloomington, Alice Rayhill of Pana, 
Carrie Rector of Bloomington, May Round of Farmer City, Fannie 
Smith of Farmer City, Fannie Stubblefield of Funk's Grove, Josie 
Weedman of Farmer City, Hannah E. Wiley of Lexington, and 
Jennie Wylder of Greenfield; First Year: Mary C. Benjamin of 
Hudson, Sarah Davidson of Bloomington, Carrie Motter of Bloom- 
ington, Mary Stubblefield of Funk's Grove and Clara Weedman of 
Farmer City. 

8. The 12 graduates in 1871 were two Civil War veterans, Richard 
Watson Barger and John Wesley Denning; Robert B. Porter, who 
became a lawyer (as did Barger); Marcus L. Fullenwider, Robert E. 
McClelland and Thomas R. Wiley, who became physicians; Alex- 
ander C. Byerly, James A. Northrup and J. Vincent, who became 
ministers (as did Denning); William F. Graves, who was later a 
professor of English at Wesley an; and two who became mayors — 
James A. Kelly at Monte Vista, Colo, and Lucius A. Vasey at Le Roy, 
111. Alumni Roll, op. cit. 

9. A lumni Journal, 11:22-3. 

10. Daily Pantagraph, June 5, 1872. 

11. Faculty Minutes, September 27, 1870. 

12. A lumni Journal, 11:62. 

13. Daily Pantagraph, June 5, 1872. 

14. Ibid. This medical professorship was filled by Dr. J. L. White of 
Bloomington who, on December 12, 1872, gave a lecture on "Mind 
and Its Relation to the Body" in the new Amie chapel. This was the 
first of a series of popular lectures under his supervision by other 
Bloomington physicians and surgeons. Alumni Journal, 11:23. 

15. Alumni Journal, 11:156 ff. 

16. Ibid. 

17. Ibid. The son was Francis E. ("Frank") Munsell who later became a 

224 NOTES 

farmer in Kansas. Mrs. Shur, whose maiden name was Weatherby, 
was born in Chesterville, Ohio, April 25, 1838. She was married to 
Artemus O. Shur in March, 1863, and two years later moved to 
El Paso, 111. where she became active in the Methodist church, the El 
Paso Woman's club and the Eastern Star and achieved some promin- 
ence as the first president of the Ninth Illinois district of the 
W.C.T.U. She died in El Paso May 18, 1912. Weekly Pantagraph, 
May 24, 1912. The other 1872 graduates were William E. Barnes, 
who achieved some distinction as a journalist and author; James A. 
Johnson, who became a lawyer; George A. Martin, who became a 
physician; and William S. Wilson, who later served as president of 
state normal schools in Maryville, N. D., Tempe, Ariz, and San Jose, 
Calif. Alumni Roll, op. cit. 

18. Alumni Journal, 111:9. 

19. The only mention of Munsell's resignation in the Alumni Journal is 
this item in "Editorial Notes" in the April, 1873, issue: "At a called 
meeting of the Joint Board of Trustees and Visitors of the Illinois 
Wesley an University, held March 20, the resignation of Rev. O. S. 
Munsell as President of the institution, was tendered and accepted. 
Dr. Munsell has held the position as President of the above univer- 
sity nearly sixteen years, during which time he has labored unceas- 
ingly in its interest, bestowing unsparingly both material means and 
mental power to aid in its rapid growth." 

20. Trustees' Proceedings. 

21. The nine graduates included a future banker and lumberman, James 
W. Holder; three lawyers, William H. Booth, Alexander H. Davies 
and John E. Scott; and three physicians, George W. Crum, Charles 
H. Long and Lewellyn D. Seward. Alumni Roll, op. cit. Two 
others were destined for future honors but in widely different fields. 
One was Charles A. Hazenwinkle who had been prominent in 
amateur theatricals during his career as Wesley an (he played the 
leading role of "Farmer Howard" in the post-Civil War classic, "The 
Drummer Boy of Shiloh") and who later became well-known on the 
American stage as Carl Haswin. The other was William H. Wylder 
who, 15 years later, returned to his alma mater as its first alumnus- 
president and "in the interests of simplicity," according to his daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Willian Hubbard of Bloomington, began spelling his name 

22. Munsell continued as agent for the building fund until June, 1875. 
Later he engaged in banking in Shelbyville, 111., then moved to Kansas 
and died in Kansas City March 13, 1905. C. W. C. Munsell seems to 
have retired as financial agent the same year that his brother left the 
presidency. After leaving Wesleyan he became a banker in Kansas 
and died in Eldorado, Kan. in November, 1915. 

NOTES 225 

Chapter 12 

1. Fallows, "Every body s Bishop — Life and Times of Rt. Rev. Samuel 
Fallows, D.D.", 431-32. 

2. The Fortieth was composed entirely of college students and gradu- 
ates and because "such a band of educated fighters had not been 
known in the army, it was nicknamed the God and Morality Regi- 
ment." Wilder, op. cit., 17. 

3. Fallows, op. cit., 249. 

4. Wilder, op. cit., 17. 

5. "Hebrew was now offered in the classical course. Definite courses in 
ancient, medieval and modern history appear for the first time with 
this expansion" — "The Curriculum in Liberal Arts" by Ralph E. 
Browns in the 90th Ann. Hist., op. cit. 

6. Alumni Journal, IV: 94-5. Reflecting the new president's army career 
was a faculty resolution that he confer with the trustees in regard to 
securing a "military professor" but nothing seems to have come of 
this proposal. Faculty Minutes, Jan. 4, 1874. 

7. Non-resident students were required to complete some 40 courses, 
divided about equally between electives and required work for which 
they paid a $5 matriculation fee and tuition of $25 per quarter. 
Upon passing an examination for which a fee ranging from $15 
to $30 was charged, they could get an A.B. or Ph.B. degree and, 
with further work, an A.M. and a Ph.D. The examinations were to 
be given by prominent alumni and on May 7, 1874 such a committee 
consisting of Dr. H. W. Boyd, Maj. J. W. Powell, E. R. Roe, James 
B. Taylor and O. W. Aldrich, was named by the faculty. 

8. "The Non-Resident Courses" by Edwin H. Cates in 90th Ann. Hist., 
op. cit. 

9. Benjamin was a native of New York, a graduate of Amherst College 
and the Harvard Law School. He came to Bloomington in 1856 to 
practice, was a member of the state constitutional convention in 1869 
and in 1873 was elected county judge. Wilder, op. cit., 93. 

10. "The Law School" by Roy A. Ramseyer in the 90th Ann. Hist., op. 
cit., states that although Williams had previously taught classes in 
law at Wesleyan "there is no evidence of any connection between 
this early professorship and the subsequent organization of the Law 

1 1 . Wilder, op. cit. The admission of women to the university undoub- 
tedly awakened "great interest" among its young gentlemen, also. 
The Alumni Journal, for June, 1874 records that "during the pleasant 
spring evenings when the silvery moon sheds its delightful rays over 
the earth many of the gentlemen students may be seen perambulating 
with some of the fairer sex leaning gracefully on their arms, appar- 
ently happy, the lessons of the morrow entirely forgotten." 

12. This chapter of Kappa Kappa Gamma was installed at Wesleyan on 

226 NOTES 

November 25, 1873. In 1885 Kappa Alpha Theta, the first society 
of its kind, which had been organized at Indiana Asbury University 
in 1870, installed its Delta chapter at Wesleyan. The chapter dis- 
banded in 1895. Daily Pantagraph, June 15, 1895. Wesley ana 1:161-2. 

13. Wesleyan Catalogue, 1874-75. The Woman's Educational association 
was organized in June, 1874. 

14. Alumni Journal, June, 1873. Six years later 20 students organized a 
baseball club that played another game with Normal. "Our boys 
proved to be entirely too heavy for the Normalites in every par- 
ticular" reported the Students' Journal, June, 1879. The score was 
34 to 14! 

15. Daily Pantagraph, June 19, 1874. 

16. "Notes by the Way" by Prof. H. C. DeMotte in the Alumni Journal, 
IV: 188-9. Other members of the party were John H. Renshaw, O. 
D. Wheeler, John K. Hillers, and Richard Komas. Hillers, who was 
a boatman with the second Powell expedition down the Colorado in 
1871, later became a photographer and continued with the Powell 
surveys until 1879. A few years later, when Powell became director 
of the United States Geological Survey, he placed Hillers in charge 
of the photographic laboratory, a post he held until he was retired in 
1900. During Hillers' career as a cameraman for the government he 
made more than 20,000 negatives for the Geological Survey and the 
Bureau of American Ethnology and many of his pictures of Paiute, 
Ute and Shoshone Indians were the first ever taken of these people. 
(William Culp Darrah in the Utah Historical Quarterly, XVII: 495- 
97.) Concerning Komas, DeMotte (in "Notes By the Way" op. cit.) 
wrote: "He is a Uintah Indian who has been attending College in 
Pennsylvania. He is an intelligent young Indian, speaks the English 
language with fluency, and seems much interested in the work of 
civilizing his tribe. He accompanies our party and will take two or 
three of his tribe back with him to college when he returns. A little 
incident, however, will illustrate the native disposition and the uncer- 
tainty of Indian character. It was necessary for our whole party to 
stop over at Green River one day to make some arrangements for 
our section of the party. In the evening Komas became dissatisfied 
with the division of the blankets for the night and declared that our 
party should never enter the Uintah reservation, that they would 
steal our horses; and he even went so far as to threaten the life of the 
Major if he came into their country. After all they are a treacherous 
race, and though I sicken at the thought, yet personal observation 
and experience force me reluctantly to come to the conclusion that 
the red race must fade away before the superior Saxon. How truly 
one has written, 'Slowly and sadly they climb the distant mountains 
and read their doom in the setting sun.' Their decline and extinction 
is inevitable. It seems sad, and yet no influences have thus far been 
brought to avert the calamity." 

NOTES 227 

17. "Notes By the Way," op. cit. "Editorial Notes" in the August, 1874 
issue of the Journal carried this item: "Prof. DeMotte writes: 'Mrs. 
Ann Eliza Young, nineteenth wife of Brigham Young, joined the 
Methodist church in Salt Lake City Sunday, July 26. I was present, 
and after service gave her a cordial hand-shake." 

18. See Chapter 10, Note 40. 

19. Alumni Journal, IV: 188-89, 205-7. 

20. Alumni Journal, IV: 215. This was the last Powell expedition in which 
any Wesleyan faculty member or student participated, although 
Graves served as topographical engineer with the surveys which the 
major carried on in Utah in 1875 and 1876. In the latter year he 
married Miss Kate Graves, a former Wesleyan student, and she ac- 
companied him to Utah that summer. Alumni Journal, VI: 142, 167, 
285. In April, 1877 the Journal stated that "Major J. W. Powell of 
the Colorado Exploring Expedition, has been granted an appropria- 
tion of $50,000 with which to continue his survey. This is a just 
recognition on the part of Congress of the value and economy of 
his work. The party will take the field again in May or June. W. H. 
Graves of '74, who served as chief topographer of the party last 
year, anticipates another campaign in the West." An item in the June 
issue stated that Graves had stopped over in Bloomington on his way 
to Salt Lake City to join Powell and the November issue recorded 
the fact that he had returned from his Western trip and was on the 
way to Washington to spend the winter working on his field notes. 
Graves subsequently became a surveyor for many Western rail- 
roads, superintendent of numerous irrigation projects in the West 
and Northwest and president of the Oregon Society of Engineers. 
He died in Salinas, California, September 26, 1919. Alumni Roll, 
op. cit. 

21. Daily Pantagraph, September 24, 1874. 

22. Alumni Journal, IV: 264. 

23. Ibid., IV: 277. 

24. Ibid., V:139. 

25. Daily Pantagraph, May 2, 1875. 

26. Fallows, op. cit., 250-51. 

27. Ibid. 

28. Ibid. 

29. These first law graduates were: Asahel F. Dickinson and Newton B. 

Reed of Normal, John H. T. James of Lincoln, Isaac D. Walker of 
Decatur, and Richard Osborn, Randolph A. Pike and Marshall N. 
Williams of Bloomington. 

30. Sterling, who became a teacher and attorney, was a member of the 
constitutional conventions of South Dakota in 1883 and 1889, a 
senator in the first state legislature, 1889-90, dean of the college of 
law at the state university, and United States senator from 1913 to 
1925. Alumni Roll, op. cit. 

228 NOTES 

Chapter 13 

1. Daily Pantograph, March 17, 1890. 

2. Alumni Journal, V:210. 

3. Wilder, op. cit., p. 18. 

4. Daily Pantograph, June 18, 1880. 

5. Ibid. 

6. Ibid. 

7. Daily Pantograph, December 17, 1880. 

8. Ibid. 

9. Daily Pantograph, March 4, 1881. 

10. Alumni Journal, VII : 3 1 . 

11. Ibid., VII: 95. That the Wesleyan president was keeping up this 
strenuous pace four years later is indicated by a statement in the 
Daily Pantograph for March 25, 1881 that "Dr. Adams is still working 
with satisfactory results. Last Sunday he preached in the morning 
and walked ten miles through the snow to preach again that evening 
at another point." 

12. A lumni Journal, VI : 2 3 4. 

13. Ibid., p. 170. 

14. Because there were comparatively few good high schools in Central 
Illinois during the 60's and 70's the enrollment in Wesleyan's prep 
school rose steadily from 71 in 1863-4 to 280 in 1877-8. Later it de- 
clined gradually as the number of high schools, especially community 
high schools, began multiplying after 1900. Alma Hamilton: "The 
Academy" in 90th Ann. Hist. 

15. In 1876 the trustees had instructed the faculty "at their convenience 
to open a conservatory of music as a department of the university, 
provided that no expenses be incurred without the instruction of the 
Executive Committee." Daily Pantograph, June 16, 1876. 

16. Daily Pantograph, August 3, 1877. 

17. At the trustees' meeting in June, 1880 they authorized the "opening 
of a business college in connection with Wesleyan at the commence- 
ment of the next term." Daily Pantograph, June 18, 1880. The 
"College of Commerce" which offered two courses, one of six 
months and the other a year, is described in the 1880-81 catalogue 
with J. George Cross as dean and general instructor and lecturer 
and an enrollment of 169 students taking accounting, stenography 
and penmanship. Besides these studies, "Prof. J. M. Gillan the Elo- 
cutionist" gave a "full course of instruction in Vocal Culture and 
Gesture without extra charge." This college was abolished at the 
end of the school year of 1884-5 and thereafter registrants in the 
College of Post-Graduates and Non-Residents who had not previ- 
ously been counted in the grand total of the Wesleyan enrollment 
were included in those figures, thus keeping them over 600. 

NOTES 229 

18. This building was erected in 1856 to house a female academy which 
William T. Major conducted for several years, then presented the 
building and grounds to the Christian church. Due to the rapid 
increase of public schools, attendance at the seminary decreased and 
the property reverted to Major's heirs. Trans. McLean. Co. Hist. 
Soc, 11:36. In September, 1875 the Woman's Educational associa- 
tion leased the building as a "ladies' boarding hall on the Mt. Holyoke 
plan" thus providing "a Christian home where young ladies of any 
denomination desiring to educate themselves, can have board at the 
lowest possible rates." Wilder, op. cit., 36. 

19. Daily Pantagraph, December 24, 1878. 

20. Wesley an Magazine, V: 20-21. In 1886 J. H. Shaw, editor of the Bee, 
issued Wesleyan's first year book, the Wesley ana. Another did not 
appear until 1895 and it was designated as "Vol. I." After another 
decade "Volume II" was issued by the senior class of 1905. 

21. The Faculty Minutes of this period reveal an unusually large num- 
ber of suspensions or expulsions and such references as "notify Mr. 

that his son is doing no good here and should be taken out of 


22. Daily Pantagraph, June 20, 1879. 

23. Ibid., December 5, 1879. 

24. Ibid., August 28, 1885. 

25. Ibid., December 11, 1885. 

26. Ibid., December 18, 1885. 

Chapter 14 

1. After his retirement Adams served briefly as pastor of a church at 
Atlanta, 111., then went to Hot Springs, Ark. to seek relief from in- 
flammatory rheumatism. He died there March, 1890, as the result of 
"an overdose of chloroform which was administered accidentally." 
Daily Pantagraph, March 13, 1890. 

2. Wilbert Ferguson, "President Wilder's Administration" in 90th Ann. 
Hist., op. cit. Wilder was born near Greenfield, 111. July 7, 1849, 
worked on a farm as a boy, taught country school and was graduated 
from Wesley an in 1873. After holding pastorates in five Illinois 
towns, during which time he was elected a trustee of Wesleyan, he 
became presiding elder of the Decatur district in 1883. 

3. "The endowment fund has been increased by farm lands from Hiram 
Buck, valued at $27,000, not yet available; $58,000 of which $55,000 
was necessary to meet the conditions of the deed executed by Hiram 
and Martha Buck; $6,000 by bequest of Jonathan Totten; and $600 
by bequest of Miss Mary Williams. The total endowment July 1, 
1895 was $187,999, including the Cramp fund." Wilder, op. cit. 

4. The Wilder Reading Room Association was organized in the fall of 
1889 when faculty, students and friends of Wesleyan subscribed $400 

230 NOTES 

to fit up a reading room and purchase literature for the use of its 
members. Later it offered to turn the room over to the university and 
grant the use of the literature to all students if the board of trustees 
would give the association space in the new quarters for the library, 
which was done. The association also sponsored a lecture course 
which "brought the university into closer touch and sympathy with 
the people of the city." Wilder, op. cit. 

Wesley an's library started with about 1,000 volumes which were 
housed with the scientific apparatus and natural history collections 
in the first college building. Later this library was divided between 
the two literary societies and removed to the Munsellian and Belles 
Lettres halls in the same building. When the new university hall was 
occupied, the library was reassembled and moved to a room on the 
second floor of that structure where it remained until 1891 when 
this room was needed for the museum and the collection of books 
was moved back to a room on the third floor of the preparatory 
building. By 1895 accessions had brought the total number of vol- 
umes to about 7,000. Wesley ana, 1895. 
5. It was named the Powell Museum in 1886 and is thus designated in 
the annual catalogues until 1893 when, for some unknown reason, 
the name was dropped. Thereafter it was referred to only as "The 
Museum" but mention was made of the "J. W. Powell Collection" 
consisting of Zuni and Adoqui utensils, pottery, articles of dress, etc.; 
minerals and fossils collected on the Powell geological surveys; and 
photographs of western scenery with geological interest. In the 
summer of 1894 Elrod emulated his predecessor by taking a party 
of 11, including seven Wesleyan students, on a scientific expedition 
to the Rocky Mountains which brought back a large number of 
natural history specimens. They covered some of the same ground 
as the first Powell expedition of 1867 (including an ascent of Pikes 
Peak) and then set out on an overland journey of 600 miles which 
took them to Idaho and up the Snake river to its headwaters in Yel- 
lowstone National Park. "Three spring wagons and a four-horse 
mess wagon, with a saddle pony, made a fair caravan, and game, 
stones and trees were greeted all along the route by storms of shot 
and bullets," according to the Wesley ana, op. cit. J. D wight Funk, 
one of the Wesleyan students, now (1950) a business executive in 
Chicago, recalls that much of the shooting was at the whitened 
branches of fallen trees which, to the eyes of these "tenderfeet," 
looked like antlers of the elk. However they saw plenty of these 
animals later when a Mormon guide named Jones took five of them 
into the wilds of the Jackson Hole country. The other members of 
the party were Charles C. Adams, Norman Williams, R. C. Fullen- 
wider, I. A. Fullenwider, Louis Magin and Allen T. Kirk from Wes- 
leyan; John T. Gentle and W. T. Kirk from Normal University; 
and C. H. Robinson of Bloomington. Adams was the son of the 

NOTES 231 

former Wesleyan president and, after his graduation in 1895, joined 
the faculty as assistant in biology. After serving one year he became 
assistant entomologist at the University of Illinois and subsequently 
held important scientific positions in other states, culminating in his 
becoming director of the New York State Museum in 1926. The 
next year (1895) Elrod conducted another field trip to Yellowstone 
Park with a larger party which included Miss Luella Denman, head 
of the English department. In the 50th anniversary issue of the 
Argus, April 19, 1944, Miss Denman (then Mrs. L. D. Hanna of 
Normal) gave personal reminiscences of this trip which said, in part, 
"We went by train to Idaho Falls and from there to the Yellowstone 
in three wagons. The springwagon was lined with red and white 
cloth and had a tarpaulin cover. . . . The main entrance was at Jack- 
son's Hole but there had been a number of Indian massacres there 
just before we came so we went in by a roundabout way and were 
in the park three weeks." 

6. Ramseyer, "The Law School" in 90th Ann. Hist., op. cit., also state- 
ments to the author by alumni of the law school. Benjamin resigned 
as dean in 1892 to devote his time to teaching and study and Reeves 
succeeded him. Of this law faculty three were graduates of the 
Wesleyan law school — Morrissey in the class of 1880, Lindley in 
1883 and Russell in 1891. 

7. Wilson had started his School of Art at 516 North Main street in 
1883 and continued it there after the affiliation with Wesleyan. 

8. Daily Pantagraph, June 13, 1890. 

9. The new College of Music, like the School of Art, was conducted in 
downtown Bloomington, in the Hoblit building at North Main and 
Mulberry streets. 

10. Alumni Roll, op. cit. Darrah was graduated from Wesleyan in the 
class of 1890 and succeeded Miss Margaret Langstaff as instructor in 
elocution in 1892. The first commencement of the new School of 
Oratory was held in 1895. "W. B. Merrill was the only graduate 
and gave a recital of readings before a large and appreciative audi- 
ence." Daily Pantagraph, June 13, 1895. 

11. Hamilton, "The Academy" in 90th Ann. Hist., op. cit. In 1883 the 
board of trustees organized the Preparatory Department as a separate 
school with the Rev. Hyre D. Clark as principal, and John S. Van 
Pelt as assistant. After a year they were succeeded by Robert McCay 
as principal and Charles O. Strickland as assistant. From 1886 to 
1889 Lewis Dougherty was principal. During this decade each 
teacher on the university faculty taught one class a day in the aca- 
demy and the catalogue for 1885-86 carried this interesting state- 
ment: "The students are constantly incited, by their associations 
with the college students, to go forward with their education, and 
when they do leave off with the completion of an academic course 
they are usually free from that insufferable egotism which is so 

232 NOTES 

frequently seen among those who have just completed a three years' 
course in some secondary school, away from such influence." 

12. Cates "The Non-Resident Courses" in 90th Ann. Hist., op. cit. Moss 
became director of the non-resident work in 1882 and the branches 
were established in Canada and the British Isles two years later. The 
Canadian branch was especially successful under the guidance of Dr. 
T. M. Maclntyre, president of the Presbyterian Female College in 
Toronto, and more than 60 Canadian students enrolled in the different 

13. The Daily Pantagraph, April 4, 1892, reported that "the Wesley an 
Echo will be published by Messrs. Richard Little and Archie Bowen 
after September next. Both of these young gentlemen have talent 
and experience and without doubt will make a success of this publi- 
cation." Both subsequently "made a success" in journalism — Little as 
correspondent for the Chicago Tribune in the Spanish- American war, 
for the Chicago Daily News in the Russo-Japanese war, as a staff 
writer and dramatic critic for the Chicago Record-Herald and later 
as a columnist for the Tribune; Bowen as publisher of the Illinois 
State Journal at Springfield. 

14. Wilder, op. cit. 

15. Daily Pantagraph, June 15, 1894. 

16. Ibid. Two years later the Pantagraph, in reporting the events of the 
annual Commencement Week, stated that "following the sensible 
custom now so generally adopted, the members of the graduating 
class took no part in the literary exercises, an address by Bishop 
Samuel Fallows of Chicago taking the place of the usual essays." 

17. Daily Pantagraph, January 10, 1895. 

18. See Chapter 12, Note 14. Fred L. Muhl in his manuscript history of 
Illinois Wesleyan athletics says that a Wesleyan student named Pat- 
terson was the leader of a group of students who purchased a foot- 
ball in 1878 and had informal games among themselves on the campus 
but "baseball continued to be the prevailing sport of this period." 

19. This account of the introduction of intercollegiate football is de- 
rived from a letter dated November 29, 1940, from Craig to Fred H. 
Young, sports editor of the Daily Pantagraph, now in the possession 
of Mr. Muhl. Craig was graduated from the law school in 1888 and 
later became a state senator and a justice of the Illinois Supreme 

20. Muhl Manuscript, op. cit. Other statements in this chapter regarding 
the development of the athletic program, except as noted, are based 
upon information from this source. 

21. Daily Pantagraph, April 14, 1893. 

22. Ibid., June 12, 1896. 

23. Ibid., June 11, 1897. Wilder was a trustee of the university from 
1897 to 1901, presiding elder of the Quincy and Champaign districts 
until 1905 and pastor of the Central M.E. church in Jacksonville in 

NOTES 233 

1906. He was president of the Lucy Webb National Training School 
in Washington, D. C. from 1907 until 1915 when he returned to Wes- 
leyan as professor of English Bible and comparative religions which 
he taught until a few days before his death on March 1, 1920. 

Chapter 15 

1. Daily Pantagraph, September 10, 1897. 

2. DeMotte, who had left Wesley an in 1884 to become president of 
Chaddock College, had returned as superintendent of the Soldiers 
Orphans Home in Normal in 1887 and served there until 1893 when 
he became president of the Central Union Loan association and editor 
of the Bloomington Daily Leader, a position he held until rejoining 
the Wesley an faculty. Wesley an Argus, October 28, 1903. 

3. Smith was born in East Livermore, Maine, August 4, 1845, prepared 
for college in Wesleyan Seminary and College at Kent Hill, Maine, 
and was graduated from Wesleyan in Connecticut at the head of his 
class in 1871. He served as an instructor at Wesleyan for two years 
and after spending a year in Europe accepted a pastorate from which 
he was called to head the Kent Seminary and Female College in 
Maine. After 11 years there he was elected to the presidency of 
Montpelier Seminary. 

4. Wesleyan Argus, May 11, 1898. A number of the Wesleyan students 
went to Springfield to ask Governor Tanner to reactivate Battery B, 
a national guard unit in Bloomington that had ceased to function, 
and permit them to enlist in it. The governor told the youths — most 
of whom were only 17 or 18 — that they would have to have the per- 
mission of their parents and their dream of military glory faded at the 
stern parental command of "Back to your books!" Statement of J. 
Dwight Funk, one of these students, to the author. 

5. Wesleyan Argus, May 31, 1898. 

6. Ibid., June 10, 1898. 

7. Daily Pantagraph, March 23 and June 17, 1898. This committee had 
been suggested by Chancellor Kumler at a meeting in March and the 
committee was appointed the following June. 

8. Ibid., June 23, 1898. 

9. Ibid., October 14, 1898. 

10. This is the first mention of green and white as Wesley an's colors. In 
1887 the Wesleyan colors were navy blue and light gray and in 1892 
the colors adopted for the baseball tournament in Urbana were 
purple and steel. Muhl Manuscript, op. cit. 

11. Wesleyan Argus, February 1, 1899. 

12. Daily Pantagraph, June 2, 1899. 

13. Ibid., June 16, 1899. 

14. Muhl Manuscript, op. cit. 

15. Daily Pantagraph, June 5, 1900. 

234 NOTES 

16. Ibid., May 2, 1901. 

17. /£/</., July 12, 1901. 

18. Ibid., September 13, 1901. 

19. H. W. McPherson "President Smith's Administration" in the 90th. 
Ann. Hist. Indicative of the lack of co-ordination of the various de- 
partments of the university at this time is a statement in the Argus, 
March 14, 1901, that "Scattered as our student body is over the city, 
the first thing that confronts us is the lack of any common center." 

20. McPherson, op. cit. 

21. Edwin H. Cates, "The Non-Resident Courses" in the 90th. Ann. Hist. 

22. Daily Pantagraph, June 12, 1904. 

23. Gates, op. cit. Because some colleges which adopted the non-resident 
plan failed to supervise the work closely they came to be regarded as 
"diploma mills" in which registrants could virtually buy a college 
degree. This cast a reflection on other institutions, such as Wesleyan, 
which were honestly administering their non-resident work. In 1906 
the University Senate of the Methodist Institutions of the United 
States decreed that all colleges under its jurisdiction must discontinue 
this work or leave the federation and gave these colleges four years 
in which to wind up the non-resident work. In President Smith's 
final report to the trustees in June, 1905, he called attention to the 
decrease in non-resident enrollments, due to the requirements of the 
University Senate and stated "The important feature ... is the fact 
that the educational authorities of New York State have refused to 
recognize any longer the resident degrees of Illinois Wesleyan Uni- 
versity until the practice of giving non-resident degrees shall have 
been totally discontinued. . . . Under the circumstances, the only 
honorable thing to do is to immediately and totally discontinue the 
matriculation of students for the non-resident degree." That year 
the Wesleyan branches in England and Canada were closed and in a 
letter dated April 20, 1906, Robert O. Graham, then dean of this 
department, announced to all registrants the termination of all degree- 
granting not later than four years from June, 1906." Enrollment 
for graduate degree courses was closed on July 1, 1906 except for 
those students who at that time were already enrolled for the Ph.B. 
degree. Students who met this requirement were to be given an addi- 
tional year in which to enroll for the graduate courses." All non- 
resident work ceased in May, 1910 and the Argus, April 21, 1910, 
in reviewing the history of this department, pointed out that this 
meant a serious financial loss to Wesleyan because in some years the 
income from it had been as high as $2,500. 

24. McPherson, op. cit. 

25. Ibid., DeMotte died December 15, 1904 and was succeeded as acting 
president by Prof. Cliff Guild. 

26. Daily Pantagraph, June 15, 1901. Kumler had resigned as chancellor 
at the meeting of the board in June, 1901. 

NOTES 235 

27. Wesley an Argus, June 16, 1905. 

28. McPherson, op. cit. The Argus for October 6, 1908 recorded the 
news that Smith, who had been preaching at Willow Springs, Mo., 
had become dean of Carleton College at Farmington, Mo. where he 
"is to have charge of inside affairs of the college while the president 
raises money. The work is just what Dr. Smith likes and will not be 
very exacting. Some of his friends regretted that some such arrange- 
ment as that at Carleton College could not have been made to retain 
him at Illinois Wesleyan University." He was made president of 
Carleton in 1914 and died in Memphis, Tenn. November 10, 1924. 

Chapter 16 

1. Biographical data on Barnes is taken from the obituary story in the 
Daily Pantagraph, October 22, 1910. 

2. Daily Pantagraph, July 13, 1905. 

3. Ibid., December 16, 1905. 

4. Ibid. 

5. The first officers of the Woman's University Guild were: Mrs. C. C. 
Marquis, president; Mrs. Richard Crews and Mrs. Edmund O'Con- 
nell, vice-presidents; Mrs. B. C. VanLeer and Mrs. Francis G. Barnes, 
secretaries; Mrs. J. O. Willson, treasurer. The directors were Mes- 
dames J. C. Means, J. C. Zeller, H. C. DeMotte, Harry Roush, Dan 
Holder, S. C. Cusey, John Marshall, John T. Lillard, Ira Whitmer, 
Sain Welty, A. W. Rinehart, W. S. Sanders, P. S. Ropp, George 
Stubblefield, Milton Livingston, Oscar Mandel, A. B. Funk, Howard 
Humphreys, Fremont Roe, M. C. Kelly, and Kate Donahue Welch, 
Miss Alice Harpole, Mrs. Dr. Godfrey, Mrs. Dr. Heiberger, all of 
Bloomington; the Rev. Mary Moreland, Mrs. Kate Rankin, Mrs. 
S. E. Putnam and Mrs. Adams of Normal. — Grace Jewett Austin: 
"President Barnes' Administration" in 90th Ann. Hist. 

6. Ibid. 

7. Daily Pantagraph, June 16, 1906. 

8. The Preparatory School had become known as the Academy in 1889. 
In 1908 Miss Porter became principal, the first woman to hold that 
position. The next two principals also were women — Miss Helen M. 
Dean, 1912-15, and Miss Martha May James, 1918-19. The 1918-19 
catalogue carried this statement: "Owing to the increase in number 
and efficiency of the high schools throughout the patronizing terri- 
tory, the need for an academy has been growing much less in recent 
years. Because of this the Board of Trustees and Visitors in June, 
1917, legislated to the effect that for the year 1917-18 the first two 
years of the Academy be discontinued and that the other two years 
be eliminated one year later, making temporary provision, however, 
for sub-freshmen who are conditioned in a few subjects. Accord- 
ingly, with the close of the present year, the Academy, which has 

236 NOTES 

been a part of the institution from its beginning, will become a mat- 
ter of history." 
9. Wesley ana, IX. 

10. Muhl Manuscript, op. cit. Other facts about the athletic history in 
this chapter are from the same source. 

11. Daily Pantagraph, July 13, 1905. 

12. Ibid., January 9, 1907. 

13. Ibid., June 27, 1907. 

14. Ibid., September 20, 1907. 

15. Within a year after Barnes had taken office his health was seriously 
impaired by the strenuous program he had undertaken. The Daily 
Pantagraph, December 24, 1906, recorded that he had returned "from 
a six weeks' vacation in the wilds of New Mexico. Doctor Barnes, 
who was worn out with overwork when he left civilization, re- 
turned greatly improved in health and entirely rested. He lived out- 
of-doors the great part of the six weeks he spent in New Mexico 
among the Zuni Indians and in the Navajo country near Fort Defi- 
ance. He was fortunate enough to be admitted to some of the secret 
ceremonies of the Zuni Indians and was present during the Shalako, 
the most important ceremony of this tribe." The latter statement 
is an interesting commentary on the genius of the former missionary 
among the Indians of Canada for winning the friendship and confi- 
dence of both red men and white. 

16. Daily Pantagraph, October 22, 1910. For a year after leaving Wes- 
leyan, Barnes was employed by a publishing house then, because of 
his rapidly declining health, went to Pasadena, Calif, where he died 
after a brief illness, October 14, 1910. 

17. President Theodore Kemp, quoted in the Wesley an Argus, Novem- 
ber 9, 1910. 

Chapter 17 

1. Kemp was born near Rising Sun, Ind. April 16, 1868 and in 1883 
moved with his parents to Illinois where he grew up on a farm. He 
attended the academy at Northwestern University for two years, 
studied in the Garrett Biblical Institute and was graduated from 
DePauw University in 1893. He held several pastorates in the Illi- 
nois Conference before coming to Bloomington in 1905. While 
serving as pastor of the Grace M.E. church he was an instructor on 
the Wesley an faculty for one year, 1906-7, before becoming presi- 
dent in 1908. Daily Pantagraph, May 21, 1937. 

2. Ibid., May 9, 1932. 

3. William Wallis "The Administration of President Kemp" in the 90th 
Ann. Hist. 

4. Cliff Guild, "Financial Campaigns" in 90th Ann. Hist. Guild suc- 
ceeded DeMotte as head of the mathematics department in 1905, 

NOTES 237 

became bursar in 1911 and also served as registrar of the university 
after 1920. 

5. Daily Pantagraph, November 3, 1910. 

6. Wallis, op. cit. 

7. Ibid. 

8. Argus, October 10, 1910. 

9. Ibid., June 14, 1910. 

10. Ibid., October 17, 1917. The Argus also quoted the statement of 
Francis G. Blair, state superintendent of public instruction, that "if 
it becomes necessary, every schoolhouse and college building will be 
given over freely for hospital and arsenal, every teacher who will be 
accepted and every student will be found in the lines of our defense. 
But is it in the best interests of the nation that such service be 
accepted until dire necessity demand it? Does not our best interest 
in this war, as well as in the reconstruction that will follow it, require 
that our education system shall not become demoralized? Instead of 
closing our school-rooms and laboratories is it not better even as a war 
policy to open wider their opportunities? Our young men and 
women should be encouraged to finish their courses. Our nation does 
not want raw, unfinished products of any kind." 

11. Argus, October 3, 1917. 

12. Ibid., October 31, 1917. 

13. Ibid., November 14, 1917. 

14. Ibid., January 16, 1918. One of the graduates was Schuyler C. E. 
Scrimger '97, who had served in Company D, Fifth Illinois Infantry, 
during the Spanish- American War, went back into the army in 1917 
as a captain of the 108th Ammunition Train, 58th Field Artillery 
Brigade, 33 d. Division, and saw 15 months service overseas. 

15. Daily Pantagraph, April 30, 1918. The 1917-18 catalogue of the uni- 
versity had contained this announcement: "Important — Changes 
in Courses. As the manuscript for this catalogue goes to the printer 
(early in April) the United States is just entering the great World 
War. It is needless to say that no one can predict what conditions 
even the next few months will bring forth. At this writing there 
seems to be a strong probability that our national government will 
make military drill a part of the required work of the school. We 
have already provided military drill for all those who desired it dur- 
ing the year 1916-17. This institution reserves the right to make any 
change in the courses of study or in the requirements for gradua- 
tion which may seem best in order to meet the conditions which 
will be brought about by the war." 

16. Argus, April 26, 1918. 

17. Ibid., June 5, 1919. 

18. President Kemp, "The Students Army Training Corps at Illinois 
Wesleyan University" in the Argus, November 8, 1918. The paper 
also chronicled the fact that "the Bloomington Association of Com- 

238 NOTES 

merce very generously came forward with a proposition to finance 
Wesleyan in the construction of barracks and a mess hall for the 
Students Army Training Corps. . . . Work was begun shortly 
before October 1 on the barracks to accommodate 300 men but 
on account of the influenza and other unavoidable reasons the work 
has been delayed. Up to this time the citizens of Bloomington have 
opened their homes very generously and taken the men in, and they 
have been cared for very comfortably. The men have marched to 
mess at the Illinois Hotel." 

19. Argus, November 8, 1918. 

20. Ibid., November 22, 1918. 

21. Capen had become dean of the law school after the death of Judge 
Owen T. Reeves on March 2, 1911. Reeves had been associated with 
Wesleyan in various capacities since 1854, a span of 58 years. One of 
the few survivors of the earliest days in Wesleyan history, his death 
was, in a sense, symbolical of the break with the past as the university 
entered its modern phase. Another link with the past was broken five 
years later when Judge Reuben M. Benjamin, founder and first dean 
of the law school, died on August 4, 1917. The Argus, October 3, 
1917, in chronicling his death noted that Benjamin had arrived in 
Bloomington in 1856, had heard Lincoln's famous "Lost Speech" in 
Major's Hall that year and had become well acquainted with the 
future president during his frequent visits to the McLean county 
seat from 1856 to 1860. "Lincoln was one of the three lawyers to 
examine this young candidate for the Illinois bar. The certificate to 
the effect that Mr. Benjamin had passed the examination was written 
by Lincoln himself." 

22. Argus, April 25, 1919. 

23. Guild "Financial Campaigns" op. cit. 

24. Argus, November 11, 1921. 

25. Kemp resigned on May 8, 1922. 

26. Daily Pantagraph, February 25, 1910. This report stated that the 
donor "has decided to remain unknown but it is definitely settled 
that Wesleyan will has a new library and a building for its use though 
probably not for two years or more." 

27. Allan R. Laursen, "The Library" in 90th Ann. History. The last 
move of the library to "Old North" was in 1904-05 when Prof. F. M. 
Austin was librarian. By that time its collections had grown to 
approximately 10,000 volumes. "Electric lights were installed in the 
summer of 1912, enabling students to use the room after dark. There 
had previously been no lighting system whatsoever, and the library 
had been closed at 4:30 in the afternoon. . . . In 1913 Miss Kathleen 
Hargrave was appointed librarian, full-time, and in 1914-15 she 
organized the library holdings, cataloguing the books and classifying 
them according to the Dewey Decimal system. In 1915-16 students 
in the Department of English Literature inaugurated a custom that 

NOTES 239 

was to last nearly 20 years when they presented, by means of an 
assessment of 50 cents for each student, 100 books to the library 
as a Thanksgiving offering. Many of the volumes in the present col- 
lection are inscribed as 'Thank Offerings' of the various classes." 
Other important developments in the library during the next five 
years were: the establishment of the Colin Dew James Foundation 
of $1,000, given by Edmund Janes James, then president of the 
University of Illinois, in honor of his father, who had been one of the 
incorporators of Wesley an and a trustee from 1851 to 1854; the 
Amanda K. Casad Foundation of $500, created by the sons and 
daughters of Mrs. Colin D. James (Amanda K. Casad) as a me- 
morial to her; and the John Anthony Jones Foundation of $1,000, 
created by the sons of Jones, a pioneer temperance worker. Interest 
on all of these funds was to be used for the purchase of books for 
the library which had increased to 12,000 volumes by 1918. 
28. Wallis, op. cit. After his resignation from Wesley an Kemp and his 
wife went to Europe for several months. Upon their return he 
moved to California and died in Los Angeles May 20, 1937. 

Chapter 18 

1. Daily Pantagraph, June 13, 1922. 

2. Ferguson was succeeded as dean of the college of liberal arts by Wil- 
liam Wallis, a graduate of Ohio Wesleyan University, who had been 
principal of the Bloomington High School for 1 1 years. He resigned 
in 1918 to do Y.M.C.A. work and in 1921 joined the Wesleyan fac- 
ulty. At present (1950) he is professor emeritus of history. 

3. Argus, February 6, 1924; Alumni Roll, op. cit. 

4. The merger of the two music schools had been authorized at a 
special meeting of the trustees in May. Daily P anagraph, May 9, 1922. 
Westbrook was elected dean at their meeting in June at the same 
time that Ferguson became vice-president and Wallis dean of the 
college of liberal arts. 

5. Daily Pantagraph, June 13, 1923. 

6. Wesleyan Catalogue. 

7. Argus, November 11, 1924. Three years later the geology class took 
a field trip to Peoria, going by bus and spending "one day on the 
work with time out only for lunch." The jaunt of these 1927 "motor 
age" students was in sharp contrast to that of their predecessors who 
had accompanied Powell on horseback and in mule-drawn wagons to 
Colorado in 1867. 

8. Wesleyan Catalogue. 

9. Argus, September 24, 1925. Besides the 170 in the speech school, 
there were 675 in liberal arts (a gain of 81 over the previous year), 
450 in the music school and 50 in the law school. 

10. Ramseyer "The Law School" in 90th. Ann. Hist. 

240 NOTES 

11. Daily Pantagraph, December 25, 1925. 

12. Ibid., June 16, 1926. 

13. Despite this statement there were later attempts to reopen the law 
school. The Daily Pantagraph, April 6, 1928, reported that the 
Wesleyan trustees had started action which they hoped would secure 
a gift, comparable to that of the Presser Foundation, to erect a law 
school building. On December 29, 1934 it reported another effort 
by the Bloomington Association of Commerce, the Wesleyan Alumni 
Association and the trustees to start a movement to re-establish a 
law school affiliated with the university. Both of these attempts, 
however, failed. Ramseyer op. cit. 

14. Ibid. 

15. Daily Pantagraph, April 7, 1927. 

16. Argus, October 21, 1928. 

17. Daily Pantagraph, February 9, 1930. 

18. Hedding College, named in honor of Elijah Hedding, eighth bishop 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, was founded in 1850 as the 
Hedding Seminary at Abingdon, 111. Later the name was changed to 
Hedding Female College and finally in 1873 the Central Illinois Con- 
ference adopted a resolution to incorporate it as Hedding College 
and "blot out all distinction of sex in its privileges." The charter was 
finally secured in 1875. At the time it closed it had assets of more 
than half a million dollars. "Historical Sketch of Hedding College 
Merged with Illinois Wesleyan University" in the Annual Catalogue, 
1933. Among its presidents were three former Wesleyan faculty 
members: J. R. Jaques (1886-89), Hyre D. Clark (1898-1900) and 
Calvin W. Green (1920-22). 

19. Trustee Proceedings, op. cit. 

20. Argus, September 28, 1932. 

21. Ibid., March 9, 1932. 

22. The various groups named in this chapter are listed under "Student 
Organizations and Activities" in the annual catalogues of this period. 

23. Argus, January 15, 1930. 

24. Muhl Manuscript, op. cit. Other data on athletics in this chapter, 
except as noted, are from that source. Indicative of a new trend in 
sports during this decade was the announcement in the Argus, Sep- 
tember 27, 1928, that Delmar Garner, all-conference center on the 
Wesleyan team the previous year, had signed a contract to play with 
the Chicago Bears, professional football team. 

25. Argus, December 17, 1924. 

26. Ibid., November 22, 1932. 

27. Guild, "Financial Campaigns," in 90th. Ann. Hist. 

28. Trustees Proceedings. Argus, December 15, 1931. 

29. Although Davidson had stated in his letter of resignation that it was 
to take effect September 1, actually he retired on July 18 when he 
went to Springfield to become pastor of the First Methodist church 

NOTES 241 

there, succeeding Rev. Harry W. McPherson, who had been chosen 
as his successor as president of Wesleyan. That fall Davidson became 
director of the department of colleges and universities of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church Board of Education. 

Chapter 19 

1. Argus, July 30, 1922. 

2. Throughout this period McPherson, as a member of the board of 
trustees and its executive committee, was among those who re- 
peatedly insisted that measures be taken to stop accumulating deficits. 
"I often think this attitude had something to do with my being 
thrown into the midst of the stream and left to swim or else!" — 
Statement of Dr. McPherson to the author. 

3. Daily Pantagraph, July 18, 1932. 

4. Due to a number of factors, including the closing of the law school, 
a marked decrease in enrollment in the music school when its 
requirements were changed and the early effects of the depression, 
the total registration at Wesleyan had dropped from its high of 1,345 
in 1925-26 to 533 in the last year of Davidson's presidency. The total 
during McPherson's first year was 574 and it steadily increased until 
it passed the 800-mark where it stood (867) at the end of his regime. 

5. Argus, September 9, 1932. 

6. Statement of Dr. McPherson to the author. 

7. Ferguson, "The Administration of President McPherson" in 90th. 
Ann. Hist. 

8. Guild, "Financial Campaigns" in 90th. Ann. Hist. 

9. Ferguson, op. cit. 

10. Daily Pantagraph, June 18 and September 12, 1937. 

11. The number of men students increased from 358 in 1932-33 to 448 
in 1936-37; the number of women from 216 to 353. Annual Cata- 
logues, 1933 and 1937. 

12. Argus, September 19, 1934. 

13. Daily Pantagraph, March 2, 1937. 

14. Argus, September 17, 1937. 

15. Statement of Dr. McPherson to the author. 

16. Annual Catalogue, 1933; Browns, "The Curriculum in Liberal Arts" 
in 90th Ann. Hist. 

17. Daily Pantagraph, April 4, 1937. 

18. Argus, July 24, 1937. McPherson subsequently held several other 
high positions in the educational work of the Methodist Church. At 
present (1950) he is associate executive secretary of the Illinois 
Church Council and a Wesleyan trustee. 

19. Daily Pantagraph, October 20, 1937. 

20. Ibid., October 20, 1939. 

21. Argus, January 10, 1939. 

242 NOTES 

22. Ibid., April 18, 1939. 

23. Daily Pantagraph, June 6 and 21, 1939. After leaving Wesley an, 
Brooks was appointed to do survey work for Teachers College at 
Columbia University (Daily Pantagraph, January 18, 1940) and the 
next year he became president of the Nebraska State Teachers Col- 
lege at Chadron, Neb. (Daily Pantagraph, May 21, 1941) a position 
he holds at the present time (1950). 

24. Daily Pantagraph, June 6, 1939. 

Chapter 20 

1. Daily Pantagraph, August 31, 1939. Shaw was born in Minnesota in 
1869, the son of a Methodist minister. After graduation from Moores 
Hill College in Indiana in 1889, he taught school in Kentucky for 
four years then entered Garrett Biblical Institute where he was given 
the S.T.B. degree in 1896. He joined the Central Illinois Conference 
and held pastorates in several Illinois towns until 1910 when he went 
to the First Methodist church in Peoria where he remained for 22 
years. He was superintendent of the Peoria District from 1932 to 
1936 and had been secretary of the Board of Foreign Missions for 
four years when he was elected to the Wesleyan presidency. 

2. Dr. M. J. Holmes in the Alumni Bulletin, February, 1947. 

3. Daily Pantagraph, June 6, 1940. 

4. Argus, January 28, 1941. Holmes was a native of Iowa and received 
his bachelor's degree from Simpson College at Indianola, Iowa, an 
institution which later conferred an honorary D.D. degree upon 
him. After spending a year as a student in the American School of 
Classical Studies in Rome and serving as an instructor in English 
at Collegio Metodista, he entered Garrett Biblical Institute where 
he received his S.T.B. and later a D.D. degree. He also holds the 
degrees of M.A. from Northwestern University and S.T.M. from 
Harvard University. In addition to his educational work, he held 
several pastorates in the lowa-Des Moines Conference and the Rock 
River Conference. Christian Education Magazine, November-Dec- 
ember, 1947. 

5. Argus, April 1, 1942. Wesleyan had been restored to the Association 
of American Universities accredited list in November, 1941. "One 
of the driving forces behind the move for reinstatement has been 
Dean Malcolm A. Love" — Statement by President Shaw in the 
Alumni Bulletin, Fall, 1941. In 1943 the Wesleyan music school be- 
came one of the 32 in the United States approved for graduate work 
by the National Association of Schools of Music, the only accredit- 
ing agency for such departments recognized by the American Coun- 
cil on Education. Alumni Bulletin, Spring, 1942. 

6. Ibid., Summer, 1941. 

7. Daily Pantagraph, October 19, 1941. 

8. Argus, December 10, 1941. 

NOTES 243 

9. Ibid. 

10. Ibid., January 21, 1942. 

11. Alumni Bulletin, Spring, 1942. 

12. Ibid. 

13. Argus, September 30, 1942. Wesleyan's first World War II casualties 
were: Robert Folk, ex '41, missing from a ship torpedoed in the 
North Atlantic in November, 1941; John Lough '40, second lieu- 
tenant in the Naval Air Corps, missing in action after the Battle of 
Midway; Peter C. Gardner, ex '39, second lieutenant in Marine 
Corps aviation, killed in an airplane crash at San Diego, Calif. 
Alumni Bulletin, Fall, 1942. 

14. Argus, October, 29, 1942. 

15. Alummi Bulletin, Fall, 1942. 

16. Ibid. 

17. Many records and office materials were carried from the burning 
building by students, faculty and townspeople under the direction 
of Dr. Holmes while Henry Petrzilka, captain-elect of the 1943 foot- 
ball team, was fighting back the flames with a fire extinguisher on the 
second floor. Although the museum was destroyed, the John Wes- 
ley Powell collection of ancient Indian pottery, valued at more than 
$1,000, had previously been moved to special cases in Buck Memorial 
Library and thus escaped destruction. Among the other losses was 
a collection of more than 1,000 books that had been assembled over 
a period of 50 years by Professor Ferguson and his daughter, Miss 
Constance Ferguson. Alummi Bulletin, January, 1943. 

18. Argus "extra," January 11, 1943. 

19. Holmes in Alumni Bulletin, op. cit. 

20. Argus, August 11, 1943. 

21. Ibid., February 2, 1943. 

22. Argus, March 3, 1943. 

23. Ibid., March 17, 1943. 

24. Illinois Wesley an Catalogue, 1944. 

25. Argus, August 11, 1943. 

26. Jordan was succeeded as dean of the music school by Spencer 
Green '31 who had returned to his alma mater in 1933 as instructor 
in voice. 

27. Alumni Bulletin, July, 1943. 
28-29. Ibid., Fall, 1942. 

30. Argus, October 25, 1944. During the ceremonies honoring Wesley an 
men in service, held between halves at the Homecoming football 
game, Judge Oscar Hoose '14 read the following tribute, titled 
"Wesley an Will Remember": 

"Each year for more than 90 years, young men and women have 
come to Wesleyan. They have gone forth from its halls and campus 
to take their places in the world. In the field of music, of art, of 

244 NOTES 

science, of business, of education, of religion, of law, and elsewhere 
they have contributed their respective parts. And as they have suc- 
ceeded, they have had a fine memory of Wesleyan and have given 
to their Alma Mater its full measure of credit and glory. 

"Today, Wesleyan men and women all over the world are sacri- 
ficing, yes, dying for their country. And as they serve and die, they, 
too, remember. On the deck of the battleship, in the seat of the 
bombardier, of the pilot, in the foxholes, at the cot side in a hospital, 
they recall their days at Wesleyan. To them the memory of their 
college days is vivid and dear. 

"What more fitting thing can we do than to reciprocate by re- 
membering them, their valiant deeds and their sacrifices? 

"Accordingly, it has been determined that in the greater Wesleyan 
of the future, they will be honored by the dedication of a part of 
its building program to the Wesleyan folks in service of their 
country, both living and dead. 

"Yes, Wesleyan will remember." 

31. Argus, September 13, 1944. In 1940 the football team, led by Capt. 
Bob Morrow '41, for the second consecutive year had won the 
championship of the Illinois College Conference. The next year 
Coach Bob Voights left Wesleyan to take a coaching position at 
Yale and was succeeded by John Kovatch, an Ail-American end at 
Northwestern. When Coach Don Heap was called to the army, his 
place was taken by William B. Craig, '31, who resigned the next year 
and was succeeded as basketball coach by Jack Horenberger, '36, who 
had captained the last Titan five to win a conference title. Van F. 
Howe became football and track coach in 1942 and both he and 
Horenberger left to join the navy the next year. Cecil B. Russell 
was head coach in 1943 and when he was called to the navy Melvin 
Brewer became football coach. Horenberger returned to Wesleyan 
in 1945 and Morrow in 1947 and they are now (1950), respectively, 
director of athletics and football coach. 

32. Alumni Bulletin, September, 1944. 

33. The announcement of a $10,000 gift for completing the Art Center 
was made in September, 1943, but the donor's name was withheld at 
that time. When the dedication took place in January, 1944, it be- 
came known that the donor was Mrs. Mary Hardtner Blackstock 
who several years previously had made possible the purchase of the 
woman's dormitory that bears her name. Argus, September 15, 1943 
and January 19, 1944. Gulick Hall, the former Hart residence at 
1314 Fell avenue, was purchased in August, 1942. It was named for 
Mrs. Anna Gulick of Bloomington who not only provided the money 
for its purchase but who also had made several generous gifts to 
Wesleyan which helped keep the university in Bloomington when the 
effort was made to move it to Springfield soon after World War I. 

34. From the text of "The Call to Commemoration" by Dr. Magill in a 

NOTES 245 

special leaflet issued for the memorial convocation in the gymnasium 
October 21, 1945. Listed in it were the names of the 1,248 students, 
alumni and faculty who served in World War II and the following 
"Gold Star Heroes": Don Abrell, ex '44, Don Anderson, ex '39, 
Harold (Dick) Brown, ex '42, Glenn W. Carl, ex '42, Joseph Clark, 
'42, John Collins, ex '45, Hobart W. Deaver, ex '41, Gerald Eagan, 
ex '41, Paul Ewalt, '42, Wilfred Flesher, ex '44, Robert Folk, ex '41, 
George L. Fox, '32, Jim Freer, ex '44, Peter Gardner, ex '39, John 
Gray, ex '41, Larry Hastings, '38, Dean Holdsworth, ex '41, James 
Howell, '39, Lyle Lanz, ex '44, Fred J. LaPlant, ex '41, John Lough, 
'40, John Mabry, ex '43, Bruce McClure, ex '46, Milford Mann, ex 
'41, Robert Moran, ex '43, Arthur M. Naffziger, ex '35, Joseph C. 
Nate, Jr., ex '24, Wayne Nelson, ex '43, John R. Orr, ex '41, Robert 
Parsons, ex '43, Richard B. Pierce, ex '46, William J. Piatt, ex '44, 
Richard Postlethwait, '36, Maurice Press, ex '39, Ian Preston, ex '42, 
John D. Ropp, ex '45, Warren A. Schaefer, ex '36, Charles Schnabel, 
ex '42, Douglas E. Smith, ex '46, Ben Swartz, ex '39, James Robert 
Tierney (In V-5 program while at IWU), Louis Utesch, ex '42, 
Donald Ward, ex '45, George Warner, ex '39, Chester Wetterlund, 
'42, Paul Yates, ex '34, William Reed Yates, ex '43 and Leroy Yolton, 
'21. Subsequently the names of three more men were added to that 
list. They were: Richard LaBarron, ex '39, Hartford Larison, ex, 
'37 and Warren Rouse, '36. (Information from Wesley an Alumni 

Chapter 21 

1. Argus, January 2, January 9, February 13 and March 3, 1946. 

2. Alumni Bulletin, March, 1946. Later more of these housing units 
were erected on the campus, providing nine sets of barracks as living 
quarters for students. In addition four other units were erected 
east of "Old North" for classroom and office purposes. 

3. Alumni Bulletin, March, 1946. 

4. Ibid., February, 1946. Mrs. Pfeiffer's donation of $150,000 was in 
stocks. Later they proved to have a market value of $203,400. 

5. Daily Pantagraph, June 5, 1946. 

6. Argus, August 9 and September 11, 1946. 

7. Ibid., November 20, 1946. 

8. Ibid., February 2, 1947. 

9. In reviewing the history of the art department, the Argus for April 
16, 1947 pointed out that it had grown from less than a dozen stu- 
dents in China painting back in 1906 to more than 400 enrolled in the 
art courses in 1947. A detailed history of the development of this 
department appears in the October, 1949, issue of the Alumni 

246 NOTES 

10. Alumni Bulletin, November, 1946. The number of student societies, 
clubs, etc., which had caused the Argus editor back in 1932 to de- 
clare that the Wesleyan campus was becoming "over-organized," 
had continued to increase during the next decade. After the installa- 
tion of the Beta Rho chapter of Theta Chi in 1926 there were no new 
chapters of national social Greek letter societies but in 1946 both 
the non-fraternity men and the non-sorority women established 
"Independent Organizations." New honorary and recognition so- 
cieties had been established as follows: 1931, Pi Gamma Mu, hono- 
rary society for juniors and seniors in the fields of the social sciences; 

1935, Gamma Upsilon, student publications fraternity; 1937, Order 
of Titans for athletic letter-men; Egas, honorary society for senior 
women, and Alpha Epsilon Delta, fraternity for students expecting to 
enter the medical profession; Gathe, honor society for freshman wo- 
men; 1941, Green Medallion, honor society for members of the 
sophomore class; and 1943, Blue Key, honor society for senior men. 
Other organizations were established in this order: 1928, Le Circle 
Francais, to study French language and literature; 1934, Interfrater- 
nity Council, composed of representatives of national fraternities on 
the campus, and International Relations Club, to study world affairs; 

1936, Episcopoi, for men and women interested in Christian work 
as a life calling, and Camera Club, a science organization for the 
study of photography; 1938, Stray Greeks Club, for members of 
fraternities (both faculty and students) not having chapters on the 
Wesleyan campus; 1940, Spanish Club, to study Spanish language 
and literature; 1943, student chapters of the American Red Cross and 
of the National League of Women Voters; 1945, Art Club, for stu- 
dents in that field, and Brownson Club for Catholic students; and 
1947, Academy of Science, for students and faculty interested in the 
field of natural science. 

11. Alumni Bulletin, November, 1946. 

12. Argus, August 1, 1947; Annual Catalogue, 1948. 

13. Alumni Bulletin, June, 1947. 

14. Ibid., October, 1947. 

15. Annual Catalogue, 1948. 

16. Cuthbert succeeded Dean Spencer Green, who had resigned earlier 
in the year to enter professional work in Chicago, and Kilgore suc- 
ceeded Prof. Kenneth B. Loomis, who had gone to Texas College for 
Women as director of the department of art. Other resignations that 
year included Raymond Dooley, director of student personnel ser- 
vices, who became president of Lincoln College, and two music 
school teachers, Edward Preodor, who went to the University of 
Florida, and Roger W. Fee, who went to Drake University. The 
Daily Pantagraph, September 12, 1948, in commenting on these 
changes, stated "There is regret that they have gone but there is 
pride that Wesleyan is the kind of college that attracts young per- 

NOTES 247 

sonnel capable of growth, and that these people attract the attention 
of other colleges and universities. Every one of those moving on 
has improved his professional standing or his salary or both." 

17. Alumni Bulletin, February and March, 1946. 

18. Ibid., July, 1949. 

19. From the report of Orville Nothdurft, director of admissions, in 
Alumni Bulletin, November, 1949. 

20. Ibid. 

21. Alumni Bulletin, March, 1950. 

22. Ibid. 

Notes on the Illustrations 

Of the portraits of the "Founding Fathers," many of which are here 
reproduced for the first time, that of Peter Cartwright was supplied by 
Dr. William E. Schultz of Illinois Wesleyan; of William H. Holmes, by 
his granddaughter, Miss Mabel Holmes of Bloomington; of Silas Watters, 
by his great-granddaughter, Mrs. C. Kenneth Humphrey of Le Roy, 111. 
The portrait of Lewis Bunn is from an oil painting in the collections of 
the McLean County Historical Society which also supplied photographs 
or engravings of the following: James Allin, William H. Allin, John S. 
Barger, John W. Ewing, Kersey H. Fell, Isaac Funk, William C. Hobbs, 
John Magoun, J. E. McClun, Charles P. Merriman, Thomas P. Rogers, 
William J. Rutledge and William Wallace. The portrait of Reuben 
Andrus is from an oil painting in the library at DePauw University, 
Greencastle, Ind. a photograph of which was secured through the cour- 
tesy of President Clyde E. Wildman of that university. 

The picture of James F. Jaquess is reproduced from one of the illus- 
trations in Watters' "History of MacMurray College" and those of John 
Dempster and William Goodfellow from illustrations in the "Semi- 
Centennial Celebration of Garrett Biblical Institute, May 5-9, 1906." The 
portrait of President Sears is from a carte de viste photograph owned 
by Mrs. Lloyd Eyer of Bloomington, Sears' grandniece. 

The picture of Wesleyan's first building is from a reproduction of 
an old woodcut supplied by Prof. Fred L. Muhl. Accompanying it is a 
reproduction of one of three notes for $25 each given by Adam Guthrie, 
a Bloomington pioneer and a mason by trade. He evidently "worked 
out" these pledges to the fund which made the building possible since 
each is indorsed on the back. "This note is to be paid in mason work, the 
giver having ten days notice." That they were thus paid is indicated by 
the fact that the signature on each is torn off — the method of cancelling 
a promissory note used at that time. The foregoing information and a 
photostat of these notes were supplied by Rev. Sidney A. Guthrie, former 
superintendent of the Jacksonville district of the Illinois Conference and 
a Wesleyan trustee, who found these cancelled notes in his grandfather's 
wallet after Adam Guthrie's death. 

The picture of Lt. John Fifer and "Private Joe" Fifer is from a copy 
of a daguerreotype supplied by the latter's daughter, Mrs. Florence 
Fifer Bohrer of Bloomington. The picture of the Lincoln funeral train 
is from a carte de viste by John Carbutt, a famous Chicago photographer, 
in the collections of the McLean County Historical Society, as is the pic- 
ture of the "indignation meeting" in the court house square on the same 

According to a statement in the Daily Pantagraph, April 16, 1919, 



by Mrs. Sarah A. Dagenhart of Bloomington, who was assistant to Scibird 
Bros., Bloomington photographers, their gallery was on the second floor 
of the building "where D. C. Herrick and Co. clothiers are now (1919) 
located" and Joseph H. Scibird took the picture from an upper window 
of that building. Since Photographer Scibird was pointing his camera 
southeast, the buildings in the background of the picture are on the 
east side of Main street. The building in the extreme background, topped 
by a steeple, is the Methodist church where the "Founding Fathers" of 
Illinois Wesley an held their historic meeting on September 23, 1850. 

The picture of the Wesley an faculty of 1865-66 is from a carte de 
viste owned by Mrs. Charles A. Ewing of Decatur, daughter of Leonidas 
H. Kerrick. The photograph of Maj. John Wesley Powell on horse- 
back was taken by John K. Hillers in 1873 and is reproduced by courtesy 
of the Bureau of American Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution. 
The group picture of Wesleyan students reproduced on the same page 
is from a tintype taken near Cheyenne, Wyo. on November 16, 1868. 
W. Mark Durley of Oxnard, Calif., a son of Lyle H. Durley, owns the 
original, a copy of which was supplied by William Culp Darrah of Med- 
ford, Mass. Of the five — J. J. Aiken, Rhodes C. Allen, Lyle H. Durley, 
Edmond D. Poston and James B. Taylor — so far it has been possible to 
identify only Allen (upper right) and Durley (lower left). Perhaps 
some surviving relative of Aiken, Poston or Taylor may see this repro- 
duction and supply the missing identifications. 

The portrait of Mrs. Hannah I. Shur, Wesley an's first woman gradu- 
ate, is from a photograph supplied by her cousin, Miss Hortense E. Fer- 
rell of El Paso, 111. 

The photograph of the 1910 championship football team was furnished 
by Prof. Fred L. Muhl and of the 1914 championship basketball team by 
Fred H. ("Brick") Young, sports editor of the Daily Pantagraph and 
president of the Illinois Wesleyan Alumni Association. 

Wesley an's "birth certificate" and the signatures of the signers (fron- 
tispiece), the circular issued in 1851, the 1871 catalogue, the Belles Lettres 
Society program, 1872 Commencement program and the Hedding Hall 
fire "extra" of the Argus are from the originals in the Illinois Wesleyan 


Illinois Wesleyan's "Birth Certificate" 


Be it known that at the city of Bloomington in the county of McLean 
and State of Illinois, on the Twenty-Third day of September A.D. One 
thousand eight hundred and fifty, we the undersigned James C. Finley, 
James Miller, James Allin, John E. McClun, John Magoun, William C. 
Hobbs, Thomas Magee, Charles P. Merriman, Ezekiel Thomas, Thomas P. 
Rogers, Linus Graves, Peter Cartwright, James F. Jaquess, William J. 
Rutledge, Calvin W. Lewis, James Leaton, John Van Cleve, Silas Wat- 
ters, Isaac Funk, David Trimmer, John S. Barger, C. M. Holliday, W. D. 
R. Trotter, W. H. Allin, William Wallace, W. H. Holmes, J. W. Ewing, 
Lewis Bunn, Kersey H. Fell, Reuben Andrus, of the state aforesaid, do 
and hereby have associated ourselves together as Trustees and a body 
corporate for the purpose of permanently establishing at or near said 
city of Bloomington, in the county aforesaid, an Institution of learning of 
Collegiate grade in accordance with the provisions of an act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the State of Illinois, entitled an "Act for the Incorpora- 
tion of Institutions of learning," approved January Twenty Sixth A.D. 
One thousand eight hundred and forty nine. And we do hereby make 
known and declare that the said Institution of learning hereby established 
shall be known in law and equity or otherwise by the name and style of 


And we do further make known and declare that the said Institution of 
learning shall be under the direction and supervision of Thirty Trustees 
and that the undersigned James C. Finley, James Miller, James Allin, John 
E. McClun, John Magoun, William C. Hobbs, Thomas Magee, Charles 
P. Merriman, Ezekiel Thomas, Thomas P. Rogers, Linus Graves, Peter 
Cartwright, James F. Jaquess, William J. Rutledge, Calvin W. Lewis, 
James Leaton, John Van Cleve, Silas Watters, Isaac Funk, David Trim- 
mer, John S. Barger, C. M. Holliday, W. D. R. Trotter, W. H. Allin, 
Wm. Wallace, W. H. Holmes, J. W. Ewing, Lewis Bunn, Kersey H. Fell, 
Reuben Andrus shall constitute such Trustees for the time being and until 
they shall be succeeded in manner hereinafter provided. And we do 
further make known and declare that the said Institution of learning shall 
be of the rank and order of a College or University, and that the branches 
of Literature and Science proposed to be taught in said Institution are 
the Ancient and Modern Languages, Biblical Criticism and Ecclesiastical 
History, Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, Mental and Moral Sci- 
ence, Belles Lettres, English Literature and Normal Instruction, Natural 



Science, Law and Political Economy, and such other branches of Litera- 
ture and Science as in Collegiate Institutions usually belong to the several 
Professorships hereinafter provided. And we do further make known 
and declare that the Officers of said Institution shall be a President, a 
Professor of Ancient Languages, a Professor of Modern Languages, a 
Professor of Hebrew and Biblical Criticism and Ecclesiastical History, a 
Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, a Professor of Mental 
and Moral Science, and Belles Lettres, a Professor of English Literature 
and Normal Instruction, a Professor of Natural Science, a Professor of 
Law and Political Economy, a Principal of the preparatory department, 
and such adjunct professors and tutors as the Trustees may from time to 
time elect. 

And we do hereby make known and declare that the Trustees, afore- 
said, at this first meeting after the filing of this their declaration in the 
Office of the Secretary of State, at Springfield, and in the Office of Re- 
corder of Deeds and Mortgages, in the county of McLean, aforesaid; ac- 
cording to the provisions of the Act of the General Assembly aforesaid, 
shall by lot divide themselves into three classes of Ten Trustees, each; 
that is to say a first class, being Ten of said Trustees, a Second class, 
being Ten other of said Trustees, and a third class, being Ten others 
of said Trustees, shall be one year from and after the day of such classifi- 
cation, and that the term of Office of said Second Class Trustees shall be 
two years from and after the day of such Classification, and that the term 
of Office of said Third class of Trustees shall be three years from and after 
the day of such Classification. 

And that at the expiration of the term of Office of any of said 
Classes, the remaining Trustees, then in Office, or a majority of them, 
shall elect Trustees equal in number to the outgoing Trustees, and who 
shall hold their office for three years, from and after their election and 
until their successors shall be elected and qualified. Provided always, that 
any person or persons who may have been or shall be a trustee of said 
Institution shall be eligible to re-election. And at the expiration of the 
term of Office of any ten of said trustees, the remaining Trustees in 
Office, or a majority of them, shall elect the same number as such out- 
going trustees, and all trustees so elected shall hold their Offices for 
three years from and after their election, and until their successors shall 
be elected. Provided, always, that if at any time a vacancy should occur 
in said board of Trustees by removal, death, resignation, or other cause 
of one or more of said trustees such vacancy or vacancies shall be supplied 
by the remaining board of Trustees or a majority of them appointing a 
person or persons to fill such vacancy or vacancies, Provided the person or 
persons so appointed to fill such vacancy or vacancies shall by such ap- 
pointment only hold said office for the unexpired term of the person or 
persons whose vacancy he or they were appointed to fill. And we hereby 
make known and declare that the said Trustees and their successors in 
office will from time to time make such by-laws not inconsistent with the 


constitution of this State, and of the United States, as we may deem neces- 
sary for the Government of said Institution of learning. 

James Miller, James Allin, John E. McClun, John Magoun, William C. 
Hobbs, Thomas Magee, Charles P. Merriman, Ezekiel Thomas, Thomas 
P. Rogers, Linus Graves, Peter Cartwright, James F. Jaquess, William J. 
Rutledge, Calvin W. Lewis, James Leaton, John Van Cleve, Silas Wat- 
ters, Isaac Funk, David Trimmer, John S. Barger, C. M. Holliday, W. D. 
R. Trotter, W. H. Allin, William Wallace, W. H. Holmes, J. W. Ewing, 
Lewis Bunn, Kersey H. Fell, Reuben Andrus have at the city of Bloom- 
ington, in the county of McLean and State of Illinois, on the Twenty- 
Third day of September A.D. One thousand eight hundred and fifty, 
hereto subscribed our names and affixed our seals. 

Peter Cartwright Wm. Wallace 

C. W. Lewis Chas. P. Merriman 

J. C. Finley James Miller 

John S. Barger William H. Holmes 

James Leaton Linus Graves 

John Van Cleve Thos. P. Rogers 

James F. Jaquess John W. Ewing 

Wm. J. Rutledge Lewis Bunn 

C. M. Holliday E. Thomas 

W. D. R. Trotter Isaac Funk 

W. H. Allin James Allin 

W. C. Hobbs D. Trimmer 

J. E. McClun Kersey H. Fell 

John Magoun Silas Watters 

Thomas Magee Reuben Andrus 

State of Illinois 1 

McLean CountyJ 

I, W. H. Allin, Clerk of the Circuit Court in and for the County 
aforesaid do certify that Peter Cartwright, C. W. Lewis, J. C. Finley, John 
S. Barger, James Leaton, John Van Cleve, James F. Jaquess, Wm. J. 
Rutledge, C. M. Holliday, W. D. R. Trotter, W. H. Allin, W. C. Hobbs, 
John E. McClun, John Magoun, Thomas Magee, Wm. Wallace, Chas. P. 
Merriman, James Miller, William H. Holmes, Linus Graves, Thos. P. 
Rogers, John W. Ewing, Lewis Bunn, E. Thomas, Isaac Funk, James 
Allin, D. Trimmer, Kersey H. Fell, Silas Watters, and Reuben Andrus 
who are the identical persons whose names appear subscribed to the writ- 
ten and foregoing instrument of writing appeared before me and acknowl- 
edged that they had signed the said instrument of writing freely and vol- 
untarily for the purposes therein expressed. 

Witness my hand and the Seal of Said Court at Bloomington 

the 3rd day of December A.D. 1850 

W. H. Allin Clerk 


Author's Note: The original manuscript of this document, consisting 
of six pages l l /i by 12 inches in size, is preserved in the Illinois Wesleyan 
archives. A close study of it reveals some curious facts. Internal evidence 
strongly indicates that it is in the handwriting of the scholarly James F. 
Jaquess. In giving the name of the institution he wrote it "Illinois Uni- 
versity" but later the word "Wesleyan" (in different handwriting) was 
inserted just above and between "Illinois" and "University." 

In the list of names (which appear three times in the body of the 
document) four names, besides those of the 30 signers, occur all three 
times but were subsequently crossed out. They were Peter Akers, John 
J. McGraw, John Moore and Wiley Renshaw. In the list of signers at 
the bottom of the document, Barger's name appears twice, the second 
time between the names of Miller and Holmes where it was subsequently 
crossed out. Some interesting variations in spelling several of the names 
also occur which reflects a common practice of that era. In the body 
of the document Holliday's name is spelled with only one "1" and Wal- 
ters' name with only one "t." In his certification William H. Allin also 
drops a "t" from Watters; writes Van Cleve's name as one word, "Van- 
cleve"; spells Jaquess' name "Jaques"; Magee's name as "Maghee" and 
Merriman as "Merryman." 


Illinois Wesleyan's "Magna Carta" 
(Presented by a committee composed of Charles P. Merriman, Dr. 
Ezekiel Thomas, and Rev. James C. Finley and adopted by the Board of 
Trustees at a meeting on December 18, 1850.) 


Article 1. This institution shall be known by the name of the Illi- 
nois Wesleyan University. 

Article 2. The object of this institution shall be to provide a sys- 
tem of education adapted to the wants of the country and based upon the 
system of religion and morality revealed in the scriptures. 

Article 3. The management of this institution shall be vested in a 
board of thirty Trustees, a majority of whom shall be members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and a board of visitors to be annually ap- 
pointed by the Illinois Annual Conference of the M.E. Church and such 
other annual conferences of said Church as may unite in the patronage and 
support of the Institution — each of such conferences having the power 
to appoint a board of nine visitors. 

Article 4. The officers of the board of Trustees shall consist of a 
President, a Vice President, a Recording Secretary, a Corresponding 


Secretary and a Treasurer, who shall be elected at the annual meeting and 
who shall each hold their office for one year and until their successors are 

Article 5. All elections shall be by ballot and a majority of all the 
votes given shall be necessary for a choice. 

Article 6. At all meetings of the board seven members shall con- 
stitute a quorum for the transaction of business, but a ten number may 
adjourn from time to time. 

Article 7. The joint boards of Trustees and Visitors shall hold an 
annual meeting on the Tuesday preceding the second Thursday in July 
of each year for the election of a board of instruction or filling any vacan- 
cies that may have occurred therein and for the transaction of such other 
business as may properly come before it. The board may likewise hold 
such other adjourned or called meetings as may be deemed necessary. 

Article 8. All vacancies which may have occurred either in the 
Board of Trustees or its officers or Board of Instruction may be filled at 
any constitutional meeting or said board — such pro tempore appointments 
to hold office until the annual meeting. 

Article 9. The Board of Trustees shall keep a regular journal of 
its official proceedings. 

Article 10. The Treasurer before entering on the duties of his 
office shall give bond with at least two securities to be approved by the 
board in the penal sum of ten thousand dollars for the faithful discharge 
of the duties of his office. 

Article 11. The Board of Trustees shall not incur pecuniary re- 
sponsibilities to the amount of more than twenty per cent of the capital 
actually in possession or of bona fide subscriptions. 

Article 12. This Constitution may be altered or amended at any 
annual meeting of the Board of Trustees by a majority of two thirds of 
all the members present, but at no other time. 


Charter of Illinois Wesleyan University 

An Act Entitled An Act Incorporating Illinois Wesleyan University 

Section I. Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illinois, represented 
in General Assembly, that James Allin, J. E. McClun, Linus 
Graves, Thomas P. Rogers, K. H. Fell, Ezekiel Thomas, 
W. H. Allin, Isaac Funk, John Moore, Jesse W. Fell, C. D. 
Incorpo- James, Silas Watters, C. P. Merriman, David Trimmer, John 
rators. Magoun, James Miller, John W. Ewing, Jesse Birch, A. 
Goddard, W. C. Hobbs, David Davis, Peter Cartwright, 



Name and 

Number of 

Section II. 
Section III. 


Section IV 

Term of 


John S. Barger and Henry Coleman, and their successors, 
be and are hereby created a body corporate and politic, by 
the name and style of "The Trustees of the Wesleyan Uni- 
versity," and by that style and name to remain and have 
perpetual succession. The university shall remain at or near 
the city of Bloomington, in the county of McLean, and the 
number of trustees shall not exceed twenty-four (24), ex- 
clusive of the president, principal or presiding officer of the 
college, who shall be, ex officio, a member of the Board of 
Trustees; Provided, however, that no other professor or 
instructor shall be a member of said board. For the pres- 
ent the aforesaid individuals shall constitute the Board of 

The object of said corporation shall be the promotion of the 
general interest of education, and to qualify young men to 
engage in the several employments and professions of so- 
ciety, and to discharge honorably and usefully the various 
duties of life. 

Said university shall be under the patronage of the Illinois 
Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
which shall have the privilege of annually appointing a visit- 
ing committee consisting of seven, who shall have a seat 
with the Board of Trustees in the transactions of business. 
And any other annual conference that shall unite in the 
patronage of said institution shall have the same privilege; 
Provided the whole number of visitors so appointed shall 
not exceed twelve; and provided, also, there shall be a 
quorum of the regular trustees exclusive of said visiting 
committee or committees, as the case may be, in all meet- 
ings of the Board of Trustees. 

Said trustees, at their first meeting, as provided for in the 
14th section of this act, shall, by lot, divide themselves into 
three classes of eight trustees each, and the term of office 
for the first, second and third classes shall be one, two and 
three years, respectively, after the day of such classification. 
At the expiration of the term of office of any of said 
classes, the remaining trustees then in office, or a majority 
of them, shall elect trustees equal in number to the outgoing 
trustees, and who shall hold their office for three years 
from and after their election, and until their successors shall 
be elected and qualified; Provided, always, that any person 
or persons who may have been or shall be a trustee of said 
institution shall be eligible to election if any vacancy shall 
occur in said Board of Trustees, by removal or death or re- 
fusal to act or resignation, said trustees shall have power, at 
any regular meeting of filling said vacancy by electing a 




Section VI. 

person or persons to serve out the unexpired term or terms, 
as the case may be. 
Section V. The corporate powers hereby bestowed shall be such only 
as shall be essential or useful in the attainment of the object 
hereinbefore specified, and such as are usually conferred on 
bodies corporate, to-wit, to have perpetual succession, to 
make contracts, to sue and to be sued, to plead and to be 
impleaded, to grant and receive by its corporate name, 
and to do all other acts as natural persons may; to accept 
and acquire, in all lawful ways to use, employ, manage and 
dispose of such property, and all moneys belonging to said 
corporation, in such manner as shall seem to the trustees 
best adapted to promote the objects aforesaid; to have a 
common seal, and to alter or change the same, and to make 
such by-laws as are not inconsistent with the constitution 
and laws of the United States and this state, and to confer 
on such persons as may be considered worthy such academ- 
ical or honorary degrees as are usually conferred by similar 

The trustees of said university shall have authority from 
time to time to prescribe and regulate the course of studies 
to be pursued in said university, and in the preparatory de- 
partment attached thereto; to fix the rate of tuition, 
room rent and other necessary expense; to appoint instruc- 
tors and such other officers and agents as may be needed 
in the management of the concerns of the institution, to 
define their powers, duties and employments, to fix their 
compensation, to displace or remove either of the instruc- 
tors, officers and agents, or all of them, as said trustees shall 
deem the interest of said University requires, to fill all va- 
cancies among said instructors, officers and agents, to erect 
necessary buildings, to purchase books, chemical and philo- 
sophical apparatus, and other suitable means of instruction, 
to put in operation if deemed advisable a system of manual 
labor for the purpose of promoting the health of the stu- 
dents and lessening the expenses of education, to make rules 
for general management of the affairs of the institution, and 
for the regulation and conduct of the students, and to add 
as the ability of the corporation may justify, and the interest 
of the community shall require, additional departments for 
the study of the sciences, as applied to agriculture and the 
arts, or of any or all of the liberal professions. 

If any trustee shall be chosen president of the university 
his former place as trustee shall be considered vacant and his 
place filled by the remaining trustees for the time being; 
shall have power to remove any trustee from office for any 



Section VII. 





Funds — 


dishonorable or criminal conduct; provided that no such 
removal shall take place without giving to such trustee 
notice of the charges exhibited against him, and an oppor- 
tunity offered him to defend himself before the board, nor 
unless two-thirds of the whole number of trustees for the 
time being shall concur in such removal. The trustees for the 
time being, in order to have perpetual succession, shall have 
power, as often as a trustee shall be removed from office, 
die, resign, refuse to act or remove out of the state, to ap- 
point a resident of this state to fill the vacancy in the Board 
of Trustees occasioned by such removal from office, death, 
refusal to act, resignation or removal from the state. 

Section VIII. The trustees shall faithfully apply all funds collected by 
them, according to the best of their judgment, in erecting 
suitable buildings, in supporting the necessary instructors, 
officers and agents, in procuring maps, charts, globes, philo- 
sophical, chemical and other apparatus necessary to and in 
the promotion of sound learning in the institution; provided 
that in case any donation, devise or bequest, shall be made 
for particular purposes accordant with the object of the 
institution, and the trustees shall accept the same, every 
such donation, devise or bequest shall be applied in con- 
formity with the express condition of the donors or de- 
visors; Provided, also, that lands so donated or devised 
shall be sold or disposed of as required by the eleventh 
section of this act. 

The treasurer of said university always, and all other agents 
when required by the trustees, before entering upon the 
duties of their appointments shall give bond respectively for 
the security of the corporation, in such penal sum, and with 
such securities as the Board of Trustees shall approve; and 
all process against such corporation shall be by summons, 
and the service of the same shall be by leaving an attested 
copy with the treasurer of the college at least thirty days 
before the return day thereof. 

Section X. The said university and its preparatory department shall be 
open to all denominations of Christians, and the profession 
of any particular religious faith shall not be required of 
those who become students. All persons, however, may be 
suspended or expelled from said institution whose habits are 
idle or vicious, or whose moral character is bad. 

Section XI. The lands, tenements and hereditaments to be held in per- 
petuity by virtue of this act by said institution, shall not 
exceed six hundred and forty acres; provided, however, that 
if the donations, grants or devises in land shall from time to 
time be made to said corporation over and above said six 

Section IX. 



to Give 


Open to 
All De- 


Real Es- hundred and forty acres which may be held in perpetuity, 
anc^Dona- t ^ ie same ma ^ ^ e rece i ye d an ^ held by said corporation for 
tions. the period of ten years from the date of every such dona- 
tion, grant or devise, at the end of which time, if the said 
lands over and above the six hundred and forty acres shall 
not have been sold, then and in that case the said lands so 
donated granted or devised shall revert to the donor, grantor 
or the heirs of the devisor of the same. 

Section XII. Eight trustees shall be sufficient to constitute a quorum for 
the transaction of business, and should there be at any time 
an insufficient number for a quorum they shall have power 
to adjourn from day to day, or for any longer period, until 
a quorum shall be had. It shall be lawful for the president of 
the Board, any three of the trustees, or a majority of the 
Quorum. professors of the institution for the time being, to call at 
any time a meeting of the Board of Trustees whenever he 
or they, as the case may be, may deem it expedient, by 
giving at least three days' notice of such meeting by per- 
sonal service or by publication in some newspaper published 
in the county. 

Section XIII. The acts and proceedings of the trustees of the Illinois 
Wesleyan University, heretofore had under the general law 
authorizing the incorporation of the institutions of learn- 
ing be, and the same are hereby legalized; and the indi- 
ActsLe- viduals designated in the first section of this act are hereby 
galized. constituted the successors to the board heretofore organized 
under said general law, and are authorized and required 
to take the full and entire management of all things per- 
taining to the future maintenance and support of said in- 

Section XIV. The first meeting of said trustees under this charter shall 
be held in Bloomington, on the first Wednesday in March 
next, or at any time thereafter on a day fixed or agreed 
First upon in the manner pointed out in the preceding section, 
Meeting. and all subsequent regular meetings of said Board shall be 
held at such stated periods as said trustees, in their discre- 
tion, may from time to time by their by-laws and regula- 
tions determine. 

Section XV. This act shall be deemed a public act, and shall be in force 
from and after its passage. 

Approved February 12, 1853. 


An Act to Amend an Act Entitled an Act to Incorporate the Illinois 
Wesley an University, Approved February 12, 1853. 

Section I. Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illinois represented 
in General Assembly, that the first section of the Act en- 
titled An Act to Incorporate the Illinois Wesleyan Univer- 
Body Cor- sity, approved February 12, 1853, be so amended that the 
porate. trustees therein named and their successors in office, shall be 
a body corporate and politic by the name and style of "The 
Trustees of the Illinois Wesleyan University." 
Section II. Be it further enacted that sections third and fourth of said 
act be so amended that said university shall be under the 
patronage of the Illinois and Peoria (now Central Illinois) 
Election Annual Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
Trustees and such other annual conferences of said church as shall 
b y hereafter unite in the patronage of said university; and that 

the trustees of said university shall hereafter be elected 
Nomina- by said conferences electing an equal number of trustees; 
tion of anc J that the joint visiting committee appointed by said con- 
President. f erences s h a n h ave the right to nominate the president of 
said university, but no vote in his election. 
Section III. So much of said act of February 12, 1853 as conflicts with 

this act is hereby repealed. 
Section IV. This act to take effect and be in force from and after its 

Approved January 30, 1851. 

Authofs Note: It will be noticed that the names of 1 3 of the Found- 
ing Fathers are missing from this list of incorporators of Illinois Wes- 
leyan. They are: Andrus, Bunn, Finley, Holliday, Holmes, Jaquess, 
Leaton, Lewis, Magee, Rutledge, Trotter, Van Cleve and Wallace. Still 
present are 17 of the original group: James and William H. Allin, Barger, 
Cartwright, Ewing, Kersey H. Fell, Funk, Graves, Hobbs, Magoun, 
McClun, Merriman, Miller, Rogers, Thomas, Trimmer and Watters. Un- 
der the articles of incorporation the Wesleyan trustees now numbered 24 
instead of 30. The seven new names are Jesse W. Fell, Colin D. James 
and John Moore, who were elected to the board in 1851; Henry Coleman 
and Abbott Goddard who were elected in 1852; Jesse Birch who became 
a trustee in 1853 and served until his death in 1875. These 24 are listed 
as the "founders" of Wesleyan on the memorial gates at the west entrance 
to the campus. Due, perhaps, to the fact that the list was taken from the 
text of the articles of incorporation as given in Wilder, op. cit., there are 
errors in three of the names. Kersey H. Fell appears as "H.H. Fell," 
Thomas P. Rogers as "Thomas O. Rogers" and John Moore as "John 



The Illinois Wesleyan Campus 

After several changes in plans for the location of Illinois Wesleyan, 
it was finally established on its present site as the result of these 


This agreement made this Seventh day, August A.D. 1854 between 
F. K. Phoenix of the City of Bloomington and State of Illinois, party of 
the first part; and the Board of Trustees of the Illinois Wesleyan Univer- 
sity located at or near the said City of Bloomington and incorporated by 
Special Act of the Legislature of the State of Illinois entitled an Act to 
Incorporate the Illinois Wesleyan University approved Febry. 12th, 
1853, of the second part; WITNESSETH: 

That the said party of the first part does sell and convey to the said 
Board of Trustees a certain ten acre lot of his land near the said City of 
Bloomington for and in consideration of the following agreements and 
covenants and the sum of two thousand dollars, the receipt whereof is 
hereby acknowledged. One thousand of said purchase money being how- 
ever still unpaid to said Phoenix, a note due with interest June 24th, 1855, 
is given therefore by said Trustees to the said Phoenix. 

Said Phoenix hereby reserves the nursery trees on said lot and the full 
use of the ground necessary for their cultivation for four years from May 
the 1st next, also the rails, posts, fence and personal property belonging 
to said Phoenix on said lot and the privilege of removing the same at any 
time within one year. 

Said Phoenix also reserves one hundred locust trees suitable for trans- 
planting out of the grove on said lot and the privilege of removing them 
within one year, said trees to be selected by said trustees. 

Said Phoenix also reserves the right to a strip forty feet in width or 
the half of a public street eighty feet in width on the outside border of 
said lot and all around it to be opened and used as a street when said 
Phoenix or his heirs or assigns may desire them opened or at any time after 
May 1st, 1859 when said Trustees may desire, one year notice of said 
opening being given by said Trustees to said Phoenix his heirs and assigns. 

Said Phoenix hereby binds himself, his heirs and assigns to open the 
other half of said streets eighty feet wide from off his own land on the 
East and West sides of said college lot at any time after May 1st, 1859, due 
notice of one year being given as above. 

Said Phoenix also agrees to allow said Trustees the right to ingress and 
egress of Main Street in Said City of Bloomington along the south side of 
his land to the said lot. 


Said Trustees hereby agree to fence the Nort and South sides of 
said lot wherever streets on either side are opened by said Phoenix or by 
him in conjunction with James S. Major or Wm. H. Allin. 

F. K. Phoenix 

Thos. P. Rogers, Pres. of the Board 
W. Goodfellow, Secretary 

Author's Note: The last of the locust trees mentioned above was still 
standing until the fall of 1948 when the tree, which was then more than 
100 years old, became so badly decayed that it had to be removed. It 
was cut into uniform lengths for fuel and several members of the Wes- 
ley an faculty burned its wood in their fireplaces that winter. Argus, 
February 9, 1949. 


Illinois Wesleyan Advertises for Students 
(Following is the text of the circular reproduced opposite page 28. A 
thousand of these circulars were printed early in 1851 to "set forth the 
fact that the school is now in operation, the branches taught, terms of 
tuition etc." See Chapter 3. The copy for this advertisement was probably 
written by Barger.) 


Illinois Wesleyan University 

The undersigned, a committee appointed by the board of Trustees of 
Illinois Wesleyan University in the city of Bloomington, to address the 
people more immediately interested in the success of this educational 
enterprise, would most respectfully invite attention to the following 
facts and considerations: 

This is an age of improvement. Great improvements of lasting im- 
portance are being made in almost everything! The rapid advance of 
science under the sanctifying power of Christianity is constantly develop- 
ing latent and important principles, the application of which, to the 
various purposes of life, is destined so to elevate society and the world 
in which the scale of intellectual being, and of moral and religious 
excellence that man shall vie with angels, and earth resemble heaven. 

It is the duty and interest of every parent and guardian, as it is the 
safety and glory of the Church and State to provide for the education of 
the rising generation. 


It is the certain way to usefulness and happiness, to honor, wealth and 
influence in the world, and to final blessedness in Heaven, for the youth 
of the land to secure a christian liberal education, and building upon a 
christian foundation, erect for themselves "a tower whose top," trans- 
cending the skies, shall reach to heaven, remembering that "wisdom is 
more precious than rubies, and that the merchandize of understanding is 
better than the merchandize of silver and the gain thereof than fine gold." 

The friends of education in the city of Bloomington and the vicinity, 
and the Illinois Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, have 
united in the attempt to erect the Illinois Wesleyan University in the city 
of Bloomington the preparatory department of which has been in suc- 
cessful operation for more than six months. 

The Institution has been exceedingly fortunate in obtaining the very 
efficient services of Rev. Reuben Andrus, A.B., a regular graduate of 
McKendree College, and one of her brightest and most valued sons, and 
whom, whether in the pulpit or in the halls of science, his Alma Mater 
will never blush to own. Under the skillful and vigilant superintendence 
of Mr. Andrus, the young men committed to his care and instructions, 
have made rapid advancement in their studies. And the christian, gentle- 
manly, courteous and kindly intercourse of the teacher with his students, 
has gained for him a seat in their affections, which at once secures good 
behavior, and success in study. 

The Trustees have resolved to elect at their first meeting in July, a 
competent College Faculty, who will be prepared to meet the demand for 
instructions in the College course at the opening of the Fall Session. The 
corresponding Secretary has been instructed to open immediately a 
correspondence with a number of gentlemen eminently qualified for pro- 
fessorships in the Institution, from whom the selection will be made. 

The Trustees have the use of commodious rooms in the basement 
of the new church edifice, which will answer all the necessary purposes 
of the Institution until College buildings shall be provided. 

Bloomington is a remarkably healthy situation — perhaps none more so 
in the west. — And its intellectual, moral and religious state of society, will 
vie with that of any other place in the State. 

Students can obtain boarding at private houses, including fuel, lights, 
bed and bedding at two dollars per week. Boarding alone may be obtained 
at from $1,25 to $1,50 per week. Students may board themselves in their 
own rooms, it is presumed, at from 50 to 80 cents per week. The Trustees 
hope they will be able, at the opening of the Fall and Winter session, to 
furnish rooms at a reasonable rent, to students who may wish to board 
themselves. Washing at 50 cents per dozen. Fuel $1,50 per cord. 

The committee having presented these facts for the general informa- 
tion, would say, especially to parents and guardians of the youth of the 
country, and to young gentlemen who would be pleased to obtain a lib- 
eral education, that the Trustees had greatly desired to send out a traveling 
agent through middle Illinois to visit you in your various neighborhoods 


and at your homes, and by public addresses, and private communications, 
lay before you the claims of education and of the contemplated Uni- 
versity now rising up in our midst — and inform the public more gen- 
erally of the existence and capabilities of this Institution, and engage 
students for the fall and winter sessions; but failing to obtain a suitable 
agent for this purpose, the Trustees resolved to address you by means of 
this Circular. The committee has endeavored by the foregoing state- 
ment of facts to anticipate and answer all the important inquiries, which 
it is presumed might arise, or would have been proposed to such an agent, 
and in his stead would urge upon all interested, some of those numerous 
and commanding claims. 

Our beloved sons, who, in a few swift years, are to fill our places 
in all of the relations of society and business of the world, claim an 
education at our hands, that they may act well their part on the stage 
of life and thus command the respect of the world, and secure the 
blessedness for which they are designed by their Creator. 

The great interests of our beloved country demand that our children 
should be educated. The agricultural, manufacturing, commercial, pro- 
fessional, civil and religious interests most unequivocally demand it at the 
hands of parents — of the State, and of the Church. And there is no dis- 
charge from the obligation only by prompt, persevering and untiring at- 
tention to it according to opportunity and ability. 

But such are the educational facilities of the country — the low price 
of tuition and the great demand for labor in all departments of life, that 
any young man of energy, economy, perseverance and mind, may, by his 
own industry and resolution, work himself into an education; and rise to 
honor and distinction and usefulness and happiness among his fellow men. 
How many of the greatest Statesmen of the country, and ablest Divines 
of the Church, have thus succeeded by their own noble efforts to make 
themselves scholars and men. Let every young man in Illinois, em- 
boldened by such illustrious examples of success, and emulating their 
praiseworthy efforts, "go and do likewise." 

We invite the young men of the city, and surrounding towns, villages 
and country to our institution of learning, where they may lay the 
foundations of greatness and goodness, prepare for a useful and happy 
career through life. We urge it upon parents, to send us their sons, and 
qualify them for the business, social and religious relations of life. — Better 
forego their help upon your farms, and in your shops, and hire the neces- 
sary labor in which you now have them employed, and bear the expense 
of their education, than when you leave the world, leave them unedu- 
cated and unqualified to manage your estates, or accomplish your incom- 
plete plans and purposes of life. Better that you should spend the half of 
your estates in giving them a good education, that they may the more 
advantageously manage the other when you are gone, than now to 
double those estates by their unremitted labors to the neglect of their 
education; and die and leave them in a condition to scatter to the four 



winds all of your possessions, in a much shorter time perhaps than you 
employed in collecting them. True our sons should be taught to labor in 
some way — on the farm, or at a trade. The scientific, erudite Saul of 
Tartus (sic) was "by occupation a tent-maker." But let the physical 
training and intellectual and moral culture of our sons be so directed as 
to give strength, health and vigor to the entire nature, and qualify them 
for the allotments of Providence and the contingencies of life. 

By our patronage to Illinois Wesleyan University we not only bestow 
upon those we send to her halls of science the inestimable boon of a 
sanctified education; but we aid in erecting an Institution of Learning, 
which shall shed brightness on all the land around, and send down floods 
of light and blessedness upon generations yet to come. 


Mr. Wm. C. Hobbs, President. 

Mr. James Allin, Vice President. 

Mr. Charles P. Merriman, Recording Secretary. 

Rev. Reuben Andrus, Corresponding Secretary. 

Mr. John E. McClun, Treasurer. 


Rev. Wm. J. Rutledge. 
Rev. James Laeton. 
Rev. Thos. P. Rodgers. 
Wm. H. Allin, Esq. 
Rev. John Vancleave. 
Rev. John S. Barger. 
Rev. Peter Cartwright. 
James Allin, Esq. 
Wm. C. Hobbs, Esq. 
Silas Waters, Esq. 
C. P. Merriman, Esq. 
Rev. C. M. Holliday. 
John Magoun, Esq. 
James Miller, Esq. 

K. H. Fell, Esq. 
Rev. James F. Jaquess. 
Rev. Linas Graves. 
Hon. J. E. McClun. 
Lewis Bunn, Esq. 
John W. Ewing, Esq. 
William Wallace, Esq. 
Rev. Calvin Lewis. 
Rev. Reuben Andrus. 
Isaac Funk, Esq. 
Rev. James C. Finley. 
Rev. W. D. R. Trotter. 
Rev. David Trimmer. 
Wm. H. Holmes, Esq. 

P. Cartwright, D.D. 
J. C. Rucker 
J. S. Barger 


W. J. Newman 

W. D. R. Trotter, A.M. 




of names enrolled during the last term. 

Wm. Mckendree Barger. 
Duncan Wallace. 
James Ewing. 
Richard Newman. 
Theopolus Wilson. 
Henry Jacoby. 
Alfred Davidson. 
John Monson. 
James Mclntire. 
Wm. Gridley. 
Wm. Finley. 
Robert N. Barger. 
Wharton Laramore. 
John Ewing. 
James Hodge. 
Wm. Pancake. 
Lemuel Rea. 
Peter B. Price. 
John S. McClun. 
Millard Lilly. 
John R. Stone. 
Abram Robinson. 

John Miller. 
Dan'l Doughty. 
Wm. Brooks. 
Samuel Moore. 
Thos. J. Noble. 
Lee Smith. 
John Jackson. 
David Freeman. 
Jas. S. Randolph. 
N. S. Krone. 
James Miller. 
Henry Doughty. 
John B. Perry. 
Jabey H. Denman. 
George Kinnear. 
Thos. Lovery. 
Edward Walker. 
Edward Flagg. 
Oscar Butler. 
Henry Thompson. 
John Dawson. 

James E. Miller 
Fletcher Wilson 
Thomas Mason 
Archiband Steward 
John H. Loehr 

clssical. (sic) 

Edward Fell 
John Humphry 
John Price 
Richard Lander 
John B. Barger 


Scientific Preparatory, $1,00 

Classical 5,00 

Scientific Proper 6,00 

Classical " 6,00 


The annual meeting of the Board of Trustees will be on the Tuesday 
preceding the 2d Thursday in July. Commencement on the 2d Thursday 
in July. The Institution will open on Thursday, October the 2d, 1851. 

John S. Barger 
W. C. Hobbs 
C. P. Merriman 

P.S. Since the writing of the Circular, the Board of Trustees have elected 
Rev. Wm. Goodfellow, Professor of Natural Science; Rev. Reuben 
Andrus, Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy; and Rev. 
Erastus Wentworth, D.D. of Dickinson College, President. The two, 
first mentioned, have accepted. And it is strongly hoped that Dr. 
Wentworth will accept. 

Author's Note : Through error on the part of either the man who 
wrote this circular or the printer who set it in type the names of Leaton, 
Rogers, Van Cleve, Watters and Graves are misspelled. The spelling of 
some of the students' names is also doubtful. 


Abbott, J. S. C, 79 

Abrell, Don, 245 

Academy of Science, 246 

Adams, Charles C, 230 

Adams, William C, 67, 209 

Adams William H. H., 114-120, 163, 203, 

220, 228 
Adelphia Literary Society, 38 
Adelphic Society, 119 
Agnew, W. D., 141 
Aiken, J. J., 90 

Akers, Peter, xviii, 14, 15, 17, 19, 53 
Albert University, 113 
Albion College, 148 
Aldrich, Orlando W., 73, 214, 225 
Allen, Rhodes C, 90, 93, 94, 216, 219 
Allin, James, xv, 8, 9, 20, 21, 24, 28, 32, 

34, 45, 54, 188, 190, 194, 195, 198, 201, 

Allin, Mrs. James, 78 
Allin, William H., 20, 32, 194, 198, 201, 

Alpha Epsilon Delta, 246 
Alpha Gamma Delta, 148 
Alumni Journal, 102, 104, 105, 108, 110, 

112, 117, 119 
Amateurean Society, 125 
American Association of University 

Women, 171 
American Council on Education, 172 
American Red Cross, 149, 150, 151, 246 
American School of Classical Studies, 

Amherst College, 225 
Amie Chapel, 104, 112, 149, 150, 167, 173, 

Anderson, Don, 245 
Anderson, William F., 156 
Andrus, Reuben, 16, 17, 31, 32, 35, 36, 

40, 53, 104, 164, 192, 193, 196, 198 
Anna, George, 150 
Apollo Club, 160 
Argus, 25; 130, 131, 147-150, 158, 159, 

161, 163, 167, 172-174, 176, 177, 179 
Arrowsmith, William A., 208 
Art Club, 246 
Asbury, Francis, xvii 
Association of American Universities, 

157, 158, 168, 171 
Athenian, 125 

Atherton, Charles B., 78, 213, 214 
Auer, Melchior, 73, 78, 222 
Augusta College, xvii, 19, 193 
Augustana College, 182 
Austin, F. M., 140, 238 

Avenger, 124 

Ayers, H. M., 68, 209 

Bach, William J., 176 

Bach, William R., 176 

Baker, B. W., 121 

Baker, Bishop James C, 186 

Banta, Andrew J., 78, 213 

Banta, William E., 69 

Barger, James Hugh, 46, 66, 67, 200, 208 

Barger, John S., 6-12, 17, 19, 34-36, 50, 

53, 70, 100, 190 
Barger, Richard W., 73, 223 
Barnes, Francis G., 139-143, 144, 236 
Barnes, Louisa L., 2 
Barnes, William E., 224 
Baron, Annette and Idelette, 151 
Barr,T. J., 209 
Barthlow, Emory C, 210 
Barthlow, James, 210 
Barton, George W., 208, 210 
Bateman, Newton, 110 
Baumann, J. V. W., 68, 208, 209 
Beadles, William T., 171, 173 
Bee, 119 

Beggs, Abram E., 214 
Behr, C. A., 122 
Bell, Harry M., 169 
Belles Lettres Society, organized, 62; 65, 

68, 71, 102, 104, 119, 125, 208, 230 
Benjamin, Martha, 110, 223 
Benjamin, Mary C. 223 
Benjamin, Reuben M., 109, 122, 225, 231, 

Bentley, Earl, 147 
Benton, Thomas H., 2 
Best, Lyle, 150 
Beta Kappa, 159 
Beveridge, John L., 110 
Bi-Conference Commission, 154 
Bible Monument, 167 
Birch, Henry C, 222 
Birch, Jesse, 38, 98 
Bishop, Francis Marion, 73, 78, 84, 95, 

111, 210, 211, 220, 222 
Bishop, P. W., 41, 199 
Bishop, W. H., 90 
Black Bookmen, 160 
Black, John C, 199 
Blackstock, Mrs. Mary Hardtner, 166, 

181, 183, 244 
Blackstock Hall, 166, 177 
Blackwell, William R., 214 
Blair, Francis G., 154, 237 
Blair, McKendree M., 186 
Blooming Grove, xiv, 20 




Bloomington Association of Commerce, 

153, 154, 158, 167, 172, 237, 240 

Commercial Club, 146 

Conservatory of Music, 103, 123 

Consistory, 155, 186 

Daily Leader, 105, 233 

East Charge Church, 19, 57 

Female Academy, 5, 6, 18, 189 

Intelligencer, 40, 41, 46, 49 

Library Association, 220 

Methodist Church, 7, 36, 42, 47, 71, 77 

Grace M.E. Church, 144, 174, 236 

Observer and McLean Co. Advocate, 
20, 188 

Passion Play, 123 
Blue Key, 246 

Bohrer, Mrs. Florence Fifer, 217, 248 
Boggess, J. W., 209 
Bolin, Howard, 150 
Bonney, C. C, 47 
Booth, John Wilkes, 72 
Booth, William H., 224 
Borsch, Reuben A., 161 
Boston University, 163 
Bowen, Archie, 232 
Boyd, Henry W., 67, 209, 225 
Boyle, Mrs. Walter A., 216, 219, 220 
Bradley University, 149 
Brewer, Melvin, 177, 244 
Brier, Robert, 210 
Bristol, Frank, 125 
Brokaw, Abraham, 196 
Brokaw Hospital, 157, 175 
Brooks, Rhynaldo J., 214 
Brooks, Wiley G., 168, 169, 242 
Brown, A. H., 6 
Brown, Alice, 223 
Brown, Harold, 245 
Browne, Kenneth A., 185 
Browns, Ralph E., 186, 225 
Brownson Club, 246 
Buck, Hiram, 57, 120, 121, 134, 204, 229 
Buck, Mrs. Martha, 154, 229 
Buck Memorial Library, 154, 204, 243 
Bunn and Ellsworth, 27 
Bunn, Lewis, 27, 196, 198 
Bunn, Thomas J., 196 
Buntline, Ned, 2 
Bureau of American Ethnology, 85, 220, 

226, 249 
Burkholder, Flora, 223 
Burlington Junior College, 168 
Burnham, J. H., 198, 201 
Burrill, T. J., 85 
Byerly, Alexander C, 223. 
Byers, William N., 91, 92, 94, 217 

Caldwell, David, 214 

California Christian Advocate, 72 

Camera Club, 246 

Capen, Charles L., 152, 238, 194 

Carbutt, John, 248 

Carl, Glenn W., 245 

Carleton College, 186, 235 

Carnegie Foundation, 143, 145 

Carnine, A. G., 166, 167 

Cartwright, Clarence E., 161 

Cartwright, Maria, 15 

Cartwright, Peter, xvi, xviii, 7, 12-15, 17, 

19-21, 24, 25, 57, 190, 193, 196 
Casad, Amanda K. Foundation, 239 
Cazenovia Seminary, 195 
Center College, 197 
Central Christian Advocate, 15, 111 
Central Female Institute, 46, 47, 49, 52, 

53, 189 
Centre Hall, 59, 205-207 
Chaddock College, 110, 118, 122, 155, 188, 

Chen, Bishop W. Y., 176 
Chicago Academy of Science, 84 
Chicago Journal, 92 
Chicago Medical College, 210 
Chicago Tribune, 89, 232 
Chicago University, 111 
Christ, P. A., 98 
Church, H. A., 161 
Clark, James, 2 
Clark, Joseph, 245 
Clark, Hyre D., 231, 240 
Clay, Cassius M., 48 
Cleveland, President Grover, 197 
Coke, Thomas, xvii 
Cokesbury College, xvii 
Coldwell, J. D., 130 
Cole, Joseph, 214 
Coler, W. N., 104 
Colfax, Schuyler, 112 
College Conference of Illinois, 185 
College Hall, 52, 203 
Collegiate Institute, 73 
Collegio Metodista, 242 
Collins, Tohn, 245 
Collins, W. T., 68, 208, 209 
Columbia University, 126, 168, 242 
Conant, James Bryant, xiii 
Connecticut Wesleyan, 130, 204, 233 
Coultas, Thomas I., Ill, 112, 113 
Cowling, Donald J., 186 
Crabtree, Nate, 164 
Craig, Charles C, 126, 232 
Craig, William B., 244 
Cramp, Charles, 118, 120 
Cramp, Mrs. Henrietta, 122, 134, 229 
Crews, Richard, 235 
Crockett, Davy, 2 
Crockett, Tohn W., 2 
Crook, William, 81 
Cross, J. George, 228 
Crow, George R., 109 
Crum, George W, 224 
Crumbaker, Marion V., 73 
Cummings, A. W., 7 
Cummings, J. S., 98 
Cusey, Mrs. S. C, 235 
Cuthbert, Kenneth N., 185, 246 



Dagenhart, Mrs. Sarah A., 249 
Dakota Wesleyan University, 183 
Daniels, W. H., 73, 89, 91, 217 
Darrah, Delmar D., 123, 127, 148, 231 
Darrah, William Culp, 215, 216, 219, 220, 

226, 249 
Davidson, Sarah, 223 
Davidson, Stamper Q., 78, 214 
Davidson, William J., 115-162, 168, 203, 

240, 241 
Davies, Alexander H., 224 
Davis, David, 45, 64, 72, 113, 189, 194, 

200, 201, 211 
Davis, Mrs. David, 78 
Davis, Jefferson, 192 
Davison, James W., 155 
Dawson, John W., xvi 
Dean, Helen M, 235 
Deaver, Hobart W., 245 
DeBlumenthal, Mrs. Vera, 129 
Deininger, William A., 60 
Dellenbaugh, Frederick S., 220 
Delta Omicron, 159 
DeMotte, Harvey C, 65-69, 71, 73, 77, 81, 

82, 96, 100, 106, 110, 111, 116, 119, 129, 

132, 136, 208, 220, 223, 226, 233, 234, 237 
DeMotte, Mrs. H. C. (nee Kern), 81, 235 
DeMotte Lodge, 181 
Dempster, John, 40, 43, 47, 51, 200, 202, 

Denman, Luella, 122, 231 
Denning, Benton Valentine, 73, 214 
Denning, John Wesley, 73, 80, 223 
DePauw University, 193, 226, 236, 248 

(see also Indiana Asbury University) 
Dickinson, Asahel F., 227 
Dickinson College, 34 
Dickinson, John T., 159 
Dickinson, John T. Ill, 164 
Dixon, J. H., 210 
Doane College, 185 
Dodge, Charles E., 3, 6, 8, 189 
Dolan, Ned E., 152, 172, 181, 182, 186 
Doocey, Elmer T., 150 
Dooley, Raymond, 246 
Dougherty, Lewis, 231 
Douglas, Stephen A., 24, 28, 48, 60 
Douglass, Frederick, 79 
Dragoo, Alva W., 215 
Drake University, 175, 246 
DuChaillu, Paul, 79 
Dunham, Leland, 160 
Dunham, W. C, 148 
Dunn, William, 95, 216 
Durley, Lyle H., 90, 93, 94, 216, 220, 249 
Durley, W. Mark, 216, 249 
Duration Hall, 77, 177 
Dyckes, William J., 214 
Dysant, John, 186 

Eagan, Gerald, 245 
Ebenezer Labor School, xviii 

Echo, 125, 232 

Eddy, H. J., 72 

Edwards, Ninian, 47, 48 

Edwards, Richard, 79, 88, 110, 129 

Egas, 246 

Eighth Judicial Circuit, 23, 45 

Elite Journal, 125 

Elliott, J. Norman, 148, 161 

Ellis, F. M., 72 

Ellsworth, Eunice, 196 

Ellsworth, Oliver 27, 196 

Elrod, M. J., 122, 129, 230, 231 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 79, 213 

English Coffee Club, 160 

Enoch, C. D., 131 

Episcopoi, 246 

Ep worth Seminary, 139 

Evans, J. G., 223 

Evans, William, 34 

Ewalt, Paul, 245 

Ewing, Mrs. Charles A., 249 

Ewing, F. N., 189, 197 

Ewin, James S., 31, 194 

Ewing, John W., 5, 27, 195, 197, 198 

Eyer, Mrs. Lloyd, 248 

Fairchild, William C, 210 

Fallows, Samuel J., 104-114, 141, 183, 225, 

Farrell, Ned E., 92, 217 
Fee, Roger W., 246 
Fell, Edwin, 31, 197 
Fell, Jesse W., 23, 39, 45, 64, 188, 189, 

194, 197, 199, 200, 211 
Fell, Kersey H., 2, 23, 34, 39, 40, 64, 194 

197, 198 
Ferguson, Wilbert T., 122, 130, 155, 159, 

168, 169, 176, 239, 243 
Ferguson, Constance, 243 
Ferrell, Hortense E., 249 
Fiderlick, James J., 156 
Fieker, Theodore, 147 
Fifer, George H., 66 
Fifer, Joseph W. ("Private Joe") 66, 105, 

132, 141, 151, 152, 214 
Fifer, Mrs. Joseph (Gertrude Lewis) 

217, 218 
Fillmore, Millard, 48 
Fink, Mike, 14, 191 
Finley, Esther, 101 
Finley, James C, 10, 18, 24, 32, 189, 193, 

Flagg and Ewinsr, 1, 31, 195 
Flagg, William F., 27, 201 
Flesher, Wilfred, 245 
Folk, Robert, 243, 245 
Forbes, Stephen A., 220 
Forensic Club, 160 
Foster, B., 42 
Foster, Lemuel, 4 
Fox, George J., 176, 245 
Freer, Jim, 245 
Freeze, J. R., 47, 52, 203 



Fry, Mrs. Sue M. D., 118, 122 

Fullenwider, I. A., 230 

Fullenwider, Marcus L, 223 

Funk, Absalom, 24, 209, 210 

Funk, Dwight, 127, 142, 230, 233 

Funk, Isaac, 24, 25, 26, 76, 80, 195, 196, 

Funk, Jesse, 189 
Funk, Sarah, 189 

Gamma Upsilon, 246 

Gardner, Peter C, 243, 245 

Garman, Samuel M., 90, 92, 94, 217, 219 

Garner, Delmar, 240 

Garrett Biblical Institute, 114, 155, 156, 

183, 202, 203, 214, 236, 242, 248 
Garrett, Mrs. Eliza, 202 
Gathe, 246 
Gentle, John T., 230 
Giddings, Joshua R., 48 
Gilbert and Fay, 115 
Gillan, J. M., 228 
Glenn, Joseph A., 211 
Godfrey, Mrs. 235 
Godman, William D., 40, 43, 44, 200 
Goode, Mrs. Ida Haslup, 180 
Goodfellow, William, 34, 36, 38, 39, 40, 

41, 43, 46, 47, 52, 53, 203 
Goodwin, T. A., 44, 77, 80, 81 
Gough, John B., 79 
Graff, Helen C, 204 
Graham, Robert O., 124, 128, 130, 234 
Grand Prairie Seminary, 139 
Grant, U. S., 71, 84 
Graves, Alice, 223 
Graves, Emory C, 141 
Graves, Kate, 227 
Graves, Linus, 9, 23, 39, 41, 44, 45, 194, 

Graves, Oliver, 23 
Graves, Story and Co., 194 
Graves, Virginia F., 194 
Graves, Walter H., 95, 110, 227 
Graves, William F., 223 
Gray, G. W., 99 
Gray, John R., 123, 245 
Greek Oracle, 125 
Green, Calvin W., 123, 132, 240 
Green Medallion, 246 
Green, Spencer, 246 
Greiner, Vergne, 150 
Gridley, Asahel, 26, 188, 190 
Gridley and Covel, 23 
Guild, Cliff, 145, 168, 234, 236 
Gulick, Mrs. Anna, 186, 244 
Gulick Hall, 177 
Gunther, Charles F., 207 
Guthrie, Adam, 248 
Guthrie, Sidney A., 248 

Hamill, J. S., 82 
Hamlin, Bishop, 14 
Haines, Margery, 196 
Hamline University, 139 

Hamilton, Edward W., 74 

Hancher, John W., 154 

Hancher Organization, 161 

Hanna, Mrs. L. D., (Luella Denman) 231 

Hargrave, Kathleen, 238 

Harpole, Alice, 235 

Harris, David M., 214 

Harrison, J. B., 39, 88 

Harrison, Peachy, 192 

Harvard University, 127, 139, 164, 183, 

219, 225, 242 
Hartzell, Joseph C, 80, 84-86, 88, 130, 

132, 152, 214, 215 
Hartzell, J. Culver, 132 
Haskell, Henry L. S., 6, 8, 189, 190 
Hastings, Larry, 245 
Hastings, W. C, 210 
Havens, Jesse, 28 
Hawks, J. K. P., 182 
Hayden, Virginia Frances, 23 
Hayes and Evans, 82, 99, 223 
Hazenwinkle, Charles A. (Carl Haswin), 

Healey, J. W., 91 
Heap, Don, 169, 244 
Hedding College, 73, 110, 159, 164, 222 
Hefner, Joseph A., 210 
Heiberger, Mrs., 235 
Hendrix, John, xvi, 20 
Henninger, John W., 146 
Henrietta Hall, 118, 121 
Henry, Delia, 101, 113 
Hersey, Lynn E., 156 
Hewitt, C. E., 100 
Higgins, A. C, 97 
Hiles, Lee, 147 
Hill, Gus A., 213 
Hill, William, 188 
Hillers, John K., 226, 249 
Hinzey, John, 72 
Hobbs, William C, 8, 9, 20-22, 25, 32, 44, 

194, 198 
Hoblit, James T., 71, 210 
Hodge, William H., xvi 
Hoffman, Jesse, 152 
Holbert, John H., 211 
Holder, C. W., 76, 79, 116, 223 
Holder, Dan, 235 
Holder, lames W., 224 
Holder, Richard H., 64, 65 
Holdsworth, Dean, 245 
Holliday, Charles, 19 
Holliday, Charles M., 7, 19, 193, 198 
Holmes, Charles B., 208 
Holmes, Mabel, 248 
Holmes, Merrill J., 170, 174, 180, 182, 

183-187, 203, 242, 243 
Holmes, William H., 1, 2, 23, 24, 195, 198 
Hoose, Oscar, 182 
Hoots, Sanford, 136 
Hoover, Mary Piatt, 200, 201, 203, 204 
Horenberger, Jack, 244 
Howe, Van F., 244 
Howell, James, 245 



Howell, H. N, 67 
Howland, O. G., 94, 95, 217, 219 
Howland, Seneca, 95, 217 
Humphrey, Mrs. C. Kenneth, 248 
Humphreys, Mrs. Howard, 235 
Huse, S. H., 85 

Illinois College, 16, 111 

Illinois College Athletic Conference, or- 
ganized, 142; 244 

Illinois Collegiate Association, 148 

Illinois Conference Female Academy, 
xix, 15-17 76, 97, 98, 101 (see also 
MacMurray College for Women) 

Illinois Industrial University, 47, 84, 111 
(see also University of Illinois) 

Illinois Inter-Collegiate Athletic Confer- 
ence, 147 (see also "Little 19") 

Illinois Inter-Collegiate Debating League, 
organized, 148; 160 

Illinois State Agricultural College, 18 

Illinois State Board of Education, 79, 80, 
84, 88, 90, 91 

Illinois State Natural History Society, 
79, 88, 94, 209 

Illinois State Normal University, 48, 79, 
83, 88, 90, 110, 126, 129, 141, 174, 175, 
202, 209, 215, 217, 221, 226, 230 

Illinois Wesleyan University 
Alumni association organized, 68, 240 
Art Center, 177, 244 

Baseball, 83, 126, 127, 147, 148, 160, 
161, 214, 215, 226, 232, 233 

Basketball, 127, 128, 147, 148, 161, 
185, 244, 249 

Football, 126, 127, 131, 142, 147-149, 
161, 232, 240, 244, 249 

Tennis, 127 

Track, 127, 128, 142, 147, 244 
Charter, drafted, 45-46; amended, 57 
Commencement, first, 46 
Commerce (department, college), 118, 

Fine Arts, department, organized, 141; 

college organized, 185; 245 
Hedding Hall ("Old Main"), 159, 173- 

175, 177, 240 
Homecoming Day, first, 149 
Law School, organized, 109, 111, 113, 

117, 119, 122, 135, 140, 142, 149, 150, 

152, 157; discontinued, 158; 203, 239 
Liberal Arts, college of, ("College of 

Letters"), 126, 133, 135, 140, 149, 156, 

157, 167, 169, 239 
Memorial Center, 182, 183, 184 
Memorial Gymnasium, 154, 186 
Model School for Boys, organized, 69; 

71, 73, 75, 77, 78; discontinued, 81; 

Music School (department, college), 
44, 69, 118, 123, 135, 140, 152, 156, 
157, 159, 169, 231, 239 

Name, first, "Illinois University", 9-12 

Non-resident courses, organized, 108; 
124, 135, 136, 228; discontinued, 234 
Nursing, School of, organized, 156 
"Old Main", 77, 159 
"Old North", 144, 167, 177, 184, 201, 

238, 245 
Oratory, (college, school), 123, 140; 
(department of elocution and dra- 
matic art), 148 
Preparatory School (department, acad- 
emy), 3, 36, 41, 43, 52, 66, 69, 73, 77, 
81, 117, 123, 132, 135, 140, 141, 212, 
231; discontinued, 235 
Science Hall, 145 
Seal designed, 74 

Site of, 33, 34; present site chosen, 49; 
change proposed, 77, 152, 153; 190, 
201, 202 
Speech, School of, organized, 156; 239 
Suspends, 53, 55 
Indiana Asbury University, 15, 58 (see 

also DePauw) 
Indiana University, 161 
Ingerson, M. J., 156 
Interfraternity Council, 246 
International Relations Club, 246 
Interstate Oratorical Contest, 148 (see 
also Illinois Intercollegiate Debating 
Iowa State University, 168 
Iowa State Teachers Association, 168 
Iowa Wesleyan University, 148 
Ives, B. I., 104, 115 

James, Colin D. Foundation, 239 

James, Edmund Janes, 239 

James, John H. T., 227 

James, Martha M., 235 

Jaques, Jabez R., 73, 74, 76, 78, 81, 82, 

212, 213, 240 
Jaquess, James Frazier, 15, 16, 192, 198 
Jefferson Medical College, 197 
Johnson, Edden M., 214 
Johnson, J. P., 46, 200 
Johnson, James A., 224 
Johnson and Underwood, 188 
Jolly, Allington, 150 
Jones, E. E., 151 
Jones, George Heber, 141 
Jones, John Anthony Foundation, 239 
Jones, Lemuel, 150 
Jordan, Frank, 150, 169, 175 

Kansas State Agricultural College, 156 

Kappa Delta, 142 

Kappa Kappa Gamma, 109; 225 

Kappa Alpha Theta, 226 

Kates, Winifred, 148 

Kelly, James A., 223 

Kelly, Mrs. M. C, 235 

Kemp Hall, 82, 147, 151, 175 

Kemp, Theodore, 144-154, 155, 203, 236, 

238, 239 
Kent, L. B., 98 



Kent Seminary, 233 

Kenyon, Isaac L., 49, 52, 53 

Kenyon College, 199 

Keplinger, Lewis Walter, 73, 88, 90, 92, 

94, 213, 214, 217, 218 
Keplinger, Martin L., 214 
Kern, Miss Sarah J., 69, 73 (see also De- 

Motte, Mrs. H. C.) 
Kerr, Thomas, 210 
Kerrick, Leonidas H., 74, 77, 78, 81, 84, 

105, 141 
Kerrick, T. C, 132 
Kilgore, G. Rupert, 185, 246 
Kimber, Isaac C., 76, 77 
Kirk, Allen T., 230 
Kirk, W. T, 230 
Kinnie, Sage, 147 
Kinrade, Charles, 186 
Kitchin, Joseph L., 211 
Knowlton, C. C, 68, 69, 72 
Knox College, 111, 127 
Komas, Richard, 226 
Kovatch, John, 244 
Kuhl, Mary H., 109 
Kumler, John A., 120, 128, 131, 233, 234 

LaBarron, Richard, 245 

Lackland, Melvin P., 122, 132 

Ladies' Library Association, 78 

Lake Forest College, 147 

Lane Theological Seminary, 204 

Langstaff, Margaret, 231 

Lanken, Gus, 216 

Lanz, Lyle, 245 

Lapham, Martin A., 73, 210 

Lapham, Milton A., 208 

LaPlant, Fred J., 245 

Larison, Hartford, 245 

Lawrence University, 107 

Leaton, James, 18, 19, 190, 198 

Le Circle Francais, 246 

Lewis, Calvin Wesley, 19, 193 

Lewis, Gertrude (Mrs. J. W. Fifer), 217, 

Lewis, Maria, 195 
Lewis, Bishop Wilbur S., 145, 146 
Lichtenthaler, George W., 12 
Lichtenthaler, Rebecca S., 122 
Life Service Legion, 160 
Lillard, John T., 141 
Lillard, Mrs. T- T., 235 
Lincoln, Abraham, 22, 23, 27, 45, 48, 59, 

64, 71, 72, 191, 192, 194, 195, 200, 204- 

207, 211, 238 
Lincoln College, 246 
Lincoln University, 214 
Lindley, Jacob P., 122, 231 
Litta, Mile. (Marie von Eisner), 115 
"Little 19", 160, 161 
Little, Richard Henry, 232 
Livingston, Mrs. Milton, 235 
Long, Charles H., 224 
Loomis, Kenneth B., 246 

"Lost Speech", 59, 204, 206, 238 
Lough, John, 243, 245 
Love, Malcolm A., 168, 169, 171, 173, 185 
Lovejoy, Owen, 26 
Lucas, Scott W., 148, 172, 183, 186 
Lucy Webb National Training School, 

Maclntyre, T. M., 232 

MacMurray College for Women, xix, 

186, 192, 199, 202, 222 
McClelland, C. P., 223 
McClelland, Robert E., 223 
McClun, John E., 8, 9, 29, 32, 34, 35, 39, 

76, 89, 96, 98, 223 
McClun, Mrs. John E., 78 
McClun and Company, 1, 2 
McClung, C. H., 210 
McClure, Bruce, 245 
McCormack, Ira G., 183 
McCormick, Cyrus, 195 
McCoy, Robert, 231 
McCracken, George H., 223 
McCracken, W. R., 205 
McCullough, William, xv, 5 
McDowell, W. G., 223 
McElroy, W. N., 116, 193 
McKendree College, xviii, 7, 11, 12, 15- 

18, 31, 50, 192, 193 
McKibben, Elmore M., 69 
McLean County Academy of Science, 

McLean County Bar Association, 157, 158 
McLean County Historical Society, 248 
McLean County Library, 20 
"McLean County Regiment", 67, 197 
McLean College, 8, 9 
McLean Collegiate Institute, 3, 5, 6, 9 
McLean Female Seminary, 41 
McLean, John, xiv 
McNulta, John, 19 
McPherson, Harry Wright, 163-169, 175, 

182, 241 
McVety, J. W., 146 

Mabry, John, 245 

Macon, Joseph, 6 

Magee, Bishop Ralph, 186 

Magee, Thomas, 6-10, 19, 33-35, 39, 44, 

193, 198 
Magill, Hugh S., 127, 178, 181, 186, 244 
Magill, S. Lincoln, 181 
Magill Hall, 184 
Magin, Louis, 230 
Magoun, John, 8, 9, 28, 29, 35, 44, 45, 76, 

89, 98, 116, 196, 198 
Major, Judith, 194 
Major, Will T„ 3, 194, 201, 229 
Major's College, 118, 134 
A4ajor's Hall, 204, 205 
Aianchester, O. L., 141 
Mandel, Oscar, 132 
Mandel, Mrs. Oscar, 235 



Manley, Ed., 127 

Mann, Milford, 245 

Marquis, Mrs. C. C, 235 

Marshall, James, xiii 

Marshall, Mrs. John, 235 

Martin, George A., 224 

Martin, Lester H., 168 

Masquers, 160 

Mathematics Round Table, 160 

Mayfield, J., 36 

Means, Mrs. J. C, 235 

Meharry, Hugh, 120 

Melvin, Henry A., 207 

Melvin, Samuel H., 206, 207 

Mennonite Hospital, 175 

Merner, Garfield D., 183 

Merrill, W. B., 231 

Merriman, Charles P., 1-6, 8, 9, 25, 31-33, 

40, 105, 188, 189, 195, 198 
Methodist Church 

Board of Education, 167, 168, 183, 241 

Board of Foreign Missions, 170, 242 

Central Illinois Conference (also Pe- 
oria), 55, 57, 97, 98, 100, 145, 154, 
221, 242 

Champaign District, 232 

Decatur District, 229 

"Education Forward Movement", 145, 

Illinois Church Council, 241 

Illinois Conference, xviii, 7, 9, 11, 14, 
17-19, 30, 32, 45, 55, 58, 69, 76, 100, 
114, 121, 135, 146, 154, 163, 165, 174, 
193, 200, 204, 211, 221, 248 

Indiana Conference, 20, 81 

Iowa-Des Moines Conference, 242 

Jacksonville District, 7, 17 

Kaskaskia District, 17 

Kentucky Conference, 17, 20, 81 

Lewiston District, 17 

Minnesota Conference, 71 

Missouri Conference, 17, 18 

Mount Zion District, 19 

Nebraska Conference, 211 

Peoria District, 242 

Quincy District, 17, 232 

Rock River Conference, 7, 9, 10, 58, 

Sparta District, 19 

Springfield District, 7 

Upper Alton District, 19 

Wabash District, 17 
Michigan State University, 46 
Milburn, W. H., 79 
Miller, Edwin, 31, 198 
Miller, James, 8, 9, 23, 28, 29, 33-35, 44, 

45, 189, 196, 198, 201 
Miller, Virginia, 223 
Millikin, J. S., 68, 209 
Millikin University, 148 
Minier, George W., 4-6, 8, 189 
Monmouth College, 111, 127, 148 
Montpelier Seminary, 130, 233 

Moore, James P., 208 

Moore, Robert E., 214 

Moores Hill College, 242 

Moran, Robert, 245 

Moreland, Mary, 235 

Morrison, Dr., 100 

Morrissey, James J. 122, 231 

Morrow, Bob, 244 

Mortimer, F. S., 171 

Motter, Carrie, 223 

Moss, C. M., 124, 232 

Muhl, Fred L., 142, 147, 169, 214, 232, 

248, 249 
Mullin, Delilah, xvi 
Munce, Mrs. Clara DeMotte, 208, 210 
Munsell, C. W. C, 57-59, 63, 65, 76, 89, 

204, 224 
Munsell, Edward B., 59, 66, 204 
Munsell, Francis C, 223 
Munsell Hall, 181 
Munsell, Leander, 204 
Munsell, Oliver Spencer, 58, 59, 61, 65, 

73, 77, 82, 88, 97-106, 114, 163, 204, 

208, 212, 213, 221-224 
Munsellian Society, organized, 68, 102, 

119, 209 
Myers, Colostin D., 122, 141 
Myers, G. H., 146 

Naffziger, Arthur M., 245 

"Nasby, Petroleum V.", 79 

Nate, Joseph C, 145 

Nate, Joseph C. Jr., 245 

National Institute of Health, 185 

National League of Women Voters, 246 

Nebraska State Teachers College, 242 

Nebraska Wesley an University, 155 

Nelson, Wayne, 245 

Nicholson, Bishop Thomas, 154 

Noble, J. N., 98 

Noble, Harrison, 197 

Nordling, Clarence C, 183 

North Central Association of Colleges 

and Secondary Schools, 144, 157, 158, 

Northrup, James A., 223 
North Central College (Northwestern 

College), 148 
Northwestern University, 10, 12, 111, 114, 

119, 142, 147, 169, 236, 242, 244 
Norwich College, 189 
Nothdurft, Orville, 246 
Newman, W. J., 44 

O'Connell, Mrs. Edmund, 235 

Oglesby, Richard J., 71 

Ohio State University, 214 

Ohio Wesleyan University, 122, 123, 148, 

203, 239 
Olcott, Ellsworth L., 192 
Olney Seminary, 18 
Oratorical League of Illinois, 127 
Orendorff, Belle, 223 



Orendorff, Thomas, xiv, xvi 

Orendorff, William, xiv, xvi 

Orr, John R., 245 

Osborn, Richard, 227 

Oxford Club, organized, 142, 163 

Pancake, Joseph, 73, 208, 210 

Pantagraph, 50, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 65, 69, 
74, 80, 83, 85, 89, 90, 92, 94, 95, 99, 100, 
101-103, 111, 116, 118, 125, 127, 129, 
133, 134, 139, 140, 142, 144, 145, 150, 
157, 158, 161, 168, 174, 186, 205, 232, 236 

Parke, C. R., 79 

Parker, F. A., 103 

Parsons, Robert, 245 

Patterson, Zera, 2 

Peck, Joseph, 3 

Peckham, Henry, 150 

Pendleton, S. E., 209 

Perry, Clarence D., 210 

Perry, David I., 198 

Perry, John, 31, 198 

Pershing, Gen. John J., 150 

Peters, Robert H., 160 

Petner, Agent, 76 

Petrzilka, Henry, 243 

Pfeiffer, Mrs. Annie Merner, 180, 181, 
184, 185, 245 

Pfeiffer Hall, 180, 184 

Phi Alpha Delta, 142 

Phi Delta Phi, 142 

Phi Delta Theta, 119 

Phi Gamma Delta, 78, 213 

Phi Kappa Phi, 159 

Phi Mu Alpha, 159 

Phi Sigma Iota, 159 

Pierce, Richard B., 245 

Pi Gamma Mu, 246 

Pi Kappa Delta, 148 

Pike, Randolph A., 227 

Phillips, Wendell, 79 

Philomathian Society, 52, 62 

Phoenix, Franklin K. 49, 74, 201, 202 

Phoenix Hall, 70, 79 

Piatt, Miss Mary, (Mary Piatt Hoover) 
46, 48, 49, 200, 201, 203, 204 

Piatt, William J., 245 

Platte, George D., 85 

Pleasant Plains Academy, xviii, 15 

Pope, William S., 200 

Porter, Lyde R., 123, 141, 235 

Porter, Robert B., 223 

Postlethwait, Richard, 245 

Poston, Edmund D., 90, 216, 219 

Potter, Bradford S., 80, 82, 88, 113, 119 

Powell, Mrs. Emma Dean, 85, 86, 90, 94 

Powell, Major John Wesley, 69, 73, 74, 
77, 79, 80, 81, 84-96, 104, 110, 209, 211, 
215-221, 225, 227, 230 

Powell, Joseph, 209 

Powell, Walter H., 90, 92, 94, 220 

Powell Memorial, 156, 221 

Powell Museum, 122, 243 

Pratt, Alzina, 220 

Pratt, Horace L., 152 

Pratt, Orson, 111, 220 

"Preachers' Regiment", 192 

Prentice, H. B., 146 

Preodor, Edward, 246 

Presbyterian Female College, 232 

Press, Maurice, 245 

Preston, Ian, 245 

Presser Foundation, 157, 158, 240 

Presser Hall, 158, 159, 168, 181, 182, 186 

Presser, Theodore, 157 

Prince, Ezra M., 122, 190 

Princeton College, 18 

Puffer, Noble, 186 

Pusey, William W., 222 

Putnam, Mrs. S. E., 235 

Quandstrom, Adolph, 150 
Quincy College, 99, 193 

Ralston, William, 150 

Rankin, Kate, 235 

Rayhill, Alice, 223 

Rector, Carrie, 223 

Reed, Newton B., 227 

Reeves, Harry G., 120, 208 

Reeves, Owen T., 52, 67, 98, 109, 122, 130, 

203, 223 
Rees, Abigail B., 141 
Renshaw, John H., 226 
Rhetorical Society, 38, 48 
Rhodes, William, 216 
Riley, James C, 142 
Rinehart, Mrs. A. W., 235 
Roberts, Maurice, 150 
Robinson, C. H., 230 
Rock River Seminary, 58 
Rocky Mountain News, 91, 92, 94 
Roe, E. R., 189, 202, 225 
Roe, Mrs. Fremont, 235 
Roettger, Walter, 161 
Rogers, Thomas P., 24, 195, 198 
Rogues Harbor, 13, 14 
Ropp, John D., 245 
Ropp, Mrs. P. S., 235 
Ross, Kate B., 101, 102, 110 
Roosevelt, President F. D., 172 
Roosevelt, President Theodore, xvii 
Round, May, 113, 223 
Rouse, Warren, 245 
Roush, Mrs. Harry, 235 
Royce Hall, 74, 79 
Rush, Benjamin, 18 
Rush Medical College, 197, 209 
Russell, Cecil B., 244 
Russell, Rolland F., 122, 134, 231 
Rust, Harvey J., 143 
Rutledge, George W., 202 
Rutledge, William J., 17, 53, 193, 198 
Rutledge, William N., 209, 210 
Ryburn, David, 208 



Sackett, Jonathan, 208, 210 

Sandburg, Carl, 205 

Sanders, Mrs. W. S., 235 

Schaefer, Warren A., 245 

Schnabel, Charles, 245 

Schneider, Rev. I., 69 

"School of Prophets", 17 

Schroder's Opera House, 78, 88, 89 

Schultz, William E., 171, 248 

Schurz, Carl, 79 

Scibird Bros., 249 

Scibird, Joseph, 211, 249 

Scott, Adolphus S., 214 

Scott, John E., 224 

Scott, John M., 3, 113, 122 

Scott, Tom W., 142, 147 

Scrimger, Schuyler C. E., 130, 237 

Sears, Clinton W., 34, 40, 43, 44, 54-57, 

60, 61, 204, 209 
Sears, John Magoun, 204 
Sedore, William M., 214 
Seigneur, Jeanne, 151 
Sewall, Joseph, 219 
Seward, Lewellyn D., 224 
Shaffer, Alex B., 49, 50, 53, 60 
Sharp, B. V., 209 
Shaw, Henry, 47 
Shaw, J. H., 229 
Shaw, William E, 170-178, 180, 182, 183, 

203, 242 
Shellabarger, David S., 122 
Sherfy, J. W., 36, 52, 53, 203 
Sherman, Gen. W. T., 71, 73, 85 
Shields, Parker, 146 

Short, William Fletcher, 50, 66, 68, 202 
Shur, Mrs. Hannah I., 105, 109, 224, 249 
Shurtleff College, 111 
Sigma Alpha Iota, 159 
Sigma Chi, 119 
Sigma Kappa, 142 
Simpson College, 242 
Simpson, Matthew, 202 
Sims, C. M., 114 
Skinner, Oliver R., 123 
Smith, D. C, 141 
Smith, Douglas E., 245 
Smith, Edgar M., 130-138, 202, 233, 235 
Smith, Fannie, 223 
Smith, George, 91 
Smith, Gen. Giles A., 74, 211 
Smith, Parmenis, 222 
Smith, Philander, 69 
Smith, W. A., 146 
Smith, William M., 98 
Smithsonian Institution, 68, 90, 220, 249 
Snow, Benjamin F., 59, 67 
Snyder, Clarence E., 127 
Society of Inquiry, 105 
Somerville, P. C, 148 
Spanish Club, 246 
Spaulding, Mary M., 6 
Spencer, Edward W., 85 
Spencer, Henry, 47 

Spencer, William E., 85 

Stamper, Jonathan, 69, 76 

Stansberry, Mr., 39 

Starnes, Alexander, 47 

Steele, Robert B., 122 

Sterling, Thomas, 113 

Stevenson, Adlai E. (vice-president), 141, 

Stevenson, Adlai E. (governor), 181 
Stevenson, William, 98 
Stewart, Archibald E., 31, 197 
Stone, Hal M., 152 
Stout, Ephraim, xvi 
Stout, John H., 208, 210 
Straight, Lyle, 173 
Stray Greeks Club, 246 
Strickland, Charles O., 231 
Stringfield, James, xvi 
Stubblefield, Fannie, 223 
Stubblefield, Mary, 223 
Stubblefield, George, 31, 197 
Students Army Training Corps, 151, 152, 

237, 238 
Student Council, organized, 148, 163 
Students'' Journal, 119 
Student Union, 177 
Sumner, Jack, 92, 217 
Sutherland, Edmund, 150 
Sutter, John, xiii 
Swartz, Ben, 245 
Swayne, Henry S., 122 

Taft, B. F., 34 

Tau Kappa Epsilon ("Knights of Classic 

Lore"), 132 
Taylor, Bayard, 47 
Taylor, James B., 80, 90, 93, 94, 214, 218, 

219, 225, 249 
Taylor, Thomas R., 66, 68, 209 
Taylor, President Zachary, 2 
Temple, Carey S., 214 
Temple, Claude M., 183 
Texas College for Women, 246 
Theta Alpha Phi, 159 
Theta Chi, 246 
Thomas, Eleazer, 72, 211 
Thomas, Ezekiel, 5, 8, 9, 24, 32, 37, 195, 

Thomas, F. M., 52 
Thomas, Gerald C, 175 
Thomas, J., 209 
Thompson, Almon H., 85, 88, 95, 110, 

219, 220 
Tierney, James R., 245 
Tilton, Theodore, 79 
Titans, 83, 182, 185; Order of, 246 
Titterington, Martin, 85 
Tomlin, F. T., 59, 64 
Totten, Jonathan, 229 
Townsend, George Alfred ("Gath"), 79 
Trimmer, David, 28, 196, 198 
Trotter, W. D. R., 7, 14, 15, 16, 30, 98, 

99, 198 



Tucker, Lawrence, 185 

Turner, J. B., 47 

Twentieth Century Guild, 134 

Underwood and Johnson, 33 

U. S. Geological Survey, 85, 220, 226 

University of Denver, 185 

University of Florida, 246 

University of Illinois, 126, 131, 220, 231 

University of Nebraska, 169 
University of Toledo, 168 
University of Utah, 220 
University of Wisconsin, 107 
Upper Iowa University, 139 
Utesch, Louis, 245 

Van Cleve, John, 18, 193, 198 
Vandergrift, Gen. A. A., 175 
Vandervoort, Paul, 208 
Van Leer, Mrs. B. C, 235 
Van Pelt, John S., 231 
Van Pelt, Samuel, 113 
Van Winkle, Mica) ah, 214 
Vasey, Lucius A., 223 
Vasey, George W., 71, 88, 91 
Veatch, William G., 152 
Vincent J., 223 
Voights, Robert, 169, 244 

Wagoner, Louis C, 78, 214 

Waggoner, T. T., 195 

Wait, William H., 125 

Wallace, William, 26, 27, 195 

Wallis, William, 144, 182, 236, 239 

Walker, Isaac D., 227 

Wantland, Wayne, 185 

Ward, Donald, 245 

Warfleld, James W., 211 

Warner, George, 245 

Warner, Peter, 65 

Warriner, R. O., 5, 22, 189 

Waters, Alonzo A., 129, 132 

Watters, Silas, 29, 196, 198 

"W" Club, 160 

Webb, J., 41 

Weedman, Clara, 223 

Weedman, Josie, 223 

Welch, Kate D., 235 

Weldon, Lawrence, 116, 122, 211 

Welty, Sain, 152, 153 

Wentworth, Erastus, 34, 198 

Wentworth, William, 7, 34 

Wesleyan Academy (Wilbraham, Mass.) 

Wesleyana, 163 

Wesleyan Forward Movement Associ- 
ation, 153 
Westbrook, Arthur, 156, 169, 239 
Wetterlund, Chester, 245 
Western Whig, 1-5, 7, 11, 31, 33, 35, 36, 

38, 40, 188 
Wheaton College, 209 

Wheaton, Harry, 151 

Wheeler, O. D, 226 

White, J. L., 223 

White, R. J., 57 

Whitmer, Mrs. Ira, 235 

Whitesell, Vernon (Ned), 149, 161 

Wilder Field, 127, 149, 167 

Wilder, Mark, 127 

Wilder Reading Room Association, 122, 

Wilder, William H., 121-128, 141, 224, 
229, 232 

Wildman, Clyde E., 248 

Wiley, Hannah E., 223 

Wiley, Rhoda M., 101 

Wiley, Thomas R., 223 

Wilkins, Daniel, Jr., 44, 46, 47, 53, 64, 68, 
69, 73, 189 

Wilkinson, Howard, 38 

Williams, Marshall N., 227 

Williams, Mrs. Mary, 229 

Williams, Norman, 230 

Williams, R. E., 103, 109, 225 
Willing, Mrs. Jennie F., 109, 110 

Willing, W. C, 113 

Willson, Mrs. J. O., 235 

Wilson, Andrew S., 210, 214 

Wilson, Fletcher, 31 

Wilson, G. E., 46 

Wilson, Oscar L., 122, 123, 231 

Wilson School of Arts, 123, 231 

Wilson, William S., 234 

Wimberly, Adlai B. ("By"), 160 

Wing, Henry, 91 

Winter, John F., 214 

WJBC Radio Station, 167, 186 

Woman's Athletic Association, 159 

Woman's Educational Association, 118, 

120, 122, 226, 229 
Woman's University Guild, 140, 141, 235 
Wood, Frank E., 156 
Wood, Henry, 91 

Works Progress Administration, 167, 172 
Wright, G. W. T., 71 
Wright, W. T., 46, 51, 200 
Wylder, Jennie, 223 

Yale University, 244 

Yates, Paul, 245 

Yates, William Reed, 245 

Yates, Gov. Richard, 67 

Yolton, Leroy, 245 

Young, Brigham, 111 

Young, Mrs. Anna Eliza, 111, 227 

Young, Fred H. ("Brick"), 147, 232, 249 

Young, William, 208, 210 

Young, William D. H., 211 

York College, 168 

Y.M.C.A., 105, 124, 150, 160, 163 

Y.W.C.A., 124, 160 

Zeller, J. C, 140 


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